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Exception

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  1. Java II--Copyright © 2001-2004 Tom Hunter
  2. Java II--Copyright © 2001-2004 Tom HunterChapter 14Exception Handling“If anything can go wrong, it will.”
  3. Java II--Copyright © 2001-2004 Tom Hunter• What is an “Exception”?14.1 Introduction: definition of termsexceptionexceptionAn event during program execution thatprevents the program from continuingnormally.Generally, an error.
  4. Java II--Copyright © 2001-2004 Tom Hunter• Other languages react to errors by crashingcrashing.• Java manages errors in a controlled way.• Java permits recovery, if at all possible.14.1 Introduction
  5. Java II--Copyright © 2001-2004 Tom Hunter• What users expect when an error happens:14.1 Introduction: user expectations—telltell them an error happened—savesave all their work-in-progress, if possible.—allowallow them to exit the program gracefully.
  6. Java II--Copyright © 2001-2004 Tom Hunter• In Java, when an error happens, we say anexception has been thrown.• Once an exception has been thrown, theJVM begins a searchbegins a search for some logic able tohandle the exception.14.1 Introduction: Overview of Java’s Approach
  7. Java II--Copyright © 2001-2004 Tom Hunter• The bit of logic able to handle the exceptionis called, naturally, an exception handlerexception handler.• When the JVM finds the right exceptionexceptionhandler,handler, we say the exception has beencaught.• Control is then transferred to thetransferred to the““catching blockcatching block.”14.1 Introduction: Overview of Java’s Approach
  8. Java II--Copyright © 2001-2004 Tom Hunter• The exception can be thrown by the JavaVirtual Machine—independent of theprogrammer’s control—or …• the programmer herselfherself can throw theerror, in response to some problem.14.1 Introduction: Who Can Throw An Exception
  9. Java II--Copyright © 2001-2004 Tom Hunter• Understand, exception handling is really a kindof Control Flow, akin to the ‘if’ and ‘switch’statements.• The rationalerationale is this: you want to avoidcluttering up your program with logic to handleerrors.• So, you move the error-handling logic off to aseparate place.14.1 Introduction
  10. Java II--Copyright © 2001-2004 Tom Hunteri.) Program is executing.ii.) Something goes wrong—i.e., zero division.iii.) JVM creates an Exception object.iv.) The Exception object contains informationabout the exception that occurred.v.) The Exception object is sent up the lineuntil it encounters someone who can catch it.14.1 Introduction: Error Handling SequenceThe possible "someones" who can handle the exception arethe methods in the call stack above where the erroroccurred.
  11. Java II--Copyright © 2001-2004 Tom Hunter• Question:What is an Exception object?• Answer:An instance of the class Throwable.• What makes something an instance of theclass Throwable?• Answer:Any class that extends the classThrowable, or whose Superclass extends thatclass.14.1 Introduction: the Exception Object
  12. Java II--Copyright © 2001-2004 Tom Hunter• Objects that are instances of throwable—which means they subclass it (if an interface) orimplement (if a class)—are eligible to be thrown bythe JVM in response to an error.• After an exception, the JVM worksbackwards up the chain [stack] of methodcalls, until it encounters a “handler” for theexception—or a Superclass of the exception—whichever it encounters first.14.1 Introduction: throwable
  13. Java II--Copyright © 2001-2004 Tom Hunter• This process of working back up the chainlooking for a handler is described this way:“Exceptions propagate error reportingup the call stack of methods.”14.1 Introduction: the call stack
  14. Java II--Copyright © 2001-2004 Tom Hunter• What constitutes a “handler” for a particularexception?exception handlerA block of code that reacts to a specific type ofexception.If the program can recover from the exception, theprogram will resume executing after the exception handler hasexecuted.14.1 Introduction: definition
  15. Java II--Copyright © 2001-2004 Tom HunterWhen To UseException Handling
  16. Java II--Copyright © 2001-2004 Tom Hunter• Warning! Exception handling shouldonly be used for exceptional situations.Your program must try to preventpreventexceptionsexceptions—with normal programmingtechniques—such as bounds checking on arraysor validation of input data.Exception Handling is the last line of defense.14.2 When to Use Exception Handling
  17. Java II--Copyright © 2001-2004 Tom HunterThe ClassificationofExceptions
  18. Java II--Copyright © 2001-2004 Tom HunterThe Classification of Exceptions• As we saw, an Exception is always an instanceof the interface Throwable.• You should try to prevent and catch allExceptions, but there is a branch of the classThrowable that you should never attempt tonever attempt tocatchcatch: instances of the class Error.
