Computers Ch1


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Chapter 1 Lectures

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Computers Ch1

  1. 1. Computers Tools for an information Age Chapter 1 B.M.H
  2. 2. Question 1
  3. 3. Index <ul><li>What is a computer? </li></ul><ul><li>The beginning of Computer </li></ul>
  4. 4. What is a computer? <ul><li>In a dictionary before 1940, </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Compute + er </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>computer : a person who performs calculations. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>The modern definition </li></ul><ul><ul><li>emerged in 1940s, when the first electronic computing devices were developed </li></ul></ul>
  5. 5. The beginning of Computer <ul><li>ABC (Atanasoff-Berry Computer) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>1942, John Atanasoff and Clifford Berry </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>- 1st Electronic digital computer </li></ul></ul><ul><li>MARK-1 </li></ul><ul><ul><li>1944, Howard Aiken </li></ul></ul><ul><li>ENIAC (Electronic Numerical Integrator and Calculator) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>1946, John W. Mauchly and J.Presper Eckert, Jr. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>- 1 st Large scale electronic digital computer </li></ul></ul><ul><li>EDSAC (Electronic Delay Storage Automatic Calculator) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Maurice Wilkes </li></ul></ul><ul><li>UNIVAC-I (UNIVersal Automatic Computer) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>John W. Mauchly and J.Presper Eckert, Jr. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>EDVAC (Electronic Discrete Variable Automatic Computer) </li></ul>
  6. 6. ABC(Atanasoff Berry Computer)
  7. 7. ENIAC computer
  8. 8. EDVAC <ul><li>When : in 1952 </li></ul><ul><li>Where : in the United States </li></ul><ul><li>Who : a team of engineers on a secret military project </li></ul><ul><li>Why : as a response to World War II military needs. (to process complex calculation automatically) </li></ul><ul><li>How : </li></ul><ul><ul><li>2000 multiplication in one second </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>addition or subtraction 100,000 times in the same period </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Its memory : 1,024 numbers of 12 decimal places each </li></ul></ul>
  9. 9. Plans for EDVAC <ul><li>Described in a report by the famous mathematician John von Neumann . </li></ul><ul><li>“ The most influential paper in the history of computer science” </li></ul>
  10. 10. What is a computer? <ul><li>Von Neumann’s report </li></ul><ul><ul><li>define the components of a computer and describe their functions </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>used the term “automatic computing system” </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Today, just “computer”, or “computer system. </li></ul></ul></ul>
  11. 11. A computer is… <ul><li>Based on the concepts presented in von Neumann’s paper </li></ul><ul><li>Computer : a device that </li></ul><ul><ul><li>1) accepts input, </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>2) processes data, </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>3) stores data, </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>4) and produces output. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li> page 1-12,13 </li></ul></ul>
  12. 12. 1) A computer accepts input <ul><li>Computer input : whatever is put into a computer system. </li></ul><ul><li>Examples </li></ul><ul><ul><li>words and symbols in a document </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>numbers for a calculation, </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>pictures, temperatures, audio signals </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Main input device : keyboard </li></ul>
  13. 13. 2) A computer processes data <ul><li>Data : symbols that represent facts and ideas. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>processing : data manipulation of computer </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Process : a systematic series of actions that a computer uses to manipulate data </li></ul><ul><li>Some of the ways : </li></ul><ul><ul><li>performing calculations, </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>sorting lists of words or numbers, </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>modifying documents and pictures </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>drawing graphs. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>A device : central processing unit (CPU) </li></ul>
  14. 14. 3) A computer stores data <ul><li>A computer stores data for processing </li></ul><ul><li>Places for storing data </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Memory : an area of a computer that holds data that is waiting to be processed </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Ex) RAM, ROM </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Storage : the area where data can be left on a permanent basis while it is not needed for processing </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>ex) diskette, CD-ROM,HDD </li></ul></ul>
  15. 15. 4) A computer produces output <ul><li>Computer output : the results produced by a computer </li></ul><ul><li>ex) reports, documents, music, graphs, and pictures </li></ul><ul><li>Output device : the device that displays, prints, or transmits the results of processing. </li></ul><ul><li>ex) monitor, printer </li></ul>
  16. 16. Example <ul><li>Fundamental computer function: 7+2=9 </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Input : 7, +, 2 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Memory : 7, +, 2 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Processing : Add 2 to 7 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Memory : 9 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Output : 9 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Storage : 9 </li></ul></ul>
