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Part Three Text Appreciation ENTER Lesson 12- The Needs That Drive Us All
Text Appreciation <ul><li>Text Analysis  </li></ul><ul><li>1.  Theme </li></ul><ul><li>2.   Structure  </li></ul><ul><li>3...
In this essay, the author is concerned with human psychology. According to him, human beings are driven by five basic need...
Part 1 ( paras. 1  )  about: Part 2 ( paras.  )  about: Part 3 ( paras.  )  about: <ul><li>Text Analysis </li></ul>— 2 3—1...
Question:   How do you classify the five basic needs of human beings into two groups? The first need is biological need of...
“ Who do you know who is so completely satisfied with his life that he can go a week without complaining that someone has ...
Question:   How  does the author echo the opening sentence at the end of the essay? The opening sentence talks about the b...
Question:   What is the author’s view on the need for power? Power is usually rejected in many cultures, but the author wa...
Question:   What is the author’s view on the basic need for fun? Most people would not like to regard fun as a basic need ...
<ul><li>What does the author think are the needs that drive us all?  </li></ul><ul><li>What in the author’s opinion is the...
<ul><li>Why do we support those who are in power if we are taught and want to be humble? </li></ul><ul><li>What do success...
<ul><li>What will happen if we allow unbridled power? </li></ul><ul><li>What are the other basic human needs that the auth...
<ul><li>Writing Devices </li></ul>The quicker and more severe the frustration, the more pain we feel; the quicker and deep...
<ul><li>Writing Devices </li></ul>Even politicians try to appear humble, emphasizing how much they wish to serve and how l...
<ul><li>Writing Devices </li></ul><ul><li>To be prepared for  war  is one of the most effectual means of preserving  peace...
<ul><li>Writing Devices </li></ul>This text is an excellent example of a good essay. The major factors of a good essay are...
<ul><li>Writing Devices </li></ul>To achieve paragraph   unity , a writer must ensure two things. First, the paragraph mus...
<ul><li>Writing Devices </li></ul>To be continued on the next page. Parking space on the compass, which is one of the most...
<ul><li>Writing Devices </li></ul>When sentences, ideas, and details fit together clearly, readers can follow along easily...
<ul><li>Writing Devices </li></ul>There are four basic mechanical considerations in providing transitions between ideas: 1...
<ul><li>Writing Devices </li></ul>1.  Transitional words  cue readers to the relationship between sentences. eg. I like au...
<ul><li>Writing Devices </li></ul>2.  Repetition of words  helps to focus your ideas and to keep your reader on track. eg....
<ul><li>Writing Devices </li></ul>3.  Pronouns  are used to refer back to something previously mentioned. Be sure, however...
<ul><li>Writing Devices </li></ul>4.  Parallel sentence patterns  can help the reader follow along and keep ideas tied tog...
<ul><li>Writing Devices </li></ul>(1)  Freedom , another basic need, is often in conflict with  power . (2) The more  powe...
<ul><li>Writing Devices </li></ul>(5)   For example , we may be inherently competitive, but we want to be free to lose wit...
<ul><li>Writing Devices </li></ul>Analysis: In this paragraph, the first sentence is the topic sentence. In the following ...
<ul><li>Sentence Paraphrase  1 </li></ul>All five needs are built into our genetic structure as instructions for how we mu...
<ul><li>Sentence Paraphrase  2 </li></ul><ul><li>We are also born with no choice but to feel pain when a need is frustrate...
<ul><li>Sentence Paraphrase </li></ul>He could  do  nothing   but take back  what he had said. She seemingly has  done  no...
<ul><li>Sentence Paraphrase  3 </li></ul>Simple survival needs like hunger, thirst, and sexual desire are relatively clear...
<ul><li>Sentence Paraphrase  4 </li></ul>The need for power is particularly difficult to satisfy because in many cultures ...
