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Energy transfer and storage

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  • 1. SCIENCE You need to know about.
  • 2. ENERGY TRANSFER AND STORAGE • Energy can be transferred from one place to another in many different forms. We'll also see what renewable and non-renewable sources are and how energy is generated from them. Introduction This Revision Bite covers: •Energy basics •Energy transfer diagrams •Heat and temperature •Transfer of thermal energy •Non-renewable •Renewable resources •Saving energy
  • 3. ENERGY BASICS • Energy can be stored or transferred from place to place in different ways. Let's look at • Kinetic energy Moving things have kinetic energy. The heavier a thing is and the faster it moves the more kinetic energy it has. All moving things have kinetic energy, even very large things, like planets, and very small ones, like atoms.
  • 4. ENERGY BASICS • Sound energy • children playing drum • A vibrating drum and a plucked guitar string transfer energy to the air as sound. Kinetic energy from the moving air molecules transfers the sound energy to your eardrum.
  • 5. ENERGY BASICS • Thermal energy • cup of tea • Thermal energy is what we call energy that comes from heat. A cup of hot tea has thermal energy in the form of kinetic energy from its particles. Some of this energy is transferred to the particles in cold milk, which you pour in to make the tea cooler.
  • 6. ENERGY BASICS Chemical energy explosion near a fence Some chemical reactions release energy. For example, when an explosive goes off, chemical energy stored in it is transferred to the surroundings as thermal energy, sound energy and kinetic energy.
  • 7. ENERGY BASICS • Electrical energy • Diagram showing a bulb and a battery • Bulb and battery • A battery transfers stored chemical energy as electrical energy in moving charges in wires. For example, electrical energy is transferred to the surroundings by the lamp as light energy and thermal energy.
  • 8. ENERGY BASICS • Gravitational potential energy • rock balancing on a cliff • South Bubble mountain, USA • A rock on a mountain has stored energy because of its position above the ground and the pull of gravity. This energy is called gravitational potential energy. This is the energy it would release if it fell. As the rock falls to the ground, the gravitational potential energy is transferred as kinetic energy.
  • 9. ENERGY BASICS • Energy transfer diagrams • Energy transfer diagrams show the locations of energy stores and energy transfers. For example, consider the energy transfers in the simple electrical circuit below. We can show the transfers like this: • Battery (store of chemical energy) - energy is transferred as electrical energy to a lamp energy is transferred as light energy to the surroundings • The battery is a store of chemical energy. The energy is transferred by electricity to the lamp, which transfers the energy to the surroundings by light. These are the useful energy transfers - we use electric lamps to light up our rooms. • But there are also energy transfers that are not useful to us. In the example above, the lamp also transfers energy to the surroundings by heating. If we include this energy transfer, the diagram looks like this
  • 10. ENERGY BASICS Sankey diagrams Sankey diagrams summarise all the energy transfers taking place in a process. The thicker the line or arrow, the greater the amount of energy involved. This Sankey diagram for the lamp shows that it transfers most of the energy by heating, rather than by light: Notice that the total amount of energy transferred to the surroundings is the same as the amount of electrical energy. We say that the energy has been conserved. Energy is always conserved, it is never "lost" or "wasted", although some energy transfers are useful and some are not.
  • 11. HEAT AND TEMPRATURE • Heat and temperature • Heat and temperature are not the same thing, although both are concerned withHeat • The heat an object contains is the amount of its thermal energy, measured in joules or J. • Temperature • The temperature of an object is to do with how hot or cold it is, measured in degrees Celsius. Note that the unit of temperature is written as °C, (not °c or oC). • thermal energy.
  • 12. HEAT AND TEMPERATURE • A thermometer is used to measure the temperature of an object • Let's look at two examples to see the difference between heat and temperature. • Example 1 • A swimming pool at 30°C is at a lower temperature than a cup of tea at 80°C. But the swimming pool contains more water, so it stores more thermal energy than the cup of tea. • Example 2 • To boil water we must increase its temperature to 100°C. It takes longer to boil a large beaker of water than a small beaker because the large beaker contains more water and needs more thermal energy to reach 100°C.
  • 13. HEAT AND TEMPERATURE
  • 14. THERMAL ENERGY TRANSFER • Thermal energy transfer • Thermal energy can be transferred by: • conduction • convection • radiation • Conduction • When a substance is heated, its particles gain energy and vibrate more vigorously. The particles bump into nearby particles and make them vibrate more. This passes the thermal energy through the substance by conduction, from the hot end to the cold end
  • 15. STAGE IN CONDUCTION
  • 16. • This is how the handle of a metal spoon soon gets hot when the spoon is put into a hot drink. • Substances that allow thermal energy to move easily through them are called conductors. Metals are good conductors of thermal energy. • Substances that do not allow thermal energy to move through them easily are called insulators. Air and plastics are insulators. • Convection • The particles in liquids and gases can move from place to place. Convection happens when particles with a lot of thermal energy in a liquid or gas move, and take the place of particles with less thermal energy. Thermal energy is transferred from hot places to cold places by convection.
