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  • r
  • http://www.globalissues.org/article/26/poverty-facts-and-stats
  • “ Teleuser” – anyone who had made or received a call (from any phone) in the previous three months SEC [socio-economic classification] determined by education and occupation of chief wage earner of the household, but also takes into account other factors (varies between countries), such as housing type, availability of household durables, etc Urban India : SEC D + E Rural India: R2 + R3 + R4 Except Philippines, where we only studied SEC E users because if we studied SEC D and E users, our target group would become close to 90% of the Filipino population Migrant samples included SEC group C users in some countries, recognizing that some SEC D / E households may have risen up to SEC C due to income infusions from household members working away from home Total SEC D + E for BD is 106,094,305; proportion of population aged 15-60 is about 58% of this number (2007) based on the actual population distribution for all SECs. Assumption : the distribution is normally distributed and its the same for SEC D + E.
  • Fieldwork Languages (12 in total) Bangladesh : Bengali (1) Pakistan: Urdu (1) India: Hindi, Gujarati, Bengali, Tamil, Kannada, Assamese, Tripuri (7) Sri Lanka: Sinhala, Tamil (2) Philippines: Tagalog, Cebuano, Illongo, Bisaya (4) Thailand: Thai (1)
  • Mean income: Excluding those w/o personal income: 65 78 64 98 88 126 USD/day equivalents: Personal: BD - 1.21 PK - 1.23 IN - 1.28 LK - 1.80 PH - 1.48 TH - 2.62 Household: BD - 3.90 PK - 4.22 IN - 3.30 LK - 5.02 PH - 4.24 TH - 5.73 Daily household income per HH member: 0.85 0.64 0.91 1.43 1.21 2.40 Income data collected in absolute numbers; if respondent was unable to provide an absolute number, a range was given. Mid-point of those ranges were taken as respondent’s income.
  • BOP/Outer sample: total number approached belonging to SEC D or E These numbers cannot be compared with the 2006 numbers because they were collected using a different methodology.
  • Takes a longer time to get to phone in rural areas, but most can still get to a phone in 5 minutes; situation has improved since 2006 (RURAL IN & PK had people travelling >60 minutes). Urban base in LK is too small to disaggregate into rural vs urban. Most often it costs them nothing additional to reach the phone (walking)
  • Top reasons for choice: Accessibility at any time Lower cost (largest concern in India); little difference between urban and rural India Lack of options Accessibility in any location Privacy Quality of connection Other
  • 45% of Indian BOP has either their own mobile or access to a fixed phone in their house.
  • Second highest BOP growth in Sri Lanka Sri Lanka 78% Thailand 18% Philippines 17% Pakistan 12% (no 2006 comparison for Bangladesh)
  • Except for Sri Lanka, numbers are the same for mobile In Sri Lanka there is a one-point difference due to the significant number of fixed phones Philippines (SEC E only) needs further investigation
  • Mobile adoption determined by gender, personal income, education, top 5 contacts, PBI, (fixed phones, electricity and TV)
  • Fixed Those planning to get connected in the next year: 31% 18% 28% 41% 31% 47%
  • PK – increased inequality on mobile; IN and LK reduced PK– increased inequality on public access (more men using them)
  • **
  • Higher and more frequent use of the mobile for business purposes among males, in all countries Though notable use by WOMEN in BD -- highest across all countries!
  • “ ring-in” tones , movie content and SMS supposed to be most popular in Indian market http://mobile.broadbandindia.com/2008/04/value-added-services-market.html CRBT (caller ring-back tones): This constitutes bulk of the VAS market share at 45% . This is a popular service in which the calling party hears music chosen by the called party (instead of the ringing sound). Voice portals: 13% market share. The fastest growing VAS service of all, this has in the last year, become as popular as CRBT. This service enables users to select music, jokes or other items of interest by dialing into an IVR. Premium SMS: Second largest revenue contributor at 32%. This is distinct from regular SMS, as it is typically A2P (application to peer) and meant for use in real-time polling, interactive TV, consumer marketing and requests, etc. Other data (e-mail, games, on-deck content): Users having phones with data capability (WAP and GPRS) can access e-mail and other content from their mobiles.