<ul><li>Sentence Paraphrase  5 </li></ul><ul><li>In fact, if it were not for the need for power, our whole economy would c...
<ul><li>Sentence Paraphrase  6 </li></ul>That their teachings have been largely accepted when what they advocate is so obv...
<ul><li>Sentence Paraphrase  7 </li></ul>Who do you know who is so completely satisfied with his life that he can go a wee...
<ul><li>Sentence Paraphrase  8 </li></ul>Most of us cannot get through a day without complaint: To be satisfied with how o...
<ul><li>Sentence Paraphrase  9 </li></ul>If we think that we have any chance at all to move beyond bare survival, we are a...
<ul><li>Sentence Paraphrase  10 </li></ul>There is no greater work incentive than to be able to see that your effort has a...
<ul><li>Sentence Paraphrase </li></ul>He had  never  felt  less  like talking to anyone. Nothing  could be  more disagreea...
<ul><li>Sentence Paraphrase  11 </li></ul>And as much as a child may love her parents, she also wants the freedom to branc...
<ul><li>Sentence Paraphrase </li></ul>As much as  I hate to do it, I must stay home and study tonight. Much as  I respect ...
<ul><li>Sentence Paraphrase  12 </li></ul>My guess is that we will survive in direct proportion to how much we can learn. ...
<ul><li>Sentence Paraphrase  13 </li></ul>Anytime we can introduce power, freedom or belonging into a situation, we find i...
Part Three Text Appreciation This is the end of Part Three. Please click  HOME  to visit other parts. Lesson 12- The Needs...
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Transcript of "Lesson 12"

  1. 1. Part Three Text Appreciation ENTER Lesson 12- The Needs That Drive Us All
  2. 2. Text Appreciation <ul><li>Text Analysis </li></ul><ul><li>1. Theme </li></ul><ul><li>2. Structure </li></ul><ul><li>3. Questions for Comprehension </li></ul><ul><li>4. Questions on Details </li></ul><ul><li>II. Writing Devices </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Contrast </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Unity and Coherence </li></ul></ul><ul><li>III. Sentence Paraphrase </li></ul>Contents Lesson 12- The Needs That Drive Us All
  3. 3. In this essay, the author is concerned with human psychology. According to him, human beings are driven by five basic needs, among which the need for power is uniquely human and is a great incentive for one to work hard. The author encourages the young students to increase their self-awareness of their humanness so as to better deal with their problems. <ul><li>Text Analysis </li></ul>Lesson 12- The Needs That Drive Us All The end of Theme. Theme
  4. 4. Part 1 ( paras. 1 ) about: Part 2 ( paras. ) about: Part 3 ( paras. ) about: <ul><li>Text Analysis </li></ul>— 2 3—10 11—14 Human beings have five basic needs. Desire for power is a genuine human motivation. Fun is a basic human need. The end of Structure. Lesson 12- The Needs That Drive Us All Structure of the text
  5. 5. Question: How do you classify the five basic needs of human beings into two groups? The first need is biological need of human beings, and the other four needs are psychological needs of human beings. <ul><li>Text Analysis </li></ul>To be continued on the next page. Lesson 12- The Needs That Drive Us All  Questions for Comprehension
  6. 6. “ Who do you know who is so completely satisfied with his life that he can go a week without complaining that someone has gotten in the way of what he wanted to do?” (7) Question: What does the author indicate by the sentence? Power is a strong psychological desire of human beings. When people are prevented in their process toward it, they will usually complain and be displeased. Even when they think they have achieved what they want to gain in life, they will not feel content. <ul><li>Text Analysis </li></ul>To be continued on the next page. Lesson 12- The Needs That Drive Us All  Questions for Comprehension
  7. 7. Question: How does the author echo the opening sentence at the end of the essay? The opening sentence talks about the biological life of human beings, while the ending remarks deal with the psychological needs of human beings. All these five needs are motive forces that drive us to strive for survival and for success. That is how human progress has been and is being made. <ul><li>Text Analysis </li></ul>To be continued on the next page. Lesson 12- The Needs That Drive Us All  Questions for Comprehension
