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IPv4 to IPv6
 

IPv4 to IPv6

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Various technologies in IPv4 and IPv6.It also includes the relationships between these two and migration from previous to later

Various technologies in IPv4 and IPv6.It also includes the relationships between these two and migration from previous to later

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    IPv4 to IPv6 IPv4 to IPv6 Presentation Transcript

    • Advanced Networking and ApplicationsCST 451-1
      UvaWellassa University
      Badulla
      Sri Lanka
    • Contents
      IP4
      Problems of IP4
      Network address translation
      IPV6
      What’s Good about IP6
      IPv6 address notation
      Types of addresses
      IPV4 address in IP6
      IPv6 unicast
      IPv6 multicast
      IPv6 anycast
      IPv6 special address
      IPv6 ready applications
      Transition plan
      Migration to IPv6
      Communication between ipv4 and IPv6
    • IPv4
      Forth revision of development of Internet Protocol(IP)
      Most widely used protocol at present
      Connection-less protocol used on packet-switched Link Layer networks
      A system of addresses
      To identify devices
      32 bits
      232 combinations
      Nearly 4.3 billion
      Not enough and more addresses are needed
    • Problems of IPv4
      1.Insuffieciency
      - Only four bytes
      Maximum nodes ~ 4.3 billion
      Much less than the human population (6.799 billion)
      • Not enough for growing number of users
      • Will be exhausted in near future
      2.Increasing routing information
      - Rapid growth of routing tables in backbones
      3. Increasing the number of Network Address Translation (NAT) - Breaking the Internet architecture
    • Problems of IPv4
      4.Security issues
      - Number of ways to encrypt IPv4 traffic
      Example: IPSec
      - No real standard encryption method
      5.Real-time delivery of multimedia content and necessary bandwidth allocation
      Quality of Service (QoS)
      Different interpretations
      QoS compliant devices are not compatible one another
    • Network Address Translation(NAT)
      Allows to maintain public IP addresses and private IP addresses separately
      Also used in server load balancing
      This operates in side the router
      Maintains an address pool
      First the destination is checked
      The address is translated
      The network address information in the datagram is modified
    • How NAT works???
      NAT
    • IPv6
      Next development version of Internet protocol
      Address size is 128 bits
      IPv6 address representation
      xxxx:xxxx:xxxx:xxxx:xxxx:xxxx:xxxx:xxxx
      Each x is a 4bit hexadecimal digit
      IPv6 addresses range from 0000:0000:0000:0000:0000:0000:0000:0000 to ffff:ffff:ffff:ffff:ffff:ffff:ffff:ffff.
    • IPv6
      Two other formats
      Omit leading zeros
      Specify IPv6 addresses by omitting leading zeros
      E.g. : 1050:0000:0000:0000:0005:0600:300c:326b can be written as 1050:0:0:0:5:600:300c:326b
      Double colon
      Specify IPv6 addresses by using double colons (::) in place of a series of zeros
      E.g. : ff06:0:0:0:0:0:0:c3 may be written as ff06::c3
      Double colons can be used only once in one IP address
    • What’s Good about IPv6?
      Bigger address space
      128 bits for addressing
      No NATs are needed
      Allows full IP connectivity
      For Computers, Mobile devices
      Mobility
      Facility for mobile devices
      Allows roaming between different networks
    • What’s Good about IPv6?
      Built-in security
      Includes Ipsec
      Authentication
      Encryption
      Compression
    • IPv6 address notation
      Three possible notation types
      Depends on content of address you need represent
      1.Standard notation - Represent the address as eight 16-bit hexadecimal words separated by ``:'' (colons)
      - E.g : FEDC:BA98:0332:0000:CF8A:000C:2154:7313 or
      FEDC:BA98:332:0:CF8A:C:2154:7313.
      2.Compressed notation - Multiple fields of zeros
      - Represent a single contiguous group of zero fields within an IPv6 address
      - Uses a double colon``::‘’
      - E.g.: 1762:0:0:0:0:B03:1:AF18 FF01:0:0:0:CA:0:0:2 0:0:0:0:0:0:0:1:0:0:0:0:0:0:0 can be represented as
