Aeromodelling surveillance thesis

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Aeromodelling surveillance thesis

  1. 1. Project Thesis On Aeromodelling Surveillance Bachelor of Engineering Submitted By Nikhilesh Gupta Himanshu Rewatkar Pritam Shete Mitesh Agrawal Harshal Unhale Under the guidance of Mrs.M.N.Kalbande Department of Electronics EngineeringYeshwantrao Chavan College of Engineering Wanadongri, Hingna Road, Nagpur – 441 110 Session 2011-12 1
  2. 2. Department of Electronics Engineering Yeshwantrao Chavan College of Engineering Wanadongri, Hingna Road, Nagpur – 441 110 Session 2011-12 This is to certify that the project titled “AEROMODELLING SURVEILLANCE”has been successfully completed in recognition to the partial fulfillment for the award of thedegree of Bachelor of Engineering in Electronics Engineering, Rashtrasant Tukdoji MaharajNagpur University, by students, Nikhilesh Gupta Himanshu Rewatkar Pritam Shete Mitesh Agrawal Harshal UnhaleMrs.M.N.Kalbande Dr. P.K.Dakhole (Project Guide) (Head of Deptt.) 2
  3. 3. CERTIFICATE OF APPROVAL Certified that the project thesis entitled “AEROMODELLING SURVEILLANCE” hasbeen successfully completed by Nikhilesh Gupta, Mitesh Agrawal, Himanshu Rewatkar, PritamShete, Harshal Unhale under the guidance of Prof. Mrs. M. N. Kalbande in recognition to thepartial fulfillment for the award of the degree of Bachelor of Engineering in Electronics Engineering,Rashtrasant Tukadoji Maharaj Nagpur University, Nagpur.Prof. Mrs. M. N. Kalbande Dr. P. K.Dakhole (Project Guide) (HoD, Electronics Dept.) 3
  4. 4. DECLARATIONWe certify that 1. The work contained in this project has been done by us under the guidance of supervisor. 2. The work has not been submitted to any other institute for any degree or diploma. 3. We have followed the guidelines provided by the institute in preparing the project report. 4. We have confirmed to the norms and guidelines given in the ethical code of conduct of the institute. 5. Whenever I/We have used materials (data, theoretical analysis, figures and texts) from other sources, I/We have given due credit to them by citing them in the text of the report and giving their details in the references. Signature (Name of the student) Nikhilesh Gupta Mitesh Agrawal Himanshu Rewatkar Pritam Shete Harshal Unhale 4
  5. 5. ACKNOWLEDGEMENTSuccess is the manifestation of diligence, perseverance, inspiration, motivation andinnovation. We the projects, ascribe our success to our guide Mrs. M.N.Kalbande whoseendeavor foresight, innovation and dynamism contributed in a big way in completion of thisproject within the stipulated time. This work is the reflection of her thoughts, ideas, conceptsand all above her modest efforts.We deeply indebted to the Head of the Department Dr.P.K.Dakhole and also the PrincipalDr.U.P.Waghe and all the members of the management committee for the facilities providedand moral support without which our project would not have turned into reality.We are also thankful to all members of the esteemed staff of the ELECTRONICSENGINEERING DEPARTMENT, who have helped us directly or indirectly in ourendeavor. WE wish to express our profound thanks to the people who helped us to make thisproject reality. Our thanks are also to all those are also to all those who have shown keeninterest in this work and provided the much needed encouragement.Submitted with regards byNikhilesh GuptaMitesh AgrawalHimanshu RewatkarPritam SheteHarshal Unhale 5
  6. 6. ABSTRACTUnmanned aerial vehicles (UAV) have become recently a wide area of research. They canperform missions that cannot be done by humans because of their small size, danger of themission and many other reasons. This project report presents an UAV equipped with awireless camera. Amongst UAVs we opted for a RC helicopter because of its good featuressuch as hovering and maneuverability which means that it can stay in a point without movingfor the purposes of tracking a target. Our flying platform works on control frequency of 2.4GHz using which we control the brushless DC motors which offers a high torque and is lightin weight. Its great potential can be explored in numerous military and civil implementations.PROJECT OBJECTIVEThis project involves the development of a radio controlled (RC) helicopter – it is difficult toobtain access to real helicopters for testing and implementation on an RC helicopter can stillyield useful information. The desire to have a practical system, as well as the use of an RChelicopter, imposed the following additional constraints on