  19. Java II--Copyright © 2001-2004 Tom HunterThrowableThese describe program oruser mistakes. Theseexceptions shouldshould becaught.These describe internal errorsand resource exhaustioninside the JVM.These should NOT becaught because they are toomajor.Our starting point,interfaceThrowable.ErrorException
  20. Java II--Copyright © 2001-2004 Tom HunterThrowableErrorExceptionIOIOException RuntimeRuntimeException
  21. Java II--Copyright © 2001-2004 Tom HunterThrowableErrorExceptionIOIOException RuntimeRuntimeExceptionA RuntimeExceptionhappens because youyou made aprogramming error.Any other exceptionoccurs because a bad thingbeyond your controlbeyond your control (suchas an I/O error) happenedto your otherwise goodprogram.
  22. Java II--Copyright © 2001-2004 Tom Hunter• Examples of RuntimeExceptions:—A bad cast.—An out-of-bounds array access.—Attempting to access a null reference pointer.• Examples of NonNon RuntimeExceptions:—Trying to read past the end of a file.—Trying to open a malformed URL.
  23. Java II--Copyright © 2001-2004 Tom Huntertry,throw andcatch
  24. Java II--Copyright © 2001-2004 Tom Hunter• KeywordsJava supports exception handling with these keywords:try,throw andcatch.14.4 The Basics of Java Exception Handling
  25. Java II--Copyright © 2001-2004 Tom Hunterpublic class NoExceptionHandling{public static void main( String[] args ){int x = 1, y = 0, z = 0;z = x / y;System.out.println( “x/y = “ + z );}}This will never print, nor will it tellyou why it failed.The program just dies.It has no exception handling.Division by zero.
  26. Java II--Copyright © 2001-2004 Tom Hunterpublic class HasExceptionHandling{public static void main( String[] args ){int x = 1, y = 0, z = 0;try{z = x / y;System.out.println( “Not executed”);}catch( Exception e ){System.out.println( “Exception!”);}System.out.println( “x/y = “ + z );}}
  27. Java II--Copyright © 2001-2004 Tom Hunterpublic class HasExceptionHandling{public static void main( String[] args ){int x = 1, y = 0, z = 0;try{z = x / y;System.out.println( “Not executed”);}catch( Exception e ){System.out.println( “Exception!”);}System.out.println( “x/y = “ + z );}}Any code you think mightthrow an exception shouldbe enclosed in a “try”block.Every try block must be paired with at least one“catch” block—often more than one. The catchblock will be executed onlyonly if an exception occurs.When an exceptionhappens, the remainder ofthe try block isabandoned. Variables goout of scope. No return ispossible.
  28. Java II--Copyright © 2001-2004 Tom Hunterpublic class HasExceptionHandling{public static void main( String[] args ){int x = 1, y = 0, z = 0;try{z = x / y;}catch( Exception e ){System.out.println( “Exception!”);}System.out.println( “x/y = “ + z );}}The Sequence:i.) A particular exception occurs.ii.) The runtime system generatesan exception object that matchesthe exception that occurred.iii.) Then, the runtime systemgoes looking for the nearestcatch block that can handle thatthatspecific type of exceptionspecific type of exception.If the nearest catch block doesn’t match the exceptionthat happened, the runtime looks beyond this methodfor another catch block. But, in this case, Exceptionis the Superclass for all exceptions, so it always matches.Exception!x/y = 0
  29. Java II--Copyright © 2001-2004 Tom Hunterpublic class HasExceptionHandlingWrongCatch{public static void main( String[] args ){int x = 1, y = 0, z = 0;try{z = x / y;}catch( NullPointerException e ){System.out.println( “Exception”);}System.out.println( “x/y = “ + z );}}In thisthis case, however, the catch block is expecting a different typeof exception. So, thisthis catch block doesn’t catch the error. Theexception is NOT caught. The program crashes. The nextstatement after the catch block is not executed.
