IPv4 to IPv6
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IPv4 to IPv6

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Various technologies in IPv4 and IPv6.It also includes the relationships between these two and migration from previous to later

Various technologies in IPv4 and IPv6.It also includes the relationships between these two and migration from previous to later

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  • 1. Advanced Networking and ApplicationsCST 451-1
    UvaWellassa University
    Badulla
    Sri Lanka
  • 2. Contents
    IP4
    Problems of IP4
    Network address translation
    IPV6
    What’s Good about IP6
    IPv6 address notation
    Types of addresses
    IPV4 address in IP6
    IPv6 unicast
    IPv6 multicast
    IPv6 anycast
    IPv6 special address
    IPv6 ready applications
    Transition plan
    Migration to IPv6
    Communication between ipv4 and IPv6
  • 3. IPv4
    Forth revision of development of Internet Protocol(IP)
    Most widely used protocol at present
    Connection-less protocol used on packet-switched Link Layer networks
    A system of addresses
    To identify devices
    32 bits
    232 combinations
    Nearly 4.3 billion
    Not enough and more addresses are needed
  • 4. Problems of IPv4
    1.Insuffieciency
    - Only four bytes
    Maximum nodes ~ 4.3 billion
    Much less than the human population (6.799 billion)
    • Not enough for growing number of users
    • 5. Will be exhausted in near future
    2.Increasing routing information
    - Rapid growth of routing tables in backbones
    3. Increasing the number of Network Address Translation (NAT) - Breaking the Internet architecture
  • 6. Problems of IPv4
    4.Security issues
    - Number of ways to encrypt IPv4 traffic
    Example: IPSec
    - No real standard encryption method
    5.Real-time delivery of multimedia content and necessary bandwidth allocation
    Quality of Service (QoS)
    Different interpretations
    QoS compliant devices are not compatible one another
  • 7. Network Address Translation(NAT)
    Allows to maintain public IP addresses and private IP addresses separately
    Also used in server load balancing
    This operates in side the router
    Maintains an address pool
    First the destination is checked
    The address is translated
    The network address information in the datagram is modified
  • 8. How NAT works???
    NAT
  • 9. IPv6
    Next development version of Internet protocol
    Address size is 128 bits
    IPv6 address representation
    xxxx:xxxx:xxxx:xxxx:xxxx:xxxx:xxxx:xxxx
    Each x is a 4bit hexadecimal digit
    IPv6 addresses range from 0000:0000:0000:0000:0000:0000:0000:0000 to ffff:ffff:ffff:ffff:ffff:ffff:ffff:ffff.
  • 10. IPv6
    Two other formats
    Omit leading zeros
    Specify IPv6 addresses by omitting leading zeros
    E.g. : 1050:0000:0000:0000:0005:0600:300c:326b can be written as 1050:0:0:0:5:600:300c:326b
    Double colon
    Specify IPv6 addresses by using double colons (::) in place of a series of zeros
    E.g. : ff06:0:0:0:0:0:0:c3 may be written as ff06::c3
    Double colons can be used only once in one IP address
  • 11. What’s Good about IPv6?
    Bigger address space
    128 bits for addressing
    No NATs are needed
    Allows full IP connectivity
    For Computers, Mobile devices
    Mobility
    Facility for mobile devices
    Allows roaming between different networks
  • 12. What’s Good about IPv6?
    Built-in security
    Includes Ipsec
    Authentication
    Encryption
    Compression
  • 13. IPv6 address notation
    Three possible notation types
    Depends on content of address you need represent
    1.Standard notation - Represent the address as eight 16-bit hexadecimal words separated by ``:'' (colons)
    - E.g : FEDC:BA98:0332:0000:CF8A:000C:2154:7313 or
    FEDC:BA98:332:0:CF8A:C:2154:7313.
    2.Compressed notation - Multiple fields of zeros
    - Represent a single contiguous group of zero fields within an IPv6 address
    - Uses a double colon``::‘’
    - E.g.: 1762:0:0:0:0:B03:1:AF18 FF01:0:0:0:CA:0:0:2 0:0:0:0:0:0:0:1:0:0:0:0:0:0:0 can be represented as