  8. 8. Question: What is the author’s view on the need for power? Power is usually rejected in many cultures, but the author wants to tell people that the desire for power is just the psychological need without moral judgment. The author believes that the desire for power exits in our daily life and also is important for the development of ourselves as individuals. <ul><li>Text Analysis </li></ul>To be continued on the next page. Lesson 12- The Needs That Drive Us All  Questions for Comprehension
  9. 9. Question: What is the author’s view on the basic need for fun? Most people would not like to regard fun as a basic need of human beings, but author believes that fun is an important part in our work and learning. Only with fun, can we persist in what might be boring. <ul><li>Text Analysis </li></ul>The end of Questions for Comprehension. Lesson 12- The Needs That Drive Us All  Questions for Comprehension
  10. 10. <ul><li>What does the author think are the needs that drive us all? </li></ul><ul><li>What in the author’s opinion is the unique human need? </li></ul><ul><li>What will happen if our needs are not satisfied? </li></ul><ul><li>Is power a good thing or a bad thing? </li></ul><ul><li>Why is it difficult to satisfy the need for power? </li></ul><ul><li>Why do tyrants preach the virtues of humility? </li></ul><ul><li>Text Analysis </li></ul>To be continued on the next page. Lesson 12- The Needs That Drive Us All Questions on Details
  11. 11. <ul><li>Why do we support those who are in power if we are taught and want to be humble? </li></ul><ul><li>What do successful people do about their power? </li></ul><ul><li>Are people easily satisfied with the power they already have? </li></ul><ul><li>Human beings are intensely competitive according to the author, then what do they compete for? </li></ul><ul><li>What is the greatest work incentive? </li></ul><ul><li>Text Analysis </li></ul>To be continued on the next page. Lesson 12- The Needs That Drive Us All Questions on Details
  12. 12. <ul><li>What will happen if we allow unbridled power? </li></ul><ul><li>What are the other basic human needs that the author says can be a counter-force to power? </li></ul><ul><li>Is it only humans who have fun according to the author? </li></ul><ul><li>Why is fun important for learning? </li></ul><ul><li>Text Analysis </li></ul>The end of Questions on Details. Lesson 12- The Needs That Drive Us All Questions on Details
  13. 13. <ul><li>Writing Devices </li></ul>The quicker and more severe the frustration, the more pain we feel; the quicker and deeper the satisfaction, the more pleasure we experience. (2) Example from the text To be continued on the next page. Contrast is used to show differences. contrast contrast Lesson 12- The Needs That Drive Us All Contrast
  14. 14. <ul><li>Writing Devices </li></ul>Even politicians try to appear humble, emphasizing how much they wish to serve and how little they want to tell us what to do. (3) More examples To be continued on the next page. Lesson 12- The Needs That Drive Us All Contrast
  15. 15. <ul><li>Writing Devices </li></ul><ul><li>To be prepared for war is one of the most effectual means of preserving peace . </li></ul><ul><li>George Washington, January 8, 1790 </li></ul><ul><li>Let us never negotiate out of fear , but let us never fear to negotiate . </li></ul><ul><li>President Kennedy, Inaugural Address </li></ul><ul><li>They are wonderful when they are good, he thought. There is no people like them when they are good and when they go bad there is no people that is worse . </li></ul><ul><li>Ernest Hemingway, For Whom the Bell Tolls </li></ul>The end of Contrast. Lesson 12- The Needs That Drive Us All Contrast: more examples
  16. 16. <ul><li>Writing Devices </li></ul>This text is an excellent example of a good essay. The major factors of a good essay are unity, coherence, logical connections and clarity. They are also true for writing paragraphs. In writing a paragraph, we have to make sure that all the points in the essay stick to a central idea, and all the ideas are connected smoothly for readers to follow. Unity and coherence are the two important factors in paragraph writing. To be continued on the next page. What makes a good paragraph? Lesson 12- The Needs That Drive Us All Unity and Coherence
