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Menachem Nathan - Downscaling Li-Ion Battery Technology

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From The Event "Energy & eStorage", 11/9/11.

From The Event "Energy & eStorage", 11/9/11.

Published in: Technology, Business

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  • 1. BACK TO THE FUTURE “THIN (AND SMALL) IS BEAUTIFUL”DOWNSCALING Li-ION BATTERY TECHNOLOGY MENACHEM NATHAN SCHOOL OF ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING TEL AVIV UNIVERSITY With acknowledgement to my chief collaborators; Prof. Dina Golodnitsky, School of Chemistry, TAU Prof. Emanuel Peled, School of Chemistry, TAU MIT ENTERPRISE FORUM OF ISRAEL – 11 SEPTEMBER 2011
  • 2. Li-ION BATTERY TECHNOLOGY - THE TECHNOLOGY OF CHOICE IN MOST ADVANCED APPLICATIONSIn conventional Li-ion batteries, the anode and cathode are “thick films” or “bulk” materials, i.e. with thickness of 0.1- 0.2 mm (100-200 micrometer) and more
  • 3. BIG and SMALL 200-250 mm 9.5mmMercedes S400 HYBRID Sedan Li- Li coin cells ion batteryFirst Li-ion battery in a production vehicle - Smallest commercial coin cell 2010 9.5mm × 2.7mm
  • 4. Mercedes S400 HYBRID Sedan 120V Li-ion battery Cylindrical Li-ion cells Steel frame
  • 5. WHERE THE EXISTING “SMALL” IS NOT SMALL ENOUGHRapidlly evolving world of autonomous “micro-systems” (MEMS)which need similarly sized power sources (wireless sensor networks,“Smart dust” concepts).Small footprint requirements (e.g. in implantable autonomous micro-systems such as neural neurostimulators).Fast charge requirements (solar powered consumer electronics) .High energy/high power combined with small volume and/orfootprint
  • 6. TWO DIMENSIONAL (2D) Li-ION THIN-FILM BATTERY (TFB) Oak Ridge National Laboratories, USA, ca. 1991 15 µm
  • 7. Li-ION TFBCharacteristics:◦ All solid state construction◦ Can be operated at high and low temperatures (between -20° and 140° C C)◦ Capable to deliver high current densities due to thin electrolyte◦ Can be made in any shape or size - flexible substrate◦ Cost does not increase with reduction in size (constant $/cm2)◦ Completely safe under all operating conditions◦ Can be deposited directly onto chips or chip packages (unaffected by heating to 280°C)◦ Long (stable) cycle life
  • 8. 2D-TFB COMMERCIALIZATIONINFINITE POWER SOLUTIONS - ca. $50 million investment, limitedcommercial salesCYMBET - ca. $50 million investment, limited commercial sales
  • 9. CYMBET INFINITE POWER SOLUTIONSEnergy Harvesting Evaluation Module IPS-EVAL-EH-01 EVALUATION KIT (available commercially) (available commercially)
  • 10. TEXAS INSTRUMENTS eZ430-RF2500-SEH SOLAR ENERGY HARVESTING DEVELOPMENT KIT http://www.ti.com/lit/ug/slau273c/slau273c.pdf Uses a pair of Cymbet 50µAh, 3.8V Enerchip TFBs
  • 11. EXAMPLARY CYMBET POWERED MICROSYSTEM 2011 IEEE International Solid-State Circuits Conference Gregory Chen, Hassan Ghaed, Razi-ul Haque, Michael Wieckowski, Yejoong Kim, Gyouho Kim, David Fick, Daeyeon Kim, Mingoo Seok, Kensall Wise, David Blaauw, Dennis Sylvester University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Uses 1µAh, 3.8V “Enerchip” 2D-TFB from Cymbet
  • 12. THE MAJOR PROBLEM OF 2D-TFB TECHNOLOGY Very small Capacity, Energy Density and Power Density per Footprint (square cm) 8 mm x 8 mm (0.64 cm2) 25.4 mm x 50.8 mm x 0.170 mm QFN SMT Package 13 cm2 50µAh, 3.8V 2.5mAh, 4VCapacity: 78 µAh/cm2 Capacity: 192 µAh/cm2
  • 13. THE (TAU) SOLUTION TO THE PROBLEM OF LOW “PER FOOTPRINT” PERFORMANCE OF 2D-TFBs GO FROM 2D TO 3DFor a typical substrate 0.5mm thick, through holes with d=50µm and s=10µm will provide an area gain of ca. 23
  • 14. THE TEL AVIV UNIVERSITY Li-ION 3D-TFB TECHNOLOGY Standard High Power 300-1000µm Contact µ Contact 15-150µm 4-40µm µ Anode Electrolyte Cathode Substrate Substrate Current Collector
