IPv4 to IPv6


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Various technologies in IPv4 and IPv6.It also includes the relationships between these two and migration from previous to later

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IPv4 to IPv6

  1. 1. Advanced Networking and ApplicationsCST 451-1<br />UvaWellassa University <br />Badulla<br />Sri Lanka<br />
  2. 2. Contents<br />IP4<br />Problems of IP4<br />Network address translation<br />IPV6<br />What’s Good about IP6<br />IPv6 address notation<br />Types of addresses<br />IPV4 address in IP6<br />IPv6 unicast<br />IPv6 multicast<br />IPv6 anycast<br />IPv6 special address<br />IPv6 ready applications<br />Transition plan<br />Migration to IPv6<br />Communication between ipv4 and IPv6<br />
  3. 3. IPv4<br />Forth revision of development of Internet Protocol(IP)<br />Most widely used protocol at present<br />Connection-less protocol used on packet-switched Link Layer networks<br />A system of addresses<br />To identify devices<br />32 bits<br />232 combinations<br />Nearly 4.3 billion<br />Not enough and more addresses are needed<br />
  4. 4. Problems of IPv4<br />1.Insuffieciency<br />- Only four bytes<br />Maximum nodes ~ 4.3 billion<br />Much less than the human population (6.799 billion)<br /><ul><li>Not enough for growing number of users
  5. 5. Will be exhausted in near future</li></ul>2.Increasing routing information<br />- Rapid growth of routing tables in backbones<br />3. Increasing the number of Network Address Translation (NAT) - Breaking the Internet architecture<br />
  6. 6. Problems of IPv4<br />4.Security issues <br /> - Number of ways to encrypt IPv4 traffic<br />Example: IPSec<br /> - No real standard encryption method<br />5.Real-time delivery of multimedia content and necessary bandwidth allocation<br />Quality of Service (QoS) <br />Different interpretations<br />QoS compliant devices are not compatible one another<br />
  7. 7. Network Address Translation(NAT)<br />Allows to maintain public IP addresses and private IP addresses separately<br />Also used in server load balancing<br />This operates in side the router<br />Maintains an address pool<br />First the destination is checked<br />The address is translated <br />The network address information in the datagram is modified<br />
  8. 8. How NAT works???<br />NAT<br />
  9. 9. IPv6<br />Next development version of Internet protocol<br />Address size is 128 bits<br />IPv6 address representation <br />xxxx:xxxx:xxxx:xxxx:xxxx:xxxx:xxxx:xxxx<br />Each x is a 4bit hexadecimal digit<br /> IPv6 addresses range from 0000:0000:0000:0000:0000:0000:0000:0000 to ffff:ffff:ffff:ffff:ffff:ffff:ffff:ffff.<br />
  10. 10. IPv6<br />Two other formats<br />Omit leading zeros <br />Specify IPv6 addresses by omitting leading zeros<br />E.g. : 1050:0000:0000:0000:0005:0600:300c:326b can be written as 1050:0:0:0:5:600:300c:326b<br />Double colon <br />Specify IPv6 addresses by using double colons (::) in place of a series of zeros<br />E.g. : ff06:0:0:0:0:0:0:c3 may be written as ff06::c3<br /> Double colons can be used only once in one IP address<br />
  11. 11. What’s Good about IPv6?<br />Bigger address space<br />128 bits for addressing<br />No NATs are needed<br />Allows full IP connectivity<br />For Computers, Mobile devices <br />Mobility<br />Facility for mobile devices <br />Allows roaming between different networks<br />
  12. 12. What’s Good about IPv6?<br />Built-in security<br />Includes Ipsec<br />Authentication<br />Encryption<br />Compression <br />
  13. 13. IPv6 address notation<br />Three possible notation types<br />Depends on content of address you need represent<br />1.Standard notation - Represent the address as eight 16-bit hexadecimal words separated by ``:&apos;&apos; (colons)<br /> - E.g : FEDC:BA98:0332:0000:CF8A:000C:2154:7313 or<br /> FEDC:BA98:332:0:CF8A:C:2154:7313.<br />2.Compressed notation - Multiple fields of zeros<br /> - Represent a single contiguous group of zero fields within an IPv6 address<br /> - Uses a double colon``::‘’<br /> - E.g.: 1762:0:0:0:0:B03:1:AF18 FF01:0:0:0:CA:0:0:2 0:0:0:0:0:0:0:1:0:0:0:0:0:0:0 can be represented as<br />1762::B03:1:AF18 FF01::CA:0:0:2 ::1 :: <br />