      1762::B03:1:AF18 FF01::CA:0:0:2 ::1 ::
    • IPv6 address notation
      Mixed notation
      For IPv4 addresses encapsulated in IPv6 addresses
      Represented using the original IPv4 ``.'' notation
      0:0:0:0:0:0:127.32.67.15
      0:0:0:0:0:FFFF:127.32.67.15
      Possible to use the compressed notation
      ::127.32.67.15
      ::FFFF:127.32.67.15
    • Types of addresses
      s
      g
      g
      d
      s
      g
      a
      a
      s
      a
      • unicast
      • communicate specified 1 computer
      • multicast
      • communicate group of computers
      • anycast
      • send group address that can receive multiple computers,but receive 1 computer
      unicast
      anycast
      multicast
    • IPv4 address in IPv6
      IPv6 site is island surrounded IPv4 ocean
      connect IPv6 island each other
      encapsulate IPv6 packet in IPv4 packet
      threat as IPv4 as data link layer
      IPv4 ocean
      IPv6 in IPv4 packet
      IPv6 site
      IPv6 site
      IPv6 site
    • IPv6 in IPv4 Tunnel
      IPv6 Site
      IPv6 Site
      IPv4 Internet
      IPv6 Site
    • IPv6 Unicast
      To transmit data from one point to another.
      Multiple users might request
      Same data
      From the same server
      At the same time
      duplicate data streams are transmitted one to each user
      Scope may be Global or Local
      Global for worldwide communication
      Local for communication within a site
    • Server
      Router
      Ethernet Switch
      Figure 01: How unicast works
    • IPv6 multicast
      Ability to send a single packet to multiple destinations
      No broadcast
      Ability to send a packet to all hosts on the attached link
      same effect can be achieved by sending a packet to the link-local all hosts multicast group
      Applications
      Telephony and video conference
      Database simultaneous update
      Parallel computing
      Real time news
    • Server
      Router
      Ethernet Switch
      Figure 02: How multicast works
    • IPv6 anycast
      Uses Anycast address
      Identifies a set of nodes
      Packet will reach only one out of many (usually, topologically closest one)
      Anycast address can be assigned to routers only
      Anycast address cannot be used as a source
    • IPv6 special addresses
      Four basic types of "special" IPv6 addresses
      reserved
      private
      loopback
      unspecified.
      Reserved Addresses
      Reserved block is at the “top” of the address space:
      Starting with “0000 0000”
      • Private Addresses
      Called local-use addresses or link-layer addresses.
      No NATs
      So local-use addresses are intended for communication inherently designed only to be sent to local devices.
    • IPv6 special address
      Loopback Address
      A special loopback address for testing
      Datagrams sent to this address “loop back” to the sending device
      The loopback address is 0:0:0:0:0:0:0:1or as “::1”
      Ping ::1
      Should answer myself
    • IPv6 ready applications
      Handles  ":"  in  address  correctly
      Handles  IPv4  and  IPv6  addresses
      % ftp ftp.kame.net
      % ftp 3ffe:501:4819:2000:5254:ff:fedc:50d2
    • Transition plan
      Current status
      Only IPv4
      Phase I
      IPv4/v6 Dual node
      IPv4 address in IPv6 address format
      IPv6 tunneling on the IPv4 Network
      Phase II
      Combination of IPv6 infrastructure and IPv4 infrastructure
      Translate between IPv4/v6 each other(optional)
      More IPv6 nodes
    • Migration to IPv6
      dual stack
      Involves running IPv4 and IPv6 at the same time
      End nodes and routers/switches run both protocols
      Tunnel
      To carry one protocol inside another
      Take IPv6 packets and encapsulate them in IPv4 packets to be sent across portions of the IPv4 networks
      Translator
      Protocol translation (NAT-PT) simply translate IPv6 packets into IPv4 packets.
    • Figure 03 Two popular Migration Strategies
    • IPv6/IPv4-dual
      (IPv4 compat. addr.)
      IPv4-only
      translationrouter
      IPv6-only
      (IPv4 compat. addr.)
      IPv4-only
      IPv6-only
      (IPv6 addr.)
      IPv4-only
      Communication between IPV4 and IPv6
      TCP
      relay