  17. 17. <ul><li>Writing Devices </li></ul>To achieve paragraph unity , a writer must ensure two things. First, the paragraph must have a single generalization that serves as the focus of attention, that is, a topic sentence . Secondly, a writer must control the content of every other sentence in the paragraph's body such that (a) it contains more specific information than the topic sentence and (b) it maintains the same focus of attention as the topic sentence. To be continued on the next page. What is unity? Examples Lesson 12- The Needs That Drive Us All Unity and Coherence
  18. 18. <ul><li>Writing Devices </li></ul>To be continued on the next page. Parking space on the compass, which is one of the most beautiful in the state, has become completely inadequate, and recently the city council voted to increase bus fares again. Lesson 12- The Needs That Drive Us All How to maintain unity of the sentence? (Which clause is irrelevant to the main idea of the sentence, so it should be deleted in order to maintain unity of the sentence?) Unity
  19. 19. <ul><li>Writing Devices </li></ul>When sentences, ideas, and details fit together clearly, readers can follow along easily, and the writing is coherent. The ideas tie together smoothly and clearly. To be continued on the next page. What is coherence? Lesson 12- The Needs That Drive Us All Coherence
  20. 20. <ul><li>Writing Devices </li></ul>There are four basic mechanical considerations in providing transitions between ideas: 1. using transitional expressions 2. repeating key words and phrases 3. using pronoun reference 4. using parallel form How to be coherent? Examples Lesson 12- The Needs That Drive Us All To be continued on the next page. Coherence
  21. 21. <ul><li>Writing Devices </li></ul>1. Transitional words cue readers to the relationship between sentences. eg. I like autumn, and yet autumn is a sad time of the year too. More words: however, therefore, in addition, etc. Caution: Do not interlard your text with transitional expressions casually. They must appear naturally, where they belong. To be continued on the next page. Lesson 12- The Needs That Drive Us All Coherence
  22. 22. <ul><li>Writing Devices </li></ul>2. Repetition of words helps to focus your ideas and to keep your reader on track. eg. The problem with contemporary art is that it is not easily understood by most people. Contemporary art is deliberately abstract, and that means it leaves the viewer wondering what she is looking at. Lesson 12- The Needs That Drive Us All To be continued on the next page. Coherence
  23. 23. <ul><li>Writing Devices </li></ul>3. Pronouns are used to refer back to something previously mentioned. Be sure, however, that what you are referring to is clear. eg. When scientific experiments do not work out as expected, they are often considered failures until some other scientist tries them again. Lesson 12- The Needs That Drive Us All To be continued on the next page. Coherence
  24. 24. <ul><li>Writing Devices </li></ul>4. Parallel sentence patterns can help the reader follow along and keep ideas tied together. eg. And so, my fellow Americans: ask not what your country can do for you — ask what you can do for your country. To be continued on the next page. Examples from the text Lesson 12- The Needs That Drive Us All Coherence
  25. 25. <ul><li>Writing Devices </li></ul>(1) Freedom , another basic need, is often in conflict with power . (2) The more power you have, even if you use it for my benefit, the less freedom I have. (3) It seems that there has to be a counterforce to power ; unbridled power would be destructive to the survival of the species. (4) Therefore , almost everything said about power could also be reworded into the vocabulary of freedom . topic sentence To be continued on the next page. Lesson 12- The Needs That Drive Us All repetition of words: power, freedom transitional words Unity and Coherence
