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Chapter 4 - Part III

Chapter 4 - Part III

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  • 1. Chapter 4 B.M.H The Central Process Unit
  • 2. Learning Objectives
    • List the measures of computer processing speed and explain the approaches that increase speed.
      • Microprocessor speed
      • Memory cache
      • Flash memory
      • RISC computers
      • Parallel processing
    MIU P4-116
  • 3. What makes a computer fast?
    • Factors
      • Microprocessor speed
      • Bus line size
      • Availability of cache
      • ( More sophisticated ones )
      • Flash memory
      • RISC computers
      • Parallel processing
    MIU
  • 4. Computer processing speeds
    • The execution of an instruction
        • may be measured in
      • Millisecond : 1/10 3 of a second
        • very slow (old) computer
      • Microsecond : 1/10 6 of a second
      • Nanosecond : 1/10 9 of a second
        • modern computer
      • Picosecond : 1/10 12 of a second
    MIU
  • 5. Computer processing speeds
    • Microprocessor speeds
      • are determined by
      • Microprocessor ’ s clock speed
      • MIPS
      • Megaflop
    MIU
  • 6. Microprocessor ’ s clock speed
    • Usually expressed in
      • megahertz (MHz)
        • 10 6 of machine cycles per second
      • gigahertz (GHz)
        • 10 9 of machine cycles per second
      • Ex. a PC listed at 500MHz
        • : capable of handling 500*10 6 machine cycles/s
    •  Direct comparison of clock speeds
      • Meaningful only between identical microprocessors
    MIU
  • 7. MIPS
    • One m illion i nstructions p er s econd
      • Ex. A computer with speed of 0.5MIPS
      • : execute 500,000 instructions per second
      • High-speed personal computer
      • : perform at 100 MIPS and higher.
    • A more accurate measure than clock speed
    MIU
  • 8. Megaflop
    • One m illion flo ating- p oint operation per second
    • The ability of the computer to perform complex mathematical operation.
    MIU
  • 9. Cache
    • Temporary storage area
      • Designed to speed up data transfer within the computer
    • Types
      • Memory cache
      • Disk cache ; chapter 6
    MIU
  • 10. Memory cache
    • A relatively small block of very fast memory
      • Designed for the specific purpose of speeding up the internal transfer of data and software instructions.
      • The data and instructions stored in cache
      • : are most recently or most frequently used.
    • Types
      • Internal cache
      • External cache
    MIU
  • 11. Memory cache MIU
  • 12. Memory cache
    • Internal cache, Level 1 (L1) cache
      • In the processor
      • The fastest sort
      • Takes up precious space and increase the cost of the microprocessor
      • No more than 128KB
    • External cache, Level 2 (L2) cache
      • On separate chips
      • Probably 256KB or 512KB
      • SRAM technology
      • Cheaper and slower than L1 cache
      • much faster (and more expensive) than memory
    MIU
  • 13. Flash Memory
    •  Memory : volatile
    •  Secondary storage : slow rate
    • Flash memory
      • nonvolatile RAM
      • Faster than secondary storage
        • Used in cellular phones, digital cameras, and digital music recorders
        • Replacing disks in some handheld computers
        • Being produced in credit card
        • Smaller than a disk drive
        • Require only half the power
    MIU
  • 14. RISC Technology
    • Instruction set
      • a specific group of instructions that each type of CPU is designed to understand
        • such as ADD or MOVE
      • A single program instruction
        • May be made up of a substantial number of subinstructions, each of which must take at least one machine cycle
    • Instructions set computing types
      • CISC ( Complex instruction set computing )
      • RISC ( Reduced instruction set computing )
    MIU
  • 15. RISC Technology
    • CISC ( Complex instruction set computing)
      • Many of the most complex instructions in the instruction set are rarely used
        • A problem to speedy performance
      • Intel ’ s Pentium family
    • RISC ( Reduced instruction set computing)
      • Small subset of instructions
      • Increase the speed
      • Programs in graphics and engineering areas
        • A significant performance advantage
      • PowerPCs and Alphas
    MIU
  • 16. Parallel Processing
    • Serial processing
      • The execution of one instruction at a time
    • Pipelining
      • An instruction action doesn ’ t need to be completed before the next instruction action is begun.
        • An instruction : One fetch is complete for it and it moves to decode.
        • the next instruction : Fetch is begun for the next.
      •  Problem : a single electronic pathway (bus line) acts like a bottle neck.
    MIU
  • 17. MIU
  • 18. Parallel Processing
    • A method of using multiple processors at the same time
      • Many processor, each with its own memory unit, working at the same time
    • Ultimate speed solution
    • Capable of operating in term of teraflops
      • Trillions of floating-point instruction per second
        • Network server : with 4 to 16 processors
        • Supercomputer : with 100 or 1000 processors
    MIU