    1762::B03:1:AF18 FF01::CA:0:0:2 ::1 ::
  • 14. IPv6 address notation
    Mixed notation
    For IPv4 addresses encapsulated in IPv6 addresses
    Represented using the original IPv4 ``.'' notation
    0:0:0:0:0:0:127.32.67.15
    0:0:0:0:0:FFFF:127.32.67.15
    Possible to use the compressed notation
    ::127.32.67.15
    ::FFFF:127.32.67.15
  • 15. Types of addresses
    s
    g
    g
    d
    s
    g
    a
    a
    s
    a
    • unicast
    • 16. communicate specified 1 computer
    • 17. multicast
    • 18. communicate group of computers
    • 19. anycast
    • 20. send group address that can receive multiple computers,but receive 1 computer
    unicast
    anycast
    multicast
  • 21. IPv4 address in IPv6
    IPv6 site is island surrounded IPv4 ocean
    connect IPv6 island each other
    encapsulate IPv6 packet in IPv4 packet
    threat as IPv4 as data link layer
    IPv4 ocean
    IPv6 in IPv4 packet
    IPv6 site
    IPv6 site
    IPv6 site
  • 22. IPv6 in IPv4 Tunnel
    IPv6 Site
    IPv6 Site
    IPv4 Internet
    IPv6 Site
  • 23. IPv6 Unicast
    To transmit data from one point to another.
    Multiple users might request
    Same data
    From the same server
    At the same time
    duplicate data streams are transmitted one to each user
    Scope may be Global or Local
    Global for worldwide communication
    Local for communication within a site
  • 24. Server
    Router
    Ethernet Switch
    Figure 01: How unicast works
  • 25. IPv6 multicast
    Ability to send a single packet to multiple destinations
    No broadcast
    Ability to send a packet to all hosts on the attached link
    same effect can be achieved by sending a packet to the link-local all hosts multicast group
    Applications
    Telephony and video conference
    Database simultaneous update
    Parallel computing
    Real time news
  • 26. Server
    Router
    Ethernet Switch
    Figure 02: How multicast works
  • 27. IPv6 anycast
    Uses Anycast address
    Identifies a set of nodes
    Packet will reach only one out of many (usually, topologically closest one)
    Anycast address can be assigned to routers only
    Anycast address cannot be used as a source
  • 28. IPv6 special addresses
    Four basic types of "special" IPv6 addresses
    reserved
    private
    loopback
    unspecified.
    Reserved Addresses
    Reserved block is at the “top” of the address space:
    Starting with “0000 0000”
    • Private Addresses
    Called local-use addresses or link-layer addresses.
    No NATs
    So local-use addresses are intended for communication inherently designed only to be sent to local devices.
  • 29. IPv6 special address
    Loopback Address
    A special loopback address for testing
    Datagrams sent to this address “loop back” to the sending device
    The loopback address is 0:0:0:0:0:0:0:1or as “::1”
    Ping ::1
    Should answer myself
  • 30. IPv6 ready applications
    Handles  ":"  in  address  correctly
    Handles  IPv4  and  IPv6  addresses
    % ftp ftp.kame.net
    % ftp 3ffe:501:4819:2000:5254:ff:fedc:50d2
  • 31. Transition plan
    Current status
    Only IPv4
    Phase I
    IPv4/v6 Dual node
    IPv4 address in IPv6 address format
    IPv6 tunneling on the IPv4 Network
    Phase II
    Combination of IPv6 infrastructure and IPv4 infrastructure
    Translate between IPv4/v6 each other(optional)
    More IPv6 nodes
  • 32. Migration to IPv6
    dual stack
    Involves running IPv4 and IPv6 at the same time
    End nodes and routers/switches run both protocols
    Tunnel
    To carry one protocol inside another
    Take IPv6 packets and encapsulate them in IPv4 packets to be sent across portions of the IPv4 networks
    Translator
    Protocol translation (NAT-PT) simply translate IPv6 packets into IPv4 packets.
  • 33. Figure 03 Two popular Migration Strategies
  • 34. IPv6/IPv4-dual
    (IPv4 compat. addr.)
    IPv4-only
    translationrouter
    IPv6-only
    (IPv4 compat. addr.)
    IPv4-only
    IPv6-only
    (IPv6 addr.)
    IPv4-only
    Communication between IPV4 and IPv6
    TCP
    relay