  • “ This is a list of kinds of services that can be accessed or obtained through telephones and computers. Please tell me whether you are aware that you can access the following services through telephones or computers?” Voting ~= “premium SMS”: real-time polling, interactive TV, consumer marketing and requests (http://mobile.broadbandindia.com/2008/04/value-added-services-market.html) m-Governance : Limited initiatives in India:& Limited spread; • Examples of some applications: (1) Agri-watch - To give agriculture market information (www.agriwatch.com) (2)Lifelines – A knowledge service to answer agriculture related queries (www.lifelinesindia.net) (3) Centre for Good Governance supports systems for Grievance Redress, Right to Information case tracking, Irrigation monitoring and Disaster Management system (http://unpan1.un.org/intradoc/groups/public/documents/un/unpan030559.pdf) “ ring-in” tones , movie content and SMS supposed to be most popular in Indian market http://mobile.broadbandindia.com/2008/04/value-added-services-market.html CRBT (caller ring-back tones): This constitutes bulk of the VAS market share at 45% . This is a popular service in which the calling party hears music chosen by the called party (instead of the ringing sound). Voice portals: 13% market share. The fastest growing VAS service of all, this has in the last year, become as popular as CRBT. This service enables users to select music, jokes or other items of interest by dialing into an IVR. Premium SMS: Second largest revenue contributor at 32%. This is distinct from regular SMS, as it is typically A2P (application to peer) and meant for use in real-time polling, interactive TV, consumer marketing and requests, etc. Other data (e-mail, games, on-deck content): Users having phones with data capability (WAP and GPRS) can access e-mail and other content from their mobiles.

Transcript

  • 1. Telecom use at the bottom of the pyramid in emerging Asia M is for Mobile: Exploring mobiles technology for social development Sesame Workshop New Delhi, 1 March 2011 Ayesha Zainudeen This work was carried out with the aid of a grant from the International Development Research Centre, Canada and UKaid from the Department for International Development, UK. With contributions from Telenor Research and Development Centre, Sdn. Bhd.
  • 2. BOP a large, valuable, under-tapped market
    • Lowest socio-economic groups
      • Roughly living on USD2 per day
      • SEC D + E (LIRNE asia )
    • Many consumers consuming little amounts
      • Estimated 3 billion, globally
    • Many opportunities for companies (as well as consumers)
  • 3. Understanding of emerging Asian BOP's use of ICTs (mostly phones) via [email_address] studies
    • BOP defined as SEC groups D + E *
    • What this means in emerging Asia… 579 million **
      • Bangladesh
      • Pakistan
      • India
      • Sri Lanka
      • Philippines
      • Thailand
    • 10,000+ individuals surveyed; 200+ studied in depth via FGDs, mini-ethnographies and home visits
    * SEC E only in Philippines ** 15-60 age groups only
  • 4. 9,940 BOP teleusers surveyed [1] Pakistan: Excludes tribal regions [2] Sri Lanka: Excludes North and East [3] Philippines: Survey was undertaken only among SEC E [4] Thailand: Excludes Bangkok as the SEC DE population in Bangkok is very small
    • Additional 200 (approx.) studied in depth via FGDs, mini-ethnographies and home visits
      Bangladesh Pakistan [1] India Sri Lanka [2] Philippines [3] Thailand [4] Total BOP teleusers 2,050 1,814 3,152 924 800 800 9,540 Margin of error @ 95% CL (%) + 3% + 2% + 2% + 3% + 4% + 4%   Migrant workers 350 300 400 200 200 100 1,550