  30. Java II--Copyright © 2001-2004 Tom Hunterpublic class HasExceptionHandling{public static void main( String[] args ){int x = 1, y = 0, z = 0;try{z = x / y;}catch( NullPointerException npe ){System.out.println( “Null Exception!”);}catch( DivideByZeroException dbze ){System.out.println(“DivideByZeroException!” + dbze.toString() );}System.out.println( “Whoops!” );}}This one doesn’tmatch, so it is skipped.This one doesdoes match, soit isis executed.Since the exception was caught, execution can resume.
  31. Java II--Copyright © 2001-2004 Tom Hunter• Usually, many statements in your try block cancause exceptions and—since you can’t predictwhich one will pop—you place several differentcatch blocks after your one try block.The most specific catch blocks should belisted firstfirst and the generic Exception (which isthe Superclass to all exceptions) should be listed lastlast.14.4 The Basics of Java Exception Handling
  32. Java II--Copyright © 2001-2004 Tom Hunter• This whole process is known as the:“Termination modelTermination model of exception handling.”14.4 The Basics of Java Exception Handling: term• The place where the exception occurred is thethrow pointthrow point.• After an exception has occurred, executionabandons the try blockabandons the try block from the throw point on.• We say the block that threw the exceptionexpiresexpires.
  33. Java II--Copyright © 2001-2004 Tom HunterThefinallyBlock
  34. Java II--Copyright © 2001-2004 Tom HunterThe finally Block• Java exception handling offers a thirdoptionaloptional twist on the try-catch block:• The finally block offers you a place toput code that must always be executed nonomatter whatmatter what—exception or no exception.• Remember: if you use a try, then youmustmust use a catch .• The finally is optionaloptional .
  35. Java II--Copyright © 2001-2004 Tom Hunter• The finally block is like theMafiaMafia—if you invite it in your code,it’s there whether you end up needingit or not.• So, if your try block works perfectly—thenthe code in the finally block gets executed.• And… if your try block throws an exceptionand the catch block catches the exception—thenthe code in the finally block stillstill getsexecuted.The finally Block
  36. Java II--Copyright © 2001-2004 Tom Hunterpublic class HasFinallyBlockToo{public static void main( String[] args ){int x = 1, y = 0, z = 0;try{z = x / y;}catch( NullPointerException e ){System.out.println( “Exception”);}finally{System.out.println( “Always!”);}}}Always, Always Always executes!
  37. Java II--Copyright © 2001-2004 Tom HunterThe try Block:A Net Over aRabbit Hole
  38. Java II--Copyright © 2001-2004 Tom HunterA Net Over a Rabbit Hole• Obviously, a try block can catch an exceptionin the method where it’s located.• But, a try block can alsoalso catch an exception farfarremovedremoved from the method where it’s located—aslong as no other block in between catches it first.
  39. Java II--Copyright © 2001-2004 Tom Hunterpublic class GenericExceptionHandling{public static void main( String[] args ){try{// exception XYZ}catch( XYZ e ){System.out.println( “XYZ Happened”);}}}This is routine exception handling,which should now be familiar.
  40. Java II--Copyright © 2001-2004 Tom Hunterpublic class CatchesDistantException{public static void main( String[] args ){try{MyClass tom = new MyClass();tom.causesException();}catch( XYZ e ){System.out.println( “XYZ Happened”);}}}As long as our catch block is the first one to beencountered, it will catch XYZ exception throwndeep inside of tom.causesException();
  41. Java II--Copyright © 2001-2004 Tom HunterA Net Over a Rabbit Hole• Now, we will see a more complex example of theprevious example.• We will show how a method call far down themethod stack can:—throw an exception and—propagate the exception back up the callstack in search of a handler.
