URBANDESIGNIdeologies M itch e l l L l oy d URP 508 02 /06/2 012 Dr. Santos
Sao Paulo, BrazilPre-Industrial AgeCulture of farmers grow coffee, sugar and fruitsDuringMajor important during exports hotspot during WWII for manufacturedproducts for EuropeBig tax advantages given to companies for relocation manufacturing plantsMass immigrants migration (Italians, Japanese, Syrian, Lebanese)Post-Industrial AgeLarge presents of foreign corporationsContinent’s Financial center (Sao Paulo Stock Exchange); research centersLuxury goods and department stores “Luxury Quadrilateral”Tiffany & Co., Parda, Luis Vuitton, Chanel, Sheraton, Hilton, Hyatt, Ferrari,Aston Martin, Bugatti, Lamborghini, BMW etc…10th richest city, 10 th expensive city to live, pass London, Paris, Milan, NYC
Stuttgart, GermanyPre-IndustrialStuttgart largest wine growing city in Germany 28,470 acres of vineyard country included several beer breweriesCounts of Wurttemberg rule; Holy Roman EmpireDuringNazi rule – Jew deportationMain Station(Central Station) regional – long distance railwayWWII Royal Air Force severely bombed Stuttgart; dropping 184,000 bombs onthe city leveling itOccupied by French then American troops, remains a command post for UStroopsPost-Industrial“Cradle of the Automobile”Home to companies – Daimler AG, Porsche, Bosch, Hewlett-Packard, IBMProduction of cars like Mercedes-Benz, Porsche, MaybachHigh density of scientific, academic, research – number of patents, researchinstitutions
Cupertino, CaliforniaPre-IndustrialSmall rural village in Santa Clara until Inc. in 1955Fruit agriculture – prune, plum, apricot and cherry orchardsHeld a winery on Montebello RidgeDuringRailroad, electric railways and dirt roads made it easy to take advantage ofthe natural resources that were available; aggregate rock quarry andcement plants turned upLarge cement companies was the largest employers for decadesPost-IndustrialHigh-tech age led to emerging Silicon Valley as the “Center of the HighUniverse”Cupertino natives – Steve Jobs and Steve Woznick led the revolution asfounders of Apple Inc. and HQ in CupertinoOver 60 tech companies operate in Cupertino and provide great financialbenefits to the cityAsian immigrants make up over half of the population
Coloma, CaliforniaPre-IndustrialFirst home to native tribes and villagesLater displacement by European explorationDuringJames W. Marshall at Sutters mill – First place gold was foundBrought 300,000 people to the area and much of CA – Gold seekers(49ers)Squatters took most of the land as the major was unsettledPost-IndustrialGhost town population just over 500Mostly museums and historical tourism from the Gold RushRafting and kayaking attraction
Moscow, RussiaPre-IndustrialUnder Czar control1905 instated Mayor of cityDuringMilitary hotspotWWII - USSR/Soviet Union controlledLeading producers of military/ civil helicoptersPost-IndustrialWatch makersNatural gas providedTech companiesWater transport used most for entertainmentHeavy interest in space travel and intelligentHeavily importance placed on roadways
Robert Moses “The Shaper” Most polarizing figure in urban planning history Favored highways over public transit which sped up urban sprawl Head of numerous public authorities allowing him access to millions of public dollars with little or no approval from legislative bodies critics credit Moses to the destruction of traditional neighborhoods and caused hundreds of thousands displacementThe GoodTriborough Bridge (Robert F. Kennedy Memorial Bridge)Three separate spans that connect Manhattan, Queens, the BronxGenerate tool revenues used to subsidy the transit authority and railways
The BadBrooklyn Battery Bridge/TunnelLink between Brooklyn and Lower ManhattanPlanned to be a bridge or tunnel was up for debateCity experts say a bridge would destroyed Battery Park and physicallyencroached on the financial districtMany opposed the bridge option like high society players, the Mayor,the Governor, and financial sector playersMoses believe a bridge would carry more traffic and would serve asa visible monumentPresident Roosevelt seal the case for the tunnel with his inendorsement banning Moses idea of a bridge
The UglyBrooklyn DodgersOwner of the Brooklyn Dodgers, Walter OMalley, wanted to build anew stadium in Brooklyn for the team. Unlike O’Malley, Mosesplanned to build a parking garage in the every space O’Malley waspursuing. Moses offered O’Malley a site in Queens which he forciblyopposed. Moses ultimately won the clash between the twoeventually build his parking garage. But the city lose in the end, NewYork’s two baseball franchise to Los Angeles and San Francisco,respectively.
“All that is solid melts into the air”Marshall Berman articulates modernity as “a maelstrom of perpetualdisintegration and renewal.Causes a split in perception of reality “you cant have the goodwithout the bad”.Modernity is a balancing act in a constantly change environmentBerman advocates against the lack of empathy and faith in modernman to be capable of response, judgment, and action in the worldCritics suggest modern day man find their soul in their automobiles,homes and tech products.Contradictory forces that inspire and torment us“our desire to be rooted the in a stable and coherent person andsocial past which conflicts with our desire for limitless growth; agrowth which enriches the future while destroying the solidities ofthe past
Conventional Suburban Developments Separation of private residences from and commercial and industrial to focus on low density single family detach houses as preferred homes with American families. Movement away from urban living Separation of people from their work, shopping and recreational from their home culture of automobile dependency.
Urban Ghettos Section of city pre-dominantly occupied by a group of people who lives there Overcrowded areas where ethnic/racial populations living below the poverty line Jews/Irish/German were the first in American Ghettos then large amount of southern and eastern Europe immigrants (Italians and Poles) The Great Migration – thousands of blacks left the south seeks jobs, escape of racism and purse of the perception of a better life in the North. Mostly poverty stricken high crime rates dilapidated houses and deteriorating projects.
Public HousingNeighborhood Initially it was just building standards Early public housing was aim at working middle class families After The Great Depression and Interstate Act led to thousands without housing options initiatives around subsidized income based housing allows groups of people housing In the begin was low-rise building but after WWII switch gears to massive muilt-story high rise homes HUD’s revitalization efforts addressed concerns of distressed and blighted buildings Crime major concerns - One strike youre out low Enable the convicted of tenants linked to crimes, drug, prostitution
Squatters Occupying abandon or occupied space without permission Slums or shanty towns – self constructed housing w/o landowner’s permission; usually on the outer skirts of cities Little to no infrastructure – sewage, running water In Western Nations, sometimes used as political statement Look at as liberals, taking matters into their own hands US – squatting laws, mostly low income, homeless, street gangs, artists, foreclosed homes Canada/ Mexico – squatter transfer of property rights if land squatted for five years or more
High Density Central BusinessDistrict High-end commercial/ retail/ office building The CBD closely reflects the history of the city in its architecture and collection of building Small residents populations, usually younger professional and business workers in apartments of lofts Usually home to the Financial district Sports & Entertainment location Large high-rise building Location here are valuable because of the accessibility to large populations
ConclusionThere only few industrial cities left in the world. Most cities hastransitioned to a variety of industries, become more complex anddiverse. The complex industries and the High-Tech age has led toincrease of Asian and European immigrants to countries to work inthese new industries.Robert Moses while making some improvements caused concernsand afraid to the citizens of New York and headed the change ofmajority power and control of taxpayer monies.Marshall Berman focuses on the culture of human beings beingsecond guessed for their actions and the chose of motorizedtransport over a more compacted lifestyle.The interaction of people and buildings are important and suggesttrends of people actions to actively inhabit the environment.
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