  • 5. Lower two socio-economic categories (D & E)
    • Earning ~USD1-2 per day
    • Primary-secondary education
    Among BOP teleusers Bangladesh Pakistan India Sri Lanka Philippines Thailand Mean household income (USD/day) 117 126 99 151 127 171 Mean personal income (USD/day) 36 37 38 54 45 79
  • 6. HIGH ACCESS, MOSTLY MOBILE
    • [email_address]
  • 7. Most have used a phone in the last 3 months Among BOP (OUTER SAMPLE)
  • 8. Non-owners can get to a phone in ~5 minutes (walking) Among BOP non-owner teleusers
    • Over half have access within house
  • 9. Many non-owners, still have mobile access within the household Access within the household Among BOP teleusers
  • 10. ~1 call per day (outgoing)
  • 11. Phones overtaken radio in South Asia
    • In addition, many have access to other householders’ mobiles (esp in South Asia)
    Mobile or fixed phone Among BOP teleusers
  • 12. Largest % growth in Indian total BOP phone ownership 131% increase Among BOP teleusers
  • 13. Urban-rural divide in total BOP phone ownership declining 1.1 urban owners for every rural owner Ratio between urban and rural BOP teleusers
  • 14. Most own a mobile
    • LK “fixed” = mostly CDMA
    41% 39% 38% 64% 50% 70% Among BOP
  • 15. Many non-owners planed to get connected within 1 year from survey; mostly to mobile
    • Many would like to get mobiles with coloured screens, cameras, radios and torches
      • Some demand for SMS and MMS capabilities, Internet and Bluetooth in PH and TH
    Among BOP non-owner teleusers planning to get connected
  • 16. BOP most likely to join the information economy via mobile phones
    • Many not even heard of the Internet!
  • 17. Gender divide improving in India 1:1 ratio 2.0 male mobile owners for every female owner
  • 18. PERCIEVED BENEFITS
    • [email_address]
  • 19. Largest benefits perceived in emergency communication and relationship maintenance
    • Emergency communication and maintaining family and social relations most important
    1=worsened 2 = slightly worsened 3=no change 4=slightly improved 5=improved Among BOP teleusers with personal incomes > 0
  • 20. Lower perceived benefit on economic factors (though still positive) Among BOP teleusers with personal incomes > 0 1=worsened 2 = slightly worsened 3=no change 4=slightly improved 5=improved Indians who use the phone for business activities see more benefits in terms of: making more money (also via sale of calls), ability to find out about employment, save money, improve efficiency of daily work
  • 21. High use of mobiles for productive purposes (77%) Daily use Among BOP mobile owners 72% 31% 42% 21% 49% 32%
  • 22. Zayed | Shopkeeper 21 years | Sonargaon, Bangladesh
    • Obtained mobile to expand business.
    • Mobile has helped him reduce travel time and cost, remotely coordinate matters at the shop, increase business and expand business network.
    • His accumulated monetary and time savings allowed him to start a poultry business; buying live chickens and selling them from his shop.
    • More vendors contact him when new products are available now, allowing him to expand his line of products with little effort.
    • Reduced dependence on an auto rickshaw driver for travel for stocks; in turn the latter’s dependence on Zayed for information has increased
    • Can earn revenue by facilitating remittances via mobile phone
  • 23. SOCIOECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT VIA MORE-THAN-VOICE SERVICES?