  26. 26. <ul><li>Writing Devices </li></ul>(5) For example , we may be inherently competitive, but we want to be free to lose without losing too much. (6) And as much as a child may love her parents, she also wants the freedom to branch out on her own. (7) So you can see that freedom can be in conflict not only with power but also with belonging. (8) For example, if you want me around too much, I claim you stifle me, but if you aren't constantly giving me attention, I may claim you don’t love me. (Para. 10) To be continued on the next page. Use of pronoun reference Lesson 12- The Needs That Drive Us All Analysis Unity and Coherence
  27. 27. <ul><li>Writing Devices </li></ul>Analysis: In this paragraph, the first sentence is the topic sentence. In the following sentences 2, 3, 4 and 7, the author gives specific information on the topic and uses examples in sentences 5, 6 and 8 to support the ideas. At the same time, the author repeats the key words “freedom” and “power” in the whole paragraph to focus the attention on the topic. He also uses transitional words and pronouns to glue the whole paragraph together. In this way, the author achieves the paragraph unity and coherence. The end of Writing Devices. Lesson 12- The Needs That Drive Us All Unity and Coherence
  28. 28. <ul><li>Sentence Paraphrase 1 </li></ul>All five needs are built into our genetic structure as instructions for how we must attempt to live our lives. All are important and must be reasonably satisfied if we are to fulfill our biological destiny. (1) All five needs are inborn as part of our nature and direct us as we go through our lives. All of them must be fulfilled if we are going to experience lives as humans. what we have to experience as humans go to 2 Lesson 12- The Needs That Drive Us All
  29. 29. <ul><li>Sentence Paraphrase 2 </li></ul><ul><li>We are also born with no choice but to feel pain when a need is frustrated, and pleasure when it is satisfied. (2) </li></ul>He did nothing but laugh. Nothing remains but to die. but + infinitive More examples but+infinitive without “to” when the verb is “do” but+infinitive with “to” when the verb is not “do” Lesson 12- The Needs That Drive Us All go to 3 To be continued on the next page.
  30. 30. <ul><li>Sentence Paraphrase </li></ul>He could do nothing but take back what he had said. She seemingly has done nothing but accomplish the impossible. They desire nothing but to enjoy the present moment. We had no choice but to turn back. back to 2 Lesson 12- The Needs That Drive Us All
  31. 31. <ul><li>Sentence Paraphrase 3 </li></ul>Simple survival needs like hunger, thirst, and sexual desire are relatively clear-cut, and we quickly learn what particular discomfort is attached to the denial of these basic needs. (3) It is relatively easy to define simple survival needs that satisfy hunger, thirst and sexual desire because we can easily find what particular discomfort we feel when these basic needs are denied. to be connected with go to 4 a situation in which someone is not allowed to have their rights Lesson 12- The Needs That Drive Us All
  32. 32. <ul><li>Sentence Paraphrase 4 </li></ul>The need for power is particularly difficult to satisfy because in many cultures the mores of the culture condemn those who openly strive for it. (3) <ul><ul><li>the customs, moral values </li></ul></ul>In many cultures openly trying to gain power is regarded as running counter to the code of conduct of culture, and those who do so are strongly disapproved of, so it is especially difficult for one to meet his/her need for power. go to 5 Lesson 12- The Needs That Drive Us All
  33. 33. <ul><li>Sentence Paraphrase 5 </li></ul><ul><li>In fact, if it were not for the need for power, our whole economy would crumble because almost all that is bought and sold, except for bare necessities, is for the sake of power. (4) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>collapse, lose effectiveness </li></ul></ul>for the purpose of subjunctive mood go to 6 Lesson 12- The Needs That Drive Us All In fact, it is our need for power that has pushed the development of our whole economy because all what we buy and sell is to serve our purpose to gain power.