  17. 18. Fundamental characteristics <ul><li>Speed </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Provide the processing speed essential to our fast-paced society for quick service </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Reliability </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Extremely reliable, compute correctly </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Most computer error : by human errors </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Storage Capability </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Store tremendous amounts data, which can be located and retrieved efficiently </li></ul></ul><ul><li>By-products characteristics by above three </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Productivity, decision making, cost reduction </li></ul></ul>
  18. 19. Where computers are used <ul><li>Education </li></ul><ul><li>Graphics </li></ul><ul><li>Retailing </li></ul><ul><li>Energy </li></ul><ul><li>Law enforcement </li></ul><ul><li>Transportation </li></ul><ul><li>Money </li></ul><ul><li>Agriculture </li></ul><ul><li>Government </li></ul><ul><li>The home </li></ul><ul><li>Health and medicine </li></ul><ul><li>Robotics </li></ul><ul><li>The human connection </li></ul><ul><li>The sciences </li></ul><ul><li>Connectivity </li></ul><ul><li>Training </li></ul><ul><li>Paperwork </li></ul>
  19. 20. Main components of computer <ul><ul><li>Hardware(=equipment) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Software(=programs) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>People(=programmers and end-users) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li> Page 1-12 </li></ul></ul>hardware software people
  20. 21. Classification of Computer <ul><li>By data type </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Digital computer </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Analog computer </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Hybrid computer </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>A/D converter, D/A converter </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>By purpose </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Special purpose computer </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Ex) for science, military </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>General purpose computer </li></ul></ul>
  21. 22. Analog vs. Digital (By data type) <ul><li>There are two basic ways to store and manage data </li></ul><ul><li>Analog </li></ul><ul><ul><li>continuous, in direct proportion to the data represented </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>music on a record album - a needle rides on ridges in the grooves that are directly proportional to the voltage sent to the speaker </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Digital </li></ul><ul><ul><li>the information is broken down into pieces, and each piece is represented separately </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>music on a compact disc - the disc stores numbers representing specific voltage levels sampled at various points </li></ul></ul>
  22. 23. Analog Signals (By data type) <ul><li>Analog signal from recording the word &quot;MATLAB&quot; </li></ul>
  23. 24. Digital Signals (By data type) <ul><li>Digital signals are discrete time signals that assume only discrete amplitudes </li></ul>
  24. 25. Digital Information (By data type) <ul><li>Computers store all information digitally </li></ul><ul><ul><li>numbers </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>text </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>graphics and images </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>audio </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>video </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>program instructions </li></ul></ul><ul><li>In some way, all information is digitized - broken down into pieces and represented as numbers </li></ul>
  25. 26. Classification of Computer <ul><li>By processing capabilities </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Microcomputers </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Minicomputers </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Mainframe computers </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Supercomputers </li></ul></ul>
  26. 27. Microcomputers <ul><li>Using the Microprocessor </li></ul><ul><li>Personal Computers (PC) </li></ul><ul><li>In home and small businesses </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Desktop computer </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Portable Computer </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Palmtop, Notebook(Laptop) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>PDA (Personal Digital Assistant) </li></ul></ul></ul>
  27. 28. Palmtop
  28. 29. Minicomputer <ul><li>More powerful than microcomputer </li></ul><ul><li>Stores data for all users in one centralized location </li></ul><ul><li>Used in school or small company </li></ul><ul><li>Ex) VAX, MV 4000, MV 8000, SSM 032 </li></ul>
  29. 31. Mainframes <ul><li>Large, fast and fairly expensive computers </li></ul><ul><li>Used by business or government to provide centralized storage </li></ul><ul><li>EX) IBM 4381, 9300, 3090, Cyber 180 </li></ul>
  30. 32. Supercomputers <ul><li>The fastest and most expensive type of computer </li></ul><ul><li>Used for code breaking, weather prediction and molecular modeling </li></ul><ul><li>The first : CRAY-1 </li></ul><ul><li>Intel’s ASCI Red, SGI’s ASCI Blue Mountain, IBM’s ASCI Blue Pacific </li></ul>