  14. 14. IPv6 address notation<br />Mixed notation <br />For IPv4 addresses encapsulated in IPv6 addresses<br />Represented using the original IPv4 ``.&apos;&apos; notation <br />0:0:0:0:0:0: <br />0:0:0:0:0:FFFF:<br />Possible to use the compressed notation<br />::<br />::FFFF:<br />
  15. 15. Types of addresses<br />s<br />g<br />g<br />d<br />s<br />g<br />a<br />a<br />s<br />a<br /><ul><li>unicast
  16. 16. communicate specified 1 computer
  17. 17. multicast
  18. 18. communicate group of computers
  19. 19. anycast
  20. 20. send group address that can receive multiple computers,but receive 1 computer</li></ul>unicast<br />anycast<br />multicast<br />
  21. 21. IPv4 address in IPv6<br />IPv6 site is island surrounded IPv4 ocean<br />connect IPv6 island each other<br />encapsulate IPv6 packet in IPv4 packet<br /> threat as IPv4 as data link layer<br />IPv4 ocean<br />IPv6 in IPv4 packet<br />IPv6 site<br />IPv6 site<br />IPv6 site<br />
  22. 22. IPv6 in IPv4 Tunnel<br />IPv6 Site<br />IPv6 Site<br />IPv4 Internet<br />IPv6 Site<br />
  23. 23. IPv6 Unicast<br />To transmit data from one point to another.<br />Multiple users might request<br />Same data <br />From the same server <br />At the same time<br /> duplicate data streams are transmitted one to each user<br />Scope may be Global or Local<br />Global for worldwide communication<br />Local for communication within a site<br />
  24. 24. Server<br />Router<br />Ethernet Switch<br />Figure 01: How unicast works<br />
  25. 25. IPv6 multicast<br />Ability to send a single packet to multiple destinations<br />No broadcast<br />Ability to send a packet to all hosts on the attached link<br />same effect can be achieved by sending a packet to the link-local all hosts multicast group<br />Applications<br />Telephony and video conference<br />Database simultaneous update<br />Parallel computing<br />Real time news<br />
  26. 26. Server<br />Router<br />Ethernet Switch<br />Figure 02: How multicast works<br />
  27. 27. IPv6 anycast<br />Uses Anycast address<br />Identifies a set of nodes<br />Packet will reach only one out of many (usually, topologically closest one)<br />Anycast address can be assigned to routers only<br /> Anycast address cannot be used as a source<br />
  28. 28. IPv6 special addresses<br />Four basic types of &quot;special&quot; IPv6 addresses<br />reserved<br /> private<br /> loopback<br />unspecified.<br />Reserved Addresses <br />Reserved block is at the “top” of the address space:<br />Starting with “0000 0000”<br /><ul><li> Private Addresses </li></ul>Called local-use addresses or link-layer addresses.<br /> No NATs<br />So local-use addresses are intended for communication inherently designed only to be sent to local devices. <br />
  29. 29. IPv6 special address<br />Loopback Address <br />A special loopback address for testing<br />Datagrams sent to this address “loop back” to the sending device<br />The loopback address is 0:0:0:0:0:0:0:1or as “::1”<br />Ping ::1 <br />Should answer myself<br />
  30. 30. IPv6 ready applications<br />Handles  &quot;:&quot;  in  address  correctly<br />Handles  IPv4  and  IPv6  addresses<br />% ftp ftp.kame.net <br />% ftp 3ffe:501:4819:2000:5254:ff:fedc:50d2 <br />
  31. 31. Transition plan<br />Current status<br />Only IPv4<br />Phase I<br />IPv4/v6 Dual node<br />IPv4 address in IPv6 address format<br />IPv6 tunneling on the IPv4 Network<br />Phase II<br />Combination of IPv6 infrastructure and IPv4 infrastructure<br />Translate between IPv4/v6 each other(optional)<br />More IPv6 nodes<br />
  32. 32. Migration to IPv6<br />dual stack<br />Involves running IPv4 and IPv6 at the same time<br />End nodes and routers/switches run both protocols<br />Tunnel<br />To carry one protocol inside another<br />Take IPv6 packets and encapsulate them in IPv4 packets to be sent across portions of the IPv4 networks<br />Translator<br />Protocol translation (NAT-PT) simply translate IPv6 packets into IPv4 packets.<br />
  33. 33. Figure 03 Two popular Migration Strategies<br />
  34. 34. IPv6/IPv4-dual<br />(IPv4 compat. addr.)<br />IPv4-only<br />translationrouter<br />IPv6-only <br />(IPv4 compat. addr.)<br />IPv4-only<br />IPv6-only <br />(IPv6 addr.)<br />IPv4-only<br />Communication between IPV4 and IPv6<br />TCP<br />relay<br />