this system: 1) low cost, 2) use ofcommercial hardware, 3) compact size, and 4) low power consumption. The first two goalsare interrelated; generally, standard components are available at much lower cost thanproprietary devices. Further, the use of commercial hardware insures availability of parts anda large knowledge base. The next goal, compact size, is due to the space limitations of a smallRC helicopter. In order to mount the system in the helicopter for testing, the system must beas compact as possible. The lack of space in the helicopter plays a role in the final constraint,low power consumption. Large batteries cannot be used due to limitations in the lift capacityof the radio-controlled helicopter; yet the system needs to be able to run for at least one flight.To meet this requirement, the system needs to restrict its current draw to the order ofmilliamps. All these project goals severely limited the selection of suitable hardware for thisproject.In consideration of these goals, the system was designed to use a single high-performanceprocessing unit. This offers the possibility of reducing the overall power consumption andcost of the system through the use of inexpensive, low-power microcontroller in the system.As project is used for Surveillance purpose so a light wireless camera is attached at thebottom of the helicopter and since it is wireless its receiver is connected to a Television set. 6
  7. 7. LIST OF FIGURESFIGURE NO. FIGURE NAME PAGE No. 1 PIN DIAGRAM OF ATMEGA 8 18 2 PIN DIAGRAM OF L298 19 3 D.C.MOTOR 20 4 PIN DIAGRAM OF CC2500 21 5 CIRCUIT DIAGRAM OF POWER SUPPLY 21 6 WIRELESS CAMERA 22 7 BATTERY 22 8 PROGRAMMER 22 9 SINAPROG 23 10 AVR STUDIO 5 23 11 BLOCK DIAGRAM OF TRANSMITTER 26 7
  8. 8. 12 BLOCK DIAGRAM OF RECIEVER 2713 FLOWCHART OF METHODOLOGY 2714 TRANSMITTER PCB 3215 RECEIVER PCB 3216 HELICOPTER ASSEMBLY 3217 TRANSMITTER PCB LAYOUT 3818 RECIEVER PCB LAYOUT 38 8
  9. 9. CONTENT SUMMARYS No. LIST OF CONTENTS PAGE No.1 INTRODUCTION 112 LITERATURE SURVEY 133 DESIGN ISSUES 154 TOOLS 17 4.1 HARDWARE 4.2 SOFTWARE5 METHODOLOGY 256 IMPLEMENTATION 28 6.1 INTRODUCTION 6.2 BASIC CONTROL MECHANISM 6.3 ACTUAL WORKING7 RESULTS 318 CONCLUSION 339 FUTURE SCOPE 35 9
  10. 10. APPENDIX TOPIC PAGE NOAPPENDIX A PCB LAYOUTS 38APPENDIX B SPECIFICATIONS 39APPENDIX C ACHIEVEMENTS 40APPENDIX D PAPER PRESENTED 41APPENDIX E COST TABLE 45APPENDIX F CONTACT DETAILS 46APPENDIX G BIBLIOGRAPHY 47 10
  11. 11. CHAPTER 1INTRODUCTION 11
  12. 12. INTRODUCTIONToday‘s integrated technology has opened many new areas of application for UnmannedAerial Vehicles (UAVs) completing complex and risky mission without any on board humaninvolvement is the biggest advantage of UAVs. With new technical advances, affordability& acceptability of UAVs will increase, which will fuel the interest of researchers to exploremore and more applications for UAVs. UAVs are of different types such as Gliders, Planes,Helicopters, etc. From these we opted for RC Helicopter because of its highermanoeuvrability and its ability to hover at a fixed position.Aeromodels are flying or non-flying small size replicas of existing or imaginary aircrafts. Ourproject is about designing a helicopter with a camera mounted on it used for surveillancepurpose so we came with project ―Aeromodelling Surveillance‖.In many application vertical Take-Off and landing (VTOL) vehicles, also known as rotorvehicles, are preferred over fixed wing vehicles Because of their higher manoeuvrability alsothey require less launching and landing support compare to fixed winged vehicles task suchas exploration of unknown territories formation flying intelligence gathering etc. requirerotorcraft UAV to be capable of flying very close to other flying or stationary objects becauseof exposed rotary wings, rotorcraft UAVs are very sensitive to the environment they areflying within.In this Project, we are going to design a Small Helicopter Robot, which will be remoteControlled. In this helicopter would be consisting of Receiver, Microcontroller, Gyroscopemodule, and motors. And remote control will have Transmitter, Joystick switches, andmicrocontroller. The Vehicle will also have a Camera and the Received unit will beinterfaced to monitor and the Live Video will be transmitted. 12
  13. 13. CHAPTER 2LITERATURE SURVEY 13
