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Computers13 Ch6
Computers13 Ch6
Computers13 Ch6
Computers13 Ch6
Computers13 Ch6
Computers13 Ch6
Computers13 Ch6
Computers13 Ch6
Computers13 Ch6
Computers13 Ch6
Computers13 Ch6
Computers13 Ch6
Computers13 Ch6
Computers13 Ch6
Computers13 Ch6
Computers13 Ch6
Computers13 Ch6
Computers13 Ch6
Computers13 Ch6
Computers13 Ch6
Computers13 Ch6
Computers13 Ch6
Computers13 Ch6
Computers13 Ch6
Computers13 Ch6
Computers13 Ch6
Computers13 Ch6
Computers13 Ch6
Computers13 Ch6
Computers13 Ch6
Computers13 Ch6
Computers13 Ch6
Computers13 Ch6
Computers13 Ch6
Computers13 Ch6
Computers13 Ch6
Computers13 Ch6
Computers13 Ch6
Computers13 Ch6
Computers13 Ch6
Computers13 Ch6
Computers13 Ch6
Computers13 Ch6
Computers13 Ch6
Computers13 Ch6
Computers13 Ch6
Computers13 Ch6
Computers13 Ch6
Computers13 Ch6
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Computers13 Ch6

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  • 1. Storage and Multimedia Chapter 6 B.M.H
  • 2. Index <ul><li>Magnetic Tape Storage </li></ul><ul><li>Optical Disk Storage </li></ul><ul><li>Multimedia </li></ul>
  • 3. Secondary Storage <ul><li>Magnetic storage </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Disk storage </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Floppy disk </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Hard disk </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Tape storage </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Optical storage </li></ul><ul><ul><li>CD </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>DVD </li></ul></ul>
  • 4. Magnetic disk storage
  • 5. Magnetic Tape Storage <ul><li>Plastic tape with a magnetic coating </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Looks like the tape used in music cassettes </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Magnetic media </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Data is stored as extremely small magnetic spots </li></ul></ul>
  • 6. Magnetic Tape Storage <ul><li>Form </li></ul><ul><ul><li>½-inch-wide tape wound on a reel </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>¼-inch-wide in data cartridges and cassettes </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Tapes like ordinary music cassettes </li></ul></ul>
  • 7.  
  • 8. Magnetic Tape Storage <ul><li>Capacity </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Expressed in terms of density </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>: which is the number of </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>characters per inch (cpi) or </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>bytes per inch (bpi) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>that can be stored on the tape </li></ul></ul></ul>
  • 9. Magnetic Tape Storage <ul><li>The primary role of tape, today </li></ul><ul><ul><li>An inexpensive backup medium </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Because disks are the superior storage medium </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Quite reliable within as sealed module </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Can be accessed directly, in contrast to sequential data on tape </li></ul></ul></ul></ul>
  • 10. Backup Systems <ul><li>The causes of loss of data on a hard disk </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Physical damage </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>from fire and natural disasters </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Electromechanical failures </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Errors introduced by users </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Errors introduced by software </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li> Backup is vital </li></ul></ul>
  • 11. Backup System <ul><li>A way of storing data in more than one place to protect it from damage and errors </li></ul><ul><li>The primary storage for backup </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Magnetic tape </li></ul></ul>
  • 12. Backup System <ul><li>Tape backup system </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Copying all data from hard disk to a single tape in minutes </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Can be scheduled to take place when you do not use the computer </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Tape cartridges with more than 10GB </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>available at reasonable cost </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>CD-R, and CD RW media for backup </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Limited to storing less than 1GB of data </li></ul></ul>
  • 13.  
  • 14. Optical disk storage <ul><li>Stores data as microscopic light and dark spots on the disk surface </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The dark spots </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Called pits </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Represent as the 1s </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The lighter, non-pitted surface areas </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Called lands </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Represent as the 0s </li></ul></ul></ul>
  • 15. Optical disk storage <ul><li>Technology </li></ul><ul><ul><li>: A laser hits a layer of metallic material spread over the surface of a disk </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>To write data </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Heat from the laser produces tiny spots, or pits, on the disk surface </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>To read data </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>The laser scans the disk, and a lens picks up light reflections from the spots </li></ul></ul></ul>
  • 16.  