  42. Java II--Copyright © 2001-2004 Tom Hunterpublic class AException{public AException(){System.out.println( "Cnst: AException" );BException be = new BException();}public static void main(String[] args){AException ae = new AException();}}public class BException{public BException(){System.out.println( "Cnst: BException" );CException ce = new CException();try{ce.populateArray();}catch( ArrayIndexOutOfBoundsException e ){//do something}}}The pinkpink arrow will stayand wait, to illustrate thatthis method has not yetfinished executing. It hasopened another methodin the call stack.Now, the burgundyburgundy arrowwill wait with the pinkarrow, to show that nowtwo methods are “stacked”up (in the stack) waiting forthe execution of theirmethods to conclude.AException.main()AExceptionNow, the redred arrow willstay and wait, to illustratethat this method has notyet finished executing. Ithas opened yet anothermethod in the call stack.BException
  43. Java II--Copyright © 2001-2004 Tom Hunterpublic class CException{int[] intArray = new int[3];public CException(){System.out.println( "Cnst: CException" );}public void populateArray() throws ArrayIndexOutOfBoundsException{intArray[0] = 100;intArray[1] = 101;intArray[2] = 102;intArray[3] = 103;}}AException.main()AExceptionBExceptionThese are the methodcalls from the otherclasses still waiting.
  44. Java II--Copyright © 2001-2004 Tom Hunterpublic class BException{public BException(){System.out.println( "Cnst: BException" );CException ce = new CException();try{ce.populateArray();}catch( ArrayIndexOutOfBoundsException e ){//do something}}}public class AException{public AException(){System.out.println( "Cnst: AException" );BException be = new BException();}public static void main(String[] args){AException ae = new AException();}}AException.main()AExceptionBExceptionSince the red Constructormethod of CExceptionfinished, this line in thestack trace goes away.Now, in the try block, we goback to the instance of classCException we justinstantiated to execute itsmethod populateArray()
  45. Java II--Copyright © 2001-2004 Tom Hunterpublic class CException{int[] intArray = new int[3];public CException(){System.out.println( "Cnst: CException" );}public void populateArray() throws ArrayIndexOutOfBoundsException{intArray[0] = 100;intArray[1] = 101;intArray[2] = 102;intArray[3] = 103;}}AException.main()AExceptionThese are the methodcalls from the otherclasses still waiting.100 101 102ArrayIndexOutOfBoundsException !
  46. Java II--Copyright © 2001-2004 Tom Hunterpublic class BException{public BException(){System.out.println( "Cnst: BException" );CException ce = new CException();try{ce.populateArray();}catch( ArrayIndexOutOfBoundsException e ){//do something}}}public class AException{public AException(){System.out.println( "Cnst: AException" );BException be = new BException();}public static void main(String[] args){AException ae = new AException();}}AException.main()AExceptionSince the try blockthrew an exception,when we propagate outof the called method, theJVM immediately looksfor an appropriatecatch block.After the thrownexception has beensuccessfully caught, theBException()constructor can finish.
  47. Java II--Copyright © 2001-2004 Tom Hunterpublic class AException{public AException(){System.out.println( "Cnst: AException" );BException be = new BException();}public static void main(String[] args){AException ae = new AException();}}AException.main()And lastly, theAException thatstarted it all can finishand we’re back where westarted.sCnst: AExceptionCnst: BExceptionCnst: CExceptionException: ArrayIndexOutOfBoundsExceptionAfter method populateArray()
  48. Java II--Copyright © 2001-2004 Tom HunterAdvisory: although we used the RuntimeExceptionArrayIndexOutOfBoundsException for this example, infact this is one you should prevent through good old fashionedbounds checking, rather than allowing it to throw an exception.Still, it makes for a good example.
  49. Java II--Copyright © 2001-2004 Tom HunterExceptionHandling:Limitations
  50. Java II--Copyright © 2001-2004 Tom Hunter• Exception-handling can onlycope with synchronous errors—ones that occur in the executionstep as it is currently beingexecuted.Exception Handling: Limitations
  51. Java II--Copyright © 2001-2004 Tom HunterException Handling: Limitations• Exception Handling isnotnot able to cope withasynchronous errors—ones that only becomeapparent after a period ofwaiting, such as whilewaiting for a disk I/Oread to happen.