  14. 14. LITERATURE SURVEYMUCEETHELI - Proceedings of MUCEET2009From the above document we have taken the following things  The construction and design of Helicopter.  Methodology.  Overall functioning of project.  The expected output of the project.Energy-Efficient_Autonomous_Four-Rotor_Flying_Robot_Controlled_at_1_Khz -2007 IEEE International Conference on Robotics and Automation Roma, Italy, 10-14April 2007From the above document we have taken the following things  The dimensions and physical parameters of the spare parts of Helicopter.  Concept of flying robot.ATMEGA 8 data sheetL298 data sheet 14
  15. 15. CHAPTER 3DESIGN ISSUES 15
  16. 16. DESIGN ISSUES1. All the parts of RC Helicopter are not available in Indian market so we bought a readymade helicopter and used its body for our project.2. We build a transmitter PCB in which joysticks footprints were incorrect so we have to build new transmitter PCB.3. The ADC values of joysticks were quite noisy due to which we were not getting proper readings so we replaced joystick with switches and a POT.4. The motor driver IC L298 was getting heated up quickly in this process one L298 got damaged. So we replaced by another L298 with aluminium heat sink mounted on it.5. There were some problems in PCBs, we solved that problem by make shift arrangement.6. We have given different supplies for Circuit and motors as one battery supply was not sufficient. 16
  17. 17. CHAPTER 4 TOOLS 17
  18. 18. TOOLS4.1Hardware:1. AVR MICROCONTROLLER (ATMEGA 8) A microcontroller is a small computer on a single integrated circuit containing a processor core, memory, and programmable input/output peripherals. Atmega 8 is a microcontroller manufactured by Atmel. The ATmega8 provides the following features: 8K bytes of In-System Programmable Flash with Read-While- Write capabilities, 512 bytes of EEPROM, 1K byte of SRAM, 23 general purpose I/O lines, 32 general purpose working registers, three flexible Timer/Counters with compare modes, internal and external interrupts, a serial programmable USART, a byte oriented Two wire Serial Interface, a 6-channel ADC (eight channels in TQFP and QFN/MLF packages) with 10-bit accuracy, a programmable Watchdog Timer with Internal Oscillator, an SPI serial port, and five software selectable power saving modes. The Idle mode stops the CPU while allowing the SRAM, Timer/Counters, SPI port, and interrupt system to continue functioning. The Power down mode saves the register contents but freezes the Oscillator, disabling all other chip functions until the next Interrupt or Hardware Reset. In Power-save mode, the asynchronous timer continues to run, allowing the user to maintain a timer base while the rest of the device is sleeping. The ADC Noise Reduction mode stops the CPU and all I/O modules except asynchronous timer and ADC, to minimize switching noise during ADC conversions. In Standby mode, the crystal/resonator Oscillator is running while the rest of the device is sleeping. This allows very fast start-up combined with low- power consumption. Pin Configuration: FIGURE 1: PIN DIAGRAM OF ATMEGA 8 18
  19. 19. From these features we are using PWM, USART, ADC and I/O ports. 1. PWM (Pulse Width Modulation) PWM is used for controlling strength of signal. It has 8/9/10 bit PWM control as specified. For using PWM we have to first initialize PWM to enable it and then assign values to register OCR1A, OCR1B, OCR0, and OCR2 which decides the strength of signal. Using PWM we are controlling the speed of motors of rotors. 2. USART (Universal Synchronous Asynchronous Receiver Transmission) USART is used for Transmission and Reception of controlling instructions. Using this we can transmit or receive 8 bit of data at a time. The registers to be used are UDR, UCSRA, UCSRB, UCSRC, and UBRRH. UDR is 8 bit register which stores the received data. 3. ADC (Analog to Digital Convertor) As we deal with digital values in microcontroller so it is necessary to convert incoming analog signal to digital, so ADC is an important features. It has 10 bit ADC register. The registers used are ADMUX, ADCSRA and ADCW. ADCW is the data register in which the data converted is stored.2. L298 MOTOR DRIVER IC. The L298 is an integrated monolithic circuit in a 15-lead Multiwatt and PowerSO20 packages. It is a high voltage, high current dual full-bridge driver designed to accept standard TTL logic levels and drive inductive loads such as relays, solenoids, DC and stepping motors. Two enable inputs are provided to enable or disable the device independently of the input signals. The emitters of the lower transistors of each bridge are connected together and the corresponding external terminal can be used for the connection of an external sensing resistor. An additional supply input is provided so that the logic works at a lower voltage. Pin Diagram: FIGURE 2: PIN DIAGRAM OF L298 19