  • 15. THE MAGIC OF TAU’s Li-ION 3D-TFBs (now under further development by Honeycomb Microbattery Solutions) Look thin but are thick… and vice versa: thin layers are employed to enable high power, w/o compromise on Safe and Eco- capacity – plenty of Friendly: active material •The 10m wall separation preventsGeometrical Area Gain thermal runaway enables Superior •Eliminates battery Performances in replacement – lasts theTerms of Energy and life of powered device Power Through holes – •Lead free, no allow cost effective hazardous or wet chemistry flammable materials fabrication: Manufacturing can be “fabless” and outsourced
  • 16. TAU / HONEYCOMB 3D-TFBs vs COMMERCIAL 2D-TFBs
  • 17. 3D-TFBs UNDER DEVELOPMENT (3-5 years) Present HC Enhanced HC Samples Next Gen performance AG=23 (MCP, AG=30)Voltage 2 2.5-3 2.5-3Capacity (mAh/cm2) 2-2.5 10 15(2)Areal Energy Density 4-5 30 45mWh/cm2Volumetric Energy 80-100 600 900Density Wh/L(2)Power mW/cm2 40-50 (1) 50-80 (1) 800 (1) (1) 30 sec pulses. Much higher power can be achieved for short (msec) Pulse discharge (2) Excluding Package – may add ~0.2mm in each dimension (3) Charge / Recharge cycles - >1,000
  • 18. PERFORMANCE COMPARISON OF TAU 3D-TFB WITH CYMBET 2D- TFBS IN A TI ez430-RF2500 DEVELOPMENT KIT
  • 19. HONEYCOMB 3D-TFBS vs. QUALLION MINI-CYLINDRICAL BATTERIES QL00031 HC Gen 1 HC Enhanced (3.6V, 3mAh, (AG=23) Next Gen performance 15mA cont., 0.08cc, d=2.9mm, AG=23 (MCP, h=11mm) AG=30)Voltage 3.6 2 2.5-3 2.5-3Volumetric Capacity 37.5 93 150 186(mAh/cm3)Volumetric Energy 135 186 429 557Density Wh/L(2)Current per volume 187.5 320 >320 ~4,000(mA/cc)Volumetric Power 675 643 929 11,500density (mW/cc)Nominal Capacity 3 (2) 5.2 8.4 10.5(mAh/cm3) (1)Discharge current 15 18 >18 224(mA) (1) (1) For the same size and shape as QL00031 (2) Requires recharging every 3 days
  • 20. SUMMARY- HONEYCOMB-3DMB PERFORMANCE Materials, Operating Capacity, Energy, Power,Item Configuration cathode voltage, V mAh/cm2 mWh/cm2 mW/cm2 thickness1 HC Present Hi- 2-3 micron CuS 2.0 2.0-2.5 4-5 (40-50)* Energy cathode, (AG=10) PVDF-based membrane2 HC Future Hi- 3-5 micron CuS 2.0 3.0-5.0 10-12 (40-50)* Energy – 1st series cathode (AG=10) PVDF-based or new membrane3 HC Future Hi- 3-5 micron mixed 2-3 5-10 20-30 (50-80)* Energy – 2nd chalcogenide and/or series V2O5 cathode (AG > 20) PVDF-based or new membrane4 HC Hi-Power 2-4 micron modified 2-3.4 5-8 10-30 500-1000* Pulse Discharge- cathode 3rd series PVDF-based or new (AG > 20) membrane Graphite or lithium alloy – based anode5 HC Hi-Power 2-4 micron all 2-3.4 4-8 10-30 100-300 Continuous modified cathode, Discharge- 4th membrane and series anode materials (AG > 20) Typical 2D 2-4 0.1-0.3 0.25-1.0 0.7-27 Microbatteries
  • 21. PATENTSUS6,197,450 (Priority date: October 22, 1998)7,527,897 (Priority Date: October 12, 2003)7,618,748 (Priority Date: March 13, 2006)RE 41578 (reissue of ‘450)RE 42073 (reissue of ‘450)RE 42273 (reissue of ‘450)Application No. 20060032046 (Priority Date: October 17, 2002)Application No. 12/859,297Non-US (Priority date – same as the US equivalent):EP Patent 1145348 (‘450 equivalent)EP Patent 1994592 (‘748 equivalent)Japanese patent 4555378 (‘748 equivalent)German Patent AT224587T (‘450 equivalent)Chinese Patent ZL 200480037093.X (‘897 equivalent)Chinese Patent ZL200780008458.X (‘748 equivalent)
  • 22. MAIN CLAIM IN REISSUEA thin-film micro-electrochemical energy storage cell (MEESC) in the form of amicrobattery, said microbattery comprising:a) a substrate having two surfaces and including a plurality of throughcavities of arbitrary shape, said cavities characterized by having an aspect ratiogreater than 1 and extending between said two surfaces;b) a thin layer anode;c) a thin layer cathode; andd) an electrolyte intermediate to said anode and cathode layers; wherein said anode layer, said cathode layer, and said electrolyteintermediate to said anode and cathode layers, are deposited over said twosurfaces and throughout the inner surface of said cavities.
  • 23. CONCLUSIONS“Made in Israel” basic E-storage technology, vastly superior to state-of-the-art 2D thin film battery technologies.Technology scalable to Si wafer-size batteries (mobile consumerelectronics?) and to much larger plastic based substrates.The TFB field is in its infancy – real applications are 3-5 years away.Existing Applications (in development):◦ Solar energy harvesting◦ Implantable medical devices◦ Wireless sensor networks
  • 24. THANK YOU