  34. 34. <ul><li>Sentence Paraphrase 6 </li></ul>That their teachings have been largely accepted when what they advocate is so obviously self-serving is a tribute to how effective they have been in getting their message across. (6) <ul><ul><li>to be a clear sign of the good qualities that sb. or sth. has ( 证明 ) </li></ul></ul>It is surprising that what they propagate should be accepted by many, for obviously their propaganda serves their own interests, helping to maintain their power. This clearly shows how effective their propaganda machine is. subjective clause go to 7 interested in gaining an advantage for yourself Lesson 12- The Needs That Drive Us All
  35. 35. <ul><li>Sentence Paraphrase 7 </li></ul>Who do you know who is so completely satisfied with his life that he can go a week without complaining that someone has gotten in the way of what he wanted to do? (7) <ul><ul><li>prevent sb. from doing sth. </li></ul></ul>People are constantly complaining that they are prevented from achieving their goal. Actually you can hardly find a person who doesn't make such complaints before a week goes by. a relative clause modifying “Who” go to 8 Lesson 12- The Needs That Drive Us All
  36. 36. <ul><li>Sentence Paraphrase 8 </li></ul>Most of us cannot get through a day without complaint: To be satisfied with how others have treated us for a week would seem like an eternity. (7) Most of us can find something to complain about daily. Any feeling of satisfaction with how we are treated won’t last as long as a week. go to 9 to be a period that seems to be very long or never to end Lesson 12- The Needs That Drive Us All
  37. 37. <ul><li>Sentence Paraphrase 9 </li></ul>If we think that we have any chance at all to move beyond bare survival, we are almost all ambitious. (8) <ul><ul><li>mere </li></ul></ul>All humans want and are determined to succeed in one way or another if they believe that they can manage more than merely to keep alive. go to 10 Lesson 12- The Needs That Drive Us All
  38. 38. <ul><li>Sentence Paraphrase 10 </li></ul>There is no greater work incentive than to be able to see that your effort has a power payoff. (9) <ul><ul><li>rewarded by power </li></ul></ul>To be able to see that your effort will be rewarded with some sort of power is the best incentive for work. In negative structure, comparative degree can be used to express superlative meaning. More examples Lesson 12- The Needs That Drive Us All go to 11 To be continued on the next page.
  39. 39. <ul><li>Sentence Paraphrase </li></ul>He had never felt less like talking to anyone. Nothing could be more disagreeable to me than that I should have to do that. There was nothing he desired more than to see the matter ended. back to 10 Translation 他从未如此不想和人谈话。 再没有比我非做此事不可更使我不快的了。(我最不高兴的就是做此事。) 他最希望的是看到此事的结束。 Lesson 12- The Needs That Drive Us All
  40. 40. <ul><li>Sentence Paraphrase 11 </li></ul>And as much as a child may love her parents, she also wants the freedom to branch out on her own. (10) Although a child may love her parents very much, she also wants her parents to let her develop the way she wants. go to 12 (as) much as = although, used to mean that although one thing is true, something else is also true. add to the range of one’s interests or activities More examples Lesson 12- The Needs That Drive Us All To be continued on the next page.
  41. 41. <ul><li>Sentence Paraphrase </li></ul>As much as I hate to do it, I must stay home and study tonight. Much as I respect him, I don’t always approve of what he does. Much as I enjoy Shakespeare, I was glad when the play was over. back to 11 Lesson 12- The Needs That Drive Us All
  42. 42. <ul><li>Sentence Paraphrase 12 </li></ul>My guess is that we will survive in direct proportion to how much we can learn. (13) In my opinion, the greater our ability to learn, the better our chance to survive. go to 13 according to a particular relationship in size, amount, etc. Lesson 12- The Needs That Drive Us All
  43. 43. <ul><li>Sentence Paraphrase 13 </li></ul>Anytime we can introduce power, freedom or belonging into a situation, we find it more interesting. And as we do, we also find ourselves learning along the way. (14) Whenever we are motivated by power, freedom or belonging, we do a job with more interests. And as we tackle one task after another with interests, we keep learning and progressing all our lives. The end of Sentence Paraphrase. Lesson 12- The Needs That Drive Us All
  44. 44. Part Three Text Appreciation This is the end of Part Three. Please click HOME to visit other parts. Lesson 12- The Needs That Drive Us All
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