  52. Java II--Copyright © 2001-2004 Tom HunterParsingtheException Object
  53. Java II--Copyright © 2001-2004 Tom HunterParsing the Exception Object• In your catch block, it is customary to inspectand utilize the information about the exceptioncontained in the Exception object.
  54. Java II--Copyright © 2001-2004 Tom Hunter…try{//something bad happens here}catch( NullPointerException e ){System.out.println( “NullPointerException” +e.toString() );}When the runtime system creates the exceptionobject, the reference (here named ‘e’) containseverything that is known about the exception. Byusing its toString() method, we reveal thatinformation.
  55. Java II--Copyright © 2001-2004 Tom HunterException Handling• Above all, Exception Handling is an opportunityto do something—it gives you the chance tointervene, but it is up to youyou to plan what happenswhen a specific exception is thrown.
  56. Java II--Copyright © 2001-2004 Tom Hunter…try{//something bad happens here}catch( Exception e ){}What have we done here?Defeated The Exception HandlingMechanism! The program willresume executing as if noexception occurred!
  57. Java II--Copyright © 2001-2004 Tom HunterException Handling• In a console program—one that runs in the DOSwindow or UNIX shell—an unhandled exceptionresults in the program terminating.• A GUI program can go on executing even after anunhandled exception—but producing incorrect andunpredictable results in the process.Moral of the Story?In a GUI program—be especiallyespecially careful tohandle your errors intelligently.
  58. Java II--Copyright © 2001-2004 Tom HunterTheCausesofExceptions
  59. Java II--Copyright © 2001-2004 Tom HunterThe Causes of Exceptions• An Exception is Thrown for One of Three Reasons:1.—An abnormal execution condition was synchronouslydetected by the Java Virtual Machine.Possible Causes:—Evaluation of an expression violates the rules of theJava Language, such as an integer divide by zero, etc.—An error occurs in loading or linking the Java program.—Some limitation in a resource is exceeded, such asusing too much memory.
  60. Java II--Copyright © 2001-2004 Tom HunterThe Causes of Exceptions• An Exception is Thrown for One of Three Reasons:2.—A throw statement was executed in Java codePossible Causes:—The program execution met an error that had beenexpected.
  61. Java II--Copyright © 2001-2004 Tom HunterThe Causes of Exceptions• An Exception is Thrown for One of Three Reasons:3.—An asynchronous exception occurred.Possible Causes:—The method stop() of class Thread was invoked.—An internal error has occurred in the virtual machine.
  62. Java II--Copyright © 2001-2004 Tom HunterHow to re-re-throwYour OwnExceptions
  63. Java II--Copyright © 2001-2004 Tom HunterHow to re-re-throw Your Own Exceptions• Usually, the JVM decides when to throw anexception.• But, the programmer herself can choose when tothrow an exception.• Also, if your catch block handles an exception butthen decides it really can’t handle itdecides it really can’t handle it, you can includelogic in your catch block to re-throw the exceptionre-throw the exception toa handler higher up in the call stack.
  64. Java II--Copyright © 2001-2004 Tom Huntertry{// Some processing here—no exception thoughtry{// a DoodlebugException occurs here.}catch( DoodlebugException e ){// some exception processing...System.out.println( “Doodlebug exception” );throw new BugException();}}catch( BugException e ){System.out.println( “BugException!” +e.toString() );}Firstly, we are within the blue try block.After some ok processing, we’re in the red try block.We’re able to dologic in the catchblock, but for somereason, theprogrammer thoughtit was necessary torethrowrethrow theexception object ‘e’After the rethrow, the exception is handled by thenearest enclosingenclosing catch block that is able to handle it.
  65. Java II--Copyright © 2001-2004 Tom HunterHow to re-re-throw Your Own Exceptions• A method is not permitted to throw an exceptionof its own unless you specify in the method signaturewhich specific Exceptions it throws.
  66. Java II--Copyright © 2001-2004 Tom HunterCompile-TimeCheckingofExceptions
  67. Java II--Copyright © 2001-2004 Tom HunterCompile-Time Checking of Exceptions• If a method or constructor method announcesthat it has the ability to throw a certain type ofexception, then the compiler checks to see ifthere are exception handlers in place to dealwith those announced exceptions.The throws clause for the method must mentionthe class of that exception, or one of theSuperclasses of the exception that the method canthrow.
