Genocide is defined as "the deliberate and systematic destruction, in whole or in part, of an ethnic, racial, religious, or national group―. ..any of the following acts committed with intent to destroy, in whole or in part, a national, ethnical, racial or religious group, as such: • (a) Killing members of the group; • (b) Causing serious bodily or mental harm to members of the group; • (c) Deliberately inflicting on the group conditions of life calculated to bring about its physical destruction in whole or in part; • (d) Imposing measures intended to prevent births within the group; • (e) Forcibly transferring children of the group to another group.— (Convention on the Prevention and Punishment of the Crime of Genocide, Article II)
Mao Ze-Dong (China, 1958-61 and 49-78 million1966-69, Tibet 1949-50)Jozef Stalin (USSR, 1932-39) 23 millionAdolf Hitler (Germany, 1939-1945) 12 MillionLeopold II of Belgium (Congo, 1886- 8 Million1908)Hideki Tojo (Japan, 1941-44) 5 MillionPol Pot (Cambodia, 1975-79) 1.7 MillionKim Il Sung (North Korea, 1948-94) 1.6 million
In 1990,economistAmartya Senestimated that100 million babygirls weremissing —sacrificed byparents whodesired a son.
7000 girls are killed in India daily Number of missing girls rising in India: UNICEF India finds itself among countries with skewed sex ratios in favour of boys. Some 7,000 fewer girls are born in India daily, mainly due to female foeticide, a UNICEF State of the Worlds Children report says. Compared to 1991 when only two districts - Salem (Tamil Nadu) and Bhind (Madhya Pradesh) - had adverse female sex ratio, as many as 51 districts in India now have more male babies born compared to female child, UNICEF says in the report released in New Delhi on Tuesday.
Less girls, more demand, their status will improve Contrary to what many believe, lesser number of girls in a society will not enhance their status. Instead, in places where sex selection is rampant, there can be an increase in violence against women, rape, abduction, trafficking and onset of practices such as polyandry.
Sex selection is justified if you have two or more daughters The notion that only couples with two or more daughters are going in for sex selection and therefore does not affect the overall child sex ratio is misleading. In fact, data indicates that even for the first-born, there is a preference for a male child. This trend is even more noticeable where the first-born is a girl
If dowry exists, sex selection cannot be stoppedSex selection is not a solution to dowry – the system of dowry will continue as long as people look upon daughters as a liability. What is important is to address the root cause for the subordinate status of women in the society.
Better to eliminate daughters than to let them suffer an unjust existenceThe thought that it is more humane to eliminate a female foetus than subjugate her to a life of discrimination does not hold water. By the same logic, it would be justifiable to eliminate poor people than let them suffer a life of poverty and deprivation. The girl child is not the problem, the practice of sex selection is.
A mother has the right to choose the sex of her child Another misleading notion is that banning sex selection amounts to denying a mother her unalienable right to choose the sex of her child. Choice in the absence of autonomy is no choice. Fears of violence and rejection/desertion and also the desire to establish one’s value in the family often pressurize women into opting for sex selection.
PNDT Act was necessitated because modern technology was being misused to prevent the conception and/or birth of girls. AnAct to provide for the prohibition of sex selection, before or after conception MandatoryRegistration of Genetic Counselling Centres, Genetic Laboratories or Genetic Clinics.
No person, shall conduct orcause to be conducted or aid inconducting sex selection on awoman or a man or on both oron anytissue, embryo, conceptus, fluid or gametes derived fromeither or both of them.
No person including arelative or husband of thepregnant woman shall seekor encourage the conduct ofany pre-natal diagnostictechniques on her or him orboth except for the purposesspecified
Providedthat the personconducting ultrasonographyon a pregnant woman shallkeep complete record fora period of two years
Written consent of pregnant woman and prohibition of communicating the sex of fetus.Doctor has to obtain her written consent to undergo such procedures in the language which she understandsa copy of her written consent is given to the woman
Prohibition on sale ofultrasound machines,etc., to persons,laboratories, clinics,etc. not registeredunder the Act
Prohibition ofadvertisementrelating to pre-nataldetermination of sex
Minor Offences For Minor Offences: Rule No. 17(2)•Non-availability of copy of Case may be launched inthe PNDT Act in the the court of JMIC u/s 25 ofregistered centre the Act. Punishment may•Non- Display of extend to 3 months or withregistration certificate in fine, which may extend tothe centre. Rule No. 6(2) Rs. 1,000/-for first offence.•Non-Display of Board in Additional fine upto Rs.the premises in English 500/- per day for the period of contravention forand Local Language that Rule No. 17(1) subsequent offence.‘Disclosure of the sex ofthe foetus is prohibited Orunder law’. Show cause notice u/s 20(1),(2) for temporary suspension of registration. Or Under Section 20(3)
3. Unregistered Section 3 Any suchcentres. equipment has It includes all suchcentres where any to be sealedportable equipment and seized bycapable of detecting the Appropriatesex before or afterconception is used. Authority concerned. He/She may Launch the case in the court u/s 28 of the Act.
Record Keeping Section 4, 29 Contravention (aIrregularities in and Rule-9 major offence) ofrecord keeping provision ofas per revised section 5 and 6 ofform ‘F’ are a the Act andmajor offence. punishable U/s• Sex Selection 23(1) of the PNDT Act. Section 3A. Violation of 4(5). 6 read section 5 and 6 of with section the Act and 2(0) punishable u/s 23 of the Act.
Imprisonment for a term which may extend to three years and with fine which may extend to ten thousand rupees on any subsequent conviction, with imprisonment which may extend to five years and with fine which may extend to fifty thousand rupees
As concerned citizens, it is our responsibility to see that our fellow citizens – neighbours, relatives, office colleagues, our domestic staff, acquaintances – do not indulge in sex selection. We also have to be vigilant to ensure that no members of the medical profession around us are encouraging and abetting such practices.
FAQ on P.C-P.N.D.T act for public- by GOI with UNFPA and CEHAT Convention on the Prevention and Punishment of the Crime of Genocide, Article II) Genocides of world. Wikipedia