  • 17. THERMAL ENERGY TRANSFER • Radiation • All objects transfer thermal energy by infrared radiation. The hotter an object is, the more infrared radiation it gives off. • No particles are involved in radiation, unlike conduction and convection. This means that thermal energy transfer by radiation can even work in space, but conduction and convection cannot. • Radiation is how we can feel the heat of the Sun, even though it is millions of kilometres away in space. • Infrared cameras give images even in the dark, because they are detecting heat, not visible light. • Conduction and convection need moving particles to transfer the thermal energy, but radiation does not.
  • 18. NON RENEWABLE • Non-renewable • We get energy from many different types of energy resources, including fuels, food and stores of energy such as batteries or the wind. We can divide energy resources into two categories: non-renewable and renewable. • Non-renewable energy resources cannot be replaced once they are all used up. • Renewable energy resources can be replaced, and will not run out. • On the this page we'll look at non-renewable resources
  • 19. NON RENEWABLE • Fossil fuels • cast coal mine • Open cast coal mining • Coal, oil and natural gas are called fossil fuels. They formed millions of years ago from the remains of living things. Coal was formed from plants. Oil and natural gas were formed from sea creatures. • The energy stored in the fossil fuels originally came from sunlight. Plants used light energy from the Sun for photosynthesis to make their chemicals. This stored chemical energy was transferred to stored chemical energy in animals that ate the plants. When the living things died, they were gradually buried by layers of rock. The buried remains were put under pressure and chemical reactions heated them up. They gradually changed into the fossil fuels. • When the remains of the plants and animals became fossil fuels, their chemical energy was stored in the fuels. The energy is transferred to the surroundings as thermal energy and light energy when the fuels burn. • Once we have used them all up, they will take millions of years to replace, if they can be replaced at all. For this reason we call fossil fuels non-renewable energy resources.
  • 20. RENEWABLE RESOURCES • Renewable resources • Renewable energy resources can be replaced, and will not run out. Be careful - it is not true to say that they can be re-used. • Biomass • Biomass fuels come from living things. Wood is a biomass fuel. As long as we continue to plant new trees to replace those cut down, we will always have wood to burn. Just as with the fossil fuels, the energy stored in biomass fuels came originally from the Sun. • Wind power • A wind turbine - the nacelle turns the blades using a generator. The nacelle and the blades are held up by the tower, and the tower is supported by foundations • Wind is caused by huge convection currents in the Earth's atmosphere, driven by heat energy from the Sun. The moving air has huge amounts of kinetic energy, and this can be transferred into electrical energy using wind turbines. Wind turbines cannot work if there is no wind, or if the wind speed is so high it would damage them.
  • 21. RENEWABLE RESOURCES • Water power • Moving water has kinetic energy. This can be transferred into useful energy in different ways. For example: • wave machines use the up and down movement of waves to turn electricity generators • tidal barrages are built across the mouths of rivers. As water moves in or out of the river mouth when the tide turns, the kinetic energy in the water is used to turn electricity generators. • Hydroelectric power (HEP) schemes store water high up in dams. The water has gravitational potential energy which is released when it falls. As the water rushes down through pipes, this stored energy is transferred to kinetic energy, which turns electricity generators. • An energy transfer diagram for an HEP scheme:
  • 22. RENEWABLE RESOURCES Geothermal In some places the rocks underground are hot. Deep wells can be drilled and cold water pumped down. The water runs through fractures in the rocks and is heated up. It returns to the surface as hot water and steam, where its energy can be used to drive turbines and electricity generators. Solar panels Solar cells Solar cells are devices that convert light energy directly into electrical energy. You may have seen small solar cells on calculators. Larger arrays of solar cells are used to power road signs, and even larger arrays are used to power satellites in orbit around Earth. Solar panels are different to solar cells. Solar panels do not generate electricity. Instead they heat up water directly. A pump pushes cold water from a storage tank through pipes in the solar panel. The water is heated by heat energy from the Sun and returns to the tank. They are often located on the roofs of buildings where they can receive the most sunlight.
  • 23. SAVING ENERGY • Generating electricity • Electricity can be generated in many ways, including: • in power stations using fossil fuels or biomass fuel • using wind turbines • using hydroelectric power schemes • using wave power or tidal power • using solar cells.
  • 24. SAVING ENERGY • Most of the UK's electricity is generated in power stations using fossil fuels. Thermal energy released from the burning fuel is used to boil water to make steam, which expands and turns turbines. These drive the generators to produce electricity.
  • 25. SAVING ENERGY • 1.the fuel is burned to boil water to make steam • 2.the steam makes a turbine spin • 3.the spinning turbine turns a generator which produces electricity • 4.the electricity goes to the transformers to produce the correct voltage
  • 26. SAVING ENERGY • As the fossil fuels are non-renewable energy resources, and they also produce pollution when they burn, we are aiming to produce more of our electricity using other, renewable energy resources. This will reduce the rate at which the fossil fuels are used up. • Reducing energy use • We can also reduce the rate at which the fossil fuels are used up by saving energy. For example, we can: • walk to instead of getting using cars where possible • turn down the heating • turn off the lights when leaving the room