  68. Java II--Copyright © 2001-2004 Tom HunterCompile-Time Checking of Exceptions• Exceptions that are explicitly announced asbeing possible by methods or constructors areknown as...“checked exceptions.”
  69. Java II--Copyright © 2001-2004 Tom HunterCompile-Time Checking of Exceptions• The other kinds of exceptions are known as“unchecked exceptions.”These come from the class RuntimeExceptionand its subclasses, and from the class Error and itssubclasses.All other exception classes are checked exceptionclasses.
  70. Java II--Copyright © 2001-2004 Tom HunterCompile-Time Checking of Exceptions• Why Errors are not checked:Error and its subclasses are exemptfrom compile-time checking because they areunpredictable.They can occur anywhere so it wouldneedlessly clutter up your program if youattempted to catch them.Also, more importantly, no recovery isever possible from an Error .
  71. Java II--Copyright © 2001-2004 Tom HunterCompile-Time Checking of Exceptions• Why RuntimeExceptions are not checked:These problems are usually beyond theprogrammer’s control. Thus, it would be aneedless irritation to the programmer if she wasforced to catch these.
  72. Java II--Copyright © 2001-2004 Tom Hunterpublic class TestException{public static void main( String[] args ){int[] a = new int[2];a[0] = 1;a[1] = 2;a[3] = 3;System.out.println( “Array a[2]=” + a[2] );}}As you can see, this mainmethod is ripe for an exception.And, as expected, when weexecute it, we will see thefollowing:
  73. Java II--Copyright © 2001-2004 Tom HunterThe JVM encountered anuncaught exception.This was where the JVM was when itmet the uncaught exception.
  74. Java II--Copyright © 2001-2004 Tom Hunterpublic static void main( String[] args ){int[] a = new int[2];try{a[0] = 1;a[1] = 2;a[2] = 3;System.out.println( "Array a[2]=" + a[2] );}catch( ArrayIndexOutOfBoundsException e ){System.out.println( "Do something here" + e );}}This is our array. It hastwo slots available.This statement will attempt to use anon-existent 3rd slot in our array.
  75. Java II--Copyright © 2001-2004 Tom Hunter
  76. Java II--Copyright © 2001-2004 Tom HunterClicking on the “e” exceptionobject, we see exactly the kindthat was thrown.
  77. Java II--Copyright © 2001-2004 Tom HunterThe Stack Dump:When YourcatchMisses
  78. Java II--Copyright © 2001-2004 Tom HunterThe Stack Dump• If an unexpected exception occurs, then yourcarefully-planned catch block will fail to capture theexception.• In this case, your console will fill with a stack dump:041.453 1024 HttpTransport X IO.Errorjava.net.SocketException: Connection reset by peerjava.lang.Throwable(java.lang.String)java.lang.Exception(java.lang.String)java.io.IOException(java.lang.String)java.net.SocketException(java.lang.String)void java.net.SocketOutputStream.socketWrite(byte [], int, int)void java.net.SocketOutputStream.write(byte [], int, int)void com.ibm.servlet.engine.http_transport.HttpTransportConnection.write(byte [], int, int)void com.ibm.servlet.engine.http_transport.HttpTransportConnection.prepareForWrite(int, java.lang.String, java.lang.String[])void com.ibm.servlet.engine.srp.SRPConnection.prepareForWrite(int, java.lang.String, java.lang.String [], java.lang.String[])void com.ibm.servlet.engine.srt.SRTServletResponse.commit()void com.ibm.servlet.engine.srt.SRTServletResponse.alertFirstWrite()void com.ibm.servlet.engine.srt.SRTOutputStream.write(byte [], int, int)void java.io.OutputStreamWriter.write(char [], int, int)void java.io.PrintWriter.write(char [], int, int)void com.ibm.servlet.engine.webapp.BufferedWriter.writeOut(char [], int, int)void com.ibm.servlet.engine.webapp.BufferedWriter.write(char [], int, int)void java.io.PrintWriter.write(char [], int, int)void com.sun.jsp.runtime.JspWriterImpl.flushBuffer()

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