  • 17. Optical disk storage <ul><li>Advantage </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Inexpensive and compact storage with greater capacity </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Less affected to environmental damage than magnetic media </li></ul></ul>
  • 18. Optical storage technology <ul><li>Category </li></ul><ul><ul><li>: According to its read/write capability </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Read-only media </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>WORM media </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>MO media </li></ul></ul>
  • 19. Optical storage technology <ul><li>Read-only media </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Recorded by the manufacturer </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Can be read from by the user </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>but not written to by the user </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Used to supply software </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>not for user’s files </li></ul></ul></ul>
  • 20. Optical storage technology <ul><li>WORM media </li></ul><ul><ul><li>: Write-Once, Read-Many </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>May be written to once </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Once filled, it becomes a read-only medium </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Nonerasaible </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Used for secure storage of original versions of valuable documents or data </li></ul></ul>
  • 21. Optical storage technology <ul><li>MO media </li></ul><ul><ul><li>: Magneto-Optical </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Hybrid type of disk : Combines the best features of magnetic and optical disk technologies </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Has the high-volume capacity of an optical disk </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Can be written over like a magnetic disk </li></ul></ul></ul>
  • 22. Optical disk storage <ul><li>Types </li></ul><ul><ul><li>CD: C ompact D isks </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>DVD : D igital V ersatile D isks </li></ul></ul>
  • 23. Compact disks <ul><li>Technology </li></ul><ul><ul><li>An optical technology that uses the same media used for audio CDs </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Computer CD drives </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Can play audio CDs, with the proper software </li></ul></ul>
  • 24. Compact disks <ul><li>Types </li></ul><ul><ul><li>; according to the ability to read and write </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>CD- ROM </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>CD- R </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>CD- RW </li></ul></ul>
  • 25. Compact disks <ul><li>CD- ROM </li></ul><ul><ul><li>: Compact Disk Read-Only Memory </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Storage : up to 700 megabytes per disk </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Format : identical to that of audio CD </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The primary medium for SW distribution </li></ul></ul><ul><li>CD-ROM drive </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Capable only of reading data from CDs </li></ul></ul>
  • 26. Compact disks <ul><li>CD- R </li></ul><ul><ul><li>: Compact Disk-Recordable </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Permits writing just once on optical disk </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Requires a CD-R drive, special CD-R disks and the CD-R software </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Once written on, it can be read also by CD-ROM drive, not only CD-R </li></ul></ul>
  • 27. Compact disks <ul><li>CD- RW </li></ul><ul><ul><li>: Compact Disk-ReWritable </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Allow to erase and record over data multiple times </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Requires a CD-RW drive, special CD-RW disks and the CD-RW software </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Most of today’s optical drives now read CD-RW disks </li></ul></ul>
  • 28. Digital Versatile Disk <ul><li>Originally D igital Video D isk </li></ul><ul><li>Technology </li></ul><ul><ul><li>A variation of CD technology that was designed to provide enough storage capacity for a full-length movie </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Uses a laser with a shorter wavelength </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>permitting it to read more densely packed spots </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>thus increasing the disk capacity </li></ul></ul></ul>
  • 29. DVD <ul><li>Types </li></ul><ul><ul><li>DVD- ROM </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>DVD- RAM </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>DVD+ RW </li></ul></ul>
  • 30. DVD-ROM <ul><li>Capacity </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Single-sided : up to 4.7-gigabyte </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Double-layered DVD : about 8.5-GB </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Double-sided : to 17-GB </li></ul></ul><ul><li> Diskette (*450) << CD-ROM (*7) < DVD-ROM </li></ul>
  • 31. DVD-ROM <ul><li>Used for holding movies </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Exquisite sound, full-length movies </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Suited for distributing large multimedia applications </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Games, encyclopedias, maps, and telephone number databases </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Require a DVD drive </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Also can read data from CD-ROM, CD-R and CD-RW </li></ul></ul>
  • 32. DVD-RAM <ul><li>Writable version of DVD </li></ul><ul><li>Stores 5.2-GB on a double-sided disk </li></ul><ul><li>Readable only by DVD-RAM drives </li></ul>
  • 33. DVD+RW <ul><li>Technology very similar to CD-RWs </li></ul><ul><li>DVD-RAM and DVD+RW technologies are not compatible </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Disks created by a DVD-RAM drive cannot be used in a DVD+RW drive, and vice versa </li></ul></ul>
  • 34. Multimedia
  • 35. Multimedia <ul><li>Requires sound and graphics capability </li></ul><ul><li>Equipment </li></ul><ul><ul><li>CD-ROM or DVD-ROM drive </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Sound card or sound chip </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Speakers </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Headphones </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Microphone </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Graphics card </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Speedy processor chip </li></ul></ul>
  • 36. Multimedia Equipment <ul><li>CD-ROM or DVD-ROM drive </li></ul><ul><ul><li>To access audio and software CD/DVD-ROMs </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Multimedia elements had better be stored on a CD-ROM /DVD-ROM than on a hard disk </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>For the amounts of the multimedia data are huge </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Insert only when user want to access them </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The higher the drive speed, </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>the faster the transfer of data and </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>the smoother the video showing on the screen </li></ul></ul></ul>
  • 37. Multimedia Equipment <ul><li>Sound card </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Gives a computer the capability to record and play sound files </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Contains connectors to attach speakers, headphones and a microphone </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>High-performance sound card </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>include circuitry for special audio effects such as 3-D sound </li></ul></ul></ul>
  • 38. Multimedia Equipment <ul><li>The quality of speakers and headphones </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Affect the quality of the sound that user hears </li></ul></ul>
  • 39. Multimedia Equipment <ul><li>Speaker </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Inexpensive one </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Provide basic radio-quality sound </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Top-quality </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Boosts the bass sound and screens out background noise </li></ul></ul></ul>
  • 40. Multimedia Equipment <ul><li>Headphone </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Inexpensive one </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Can be used from a portable CD player </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Better-quality </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Produce clearer sound </li></ul></ul></ul>
  • 41. Multimedia Equipment <ul><li>Microphone </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Basic </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Suitable for voice recording and dictation </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Professional </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>For recording instrumental music and vocals </li></ul></ul></ul>
  • 42. Multimedia Equipment <ul><li>Graphics card </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Takes signals from the processor and uses them to “paint” an image on the screen </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Provides a connection for the monitor’s data cable </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>“ accelerated” graphics cards </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>equipped with circuitry that optimizes to display videos </li></ul></ul></ul>
  • 43. Multimedia Equipment <ul><li>Processor </li></ul><ul><ul><li>should quickly handle the huge amount of digital data for multimedia </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The faster the processor, the more data it can process each second </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>; the better multimedia quality </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>smooth video sequences </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>a sound track perfectly coordinated with the action </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Processor chips </li></ul><ul><ul><li>with Intel’s MMX or AMD’s 3DNow! </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Enhance a computer’s multimedia performance </li></ul></ul></ul>
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