    • [email_address]
  • 24. What the BOP does with mobile phones: Currently not much beyond voice and text Among BOP mobile owners B’desh Pakistan India S’ Lanka Ph’pines T’land % of BOP mobile owners Taking phone calls 100% 100% 99% 100% 89% 100% Receiving phone calls 100% 100% 98% 100% 99% 100% Sending/receiving 'missed calls' 94% 84% 84% 73% 86% 39% Sending/receiving SMS (text messages) 32% 47% 33% 52% 100% 53% Sending/receiving MMS (picture messages) 1% 4% 4% 6% 13% 4% Sending/receiving emails 0% 0% 1% 0% 0% 1% Browsing the Internet 0% 1% 1% 2% 0% 2% Taking photos /video clips 4% 2% 1% 8% 4% 18% To play games (individual) 13% 18% 7% 21% 14% 17% To play games (interactive) 1% 1% 1% 1% 3% 1% To listen to the radio 0% 7% 3% 12% 5% 22% To listen to music (files which you have downloaded or been sent by others, not radio) 4% 5% 3% 7% 3% 22% To share content that you have created (E.g. ringtones, wallpapers, pictures, games and video clips) 1% 2% 2% 6% 5% 3% To send or receive or download or upload other content (E.g., ringtones, wallpapers, pictures, games and video clips) 0% 2% 3% 8% 10% 9% As an organizer (keep appointments, reminders, alarm and clock) 1% 7% 8% 4% 9% 14% To check my bill / credit balance 11% 40% 25% 50% 3% 39%
  • 25. Mobile2.0 services: Awareness among BOP is poor in BD, PK and IN Among BOP teleusers Voting, competitions, reality shows, etc
  • 26. Mobile2.0 services: Small amount of usage in higher penetration countries
    • Awareness among BOP is poor in BD, PK and IN
    • Those who use services, use in small amounts……
    Among BOP teleusers who are aware of services BD PK IN LK PH TH Regularly Not regularly Regularly Not regularly Regularly Not regularly Regularly Not regularly Regularly Not regularly Regularly Not regularly Banking and financial services 1% 2% 1% 3% Payment services 3% 2% 3% 1% 4% Government services 2% 2% Health services 1% 1% 8% 1% 2% Voting, competitions, reality shows, etc 1% 1% 1% 5% 7% 1% 8% General information services 1% 1% 3% 2% 5% 11% Agricultural or fisheries information 1%
  • 27. Why don’t they use these services?
    • Don’t know how
    • Not applicable to me
    • Too expensive
      • When they're available free via other modes
      • Insufficient prepaid credit for transactions
    • … though services that the poor can and want to use are emerging; encouragement via app store models needed
  • 28. Improving price transparency through Tradenet (tradenet.dialog.lk)
    • Tradenet: Partnership between a not-for-profit company called Govi Gnana Seva (GGS) and Sri Lanka’s largest mobile operator (Dialog Axiata PLC)
    • Launched Dec 2009
    • GGS : main source of wholesale agricultural price information in the country
  • 29.
  • 30. An SLF assessment of the overall impacts of the service on farmers (over a one year period) SL Component Intervention Group Control Group Livelihood assets Financial An average PREMIUM OF 6.4% on average daily market prices An average LOSS OF 2.3% on average daily market prices Social Increase in interactions with traders, other farmer groups, relatives and neighbors; increased trust in market negotiations with traders. No increase in interactions Human Increased knowledge of price trends (their crops + new crops) No changes noted Vulnerabilities Reduced vulnerability to price volatility Not assessed Livelihood strategies
    • Chose harvesting and selling times based on price alerts;
    • Hoping to leverage their strategic advantage over farmers with lesser price information to grow higher value crops in the short term.
    Not assessed
  • 31. Prerequisites for "more-than-voice" mobile are in place:
    • Familiarity with the technology
      • Access and use
        • Easy access via mobiles or CDMA ‘fixed’ phones is most appropriate
    • Ownership
      • Only 40+% in the Indo-Gangetic Plain (world’s largest concentration of poor people) own a phone
      • Affordable but sophisticated handsets can aid uptake
    • Potential for use of “more-than-voice”
      • SMS is the most popular more-than-voice application
      • Willingness to try new services
      • Payment systems in place: e-reloads as “gateway” to advanced applications
  • 32. CONCLUSIONS
  • 33.
    • Mobiles can contribute to socioeconomic development objectives
      • Access to services (health, govt, information, etc)
      • Livelihood opportunities
    • BOP as individuals have low spending power, but, demand for services exists (current and future)
      • Poor Internet access strengthens the mobile proposition
    • Services need to be developed to cater to BOP
      • Prerequisites in place
      • Some barriers exist
  • 34. www.lirneasia.net (search term: BOP) F ull dataset available at http://lirneasia.net/projects/2008-2010/bop-teleuse-3/ Photos by CKS Consulting Pvt Ltd