  20. 20. 3. CENTRE D.C MOTOR & D.C TAIL MOTOR.As the name implies, BLDC motors do not use brushes forcommutation; instead, they are electronically commutated.BLDC motors have many advantages over brushed DCmotors and induction motors.A few of these are: Better speed versus torque characteristics High dynamic response FIGURE 3: D.C.MOTOR High efficiency Long operating life Noiseless operation Higher speed rangesIn addition, the ratio of torque delivered to the size of the motor is higher, making ituseful in applications where space and weight are critical factors.4. RF MODULES (CC2500 SERIAL TRANSCEIVER MODULE)CC2500 Serial Transreceiver Wireless Module is designed to meet the requirementfor the low cost, low power wireless device to transmit and receive serial data. Themodule operates on 2.4 GHz frequency band. The module can also be used asWireless Sensor Network (WSN) node.Working: The module has simple Protocol for working. the Using CC transreceiverGUI, the module can be configured data communication through hyper terminal. Thismodules basically take TTL data & send it to receiver (receiver whose ID is sendalong with data). Modules can also broadcast the data (broadcast id (0xff).A singlemodule can communicate with number of modules at run time. as receiver ID needs tosend every time, So one can send different receiver id every time to communicatewith different modules. This feature makes it best suited for swarm robotics.As modules has capability of analog to digital conversion (ADC). So user has to justconfigure the module once for ADC, & the module will send the data to the respectivereceiver, at the given interval of time. This feature (of reading ADC value & sendingto the respective receiver module) makes it standalone for WSN. So it reduces theneed of separate controller.The GUI interface makes it easy for user to configure module as well as to send data& test modules for different settings.Its features are:1. Long Range (40m Line of Sight).2. 6 ADC Channels with 8 bit precision.3. Allows multiple baud rates (MAX 38400 bps).4. Allows configuration of 255 Device IDs.5. Allows configuration of 255 Channel IDs.6. Standard UART interface, TTL (3-5V) logic level.7. Communicates in peer to peer mode.8. Supports broadcast mode. 20
  21. 21. 9. No need to configure at restart.10. Ideal for sensor monitoring systems.11. Quick Response Time.12. Low Power Consumption.13. Supply Voltages 5V - 9V.14. GUI support.15. Inbuilt cyclic redundancy check (CRC).16. Acknowledgement after each successful configuration.Pin Configuration: FIGURE 4: PIN DIAGRAM OF CC25005. REGULATOR IC (7805):It is a three pin IC used as a voltage regulator. It converts unregulated DC current intoregulated DC current. Regulator IC used in this system is 7805. Used to regulate andgive voltage of 5V. FIGURE 5: CIRCUIT DIAGRAM OF POWER SUPPLY 21
  22. 22. 6. PARTS OF HELICOPTER. It consists of fans, chassis, tail motor unit,gears,balance bar,landing gear etc.7. LEDS (3MM)8. SWITCHES ( ON-OFF & PUSH BUTTON)9. WIRELESS CAMERA Wireless security cameras are closed-circuit television (CCTV) cameras that transmit a video and audio signal to a wireless receiver through a radio band. In wireless camera audio and video analog signals encoded as digital packets over high-bandwidth radio frequencies. FIGURE 6: WIRELESS CAMERA Advantages include:  Wide transmission range—usually close to 450 feet (open space, clear line of sight between camera and receiver  High quality video and audio  Two-way communication between the camera and the receiver  Digital signal means you can transmit commands and functions, such as turning lights on and off[  You can connect multiple receivers to one recording device, such as security DVR10. BATTERY (7.3V, 2300MA) It is a two Cell 2300 Li-Ion battery. LiIon batteries utilize a balance plug. The use of a balance plug has shown to increase the life of LiIon, LiPoly and LiFe batteries. FIGURE 7: BATTERY11. PROGRAMMER FOR ATMEGA 8 It is used to program Atmega 8 IC .It is programmed by connecting ISP port to programmer and programmer to USB.The sinaprog software is used for programming atmega8.4.2 Software: FIGURE 8: PROGRAMMER 22
  23. 23. 1. SINAProg It is Software used for communicating with Atmega 8 i.e burning the program in IC. Sinaprog is an application which allow you to easily access the features of a microcontroller device. With this program you can erase individual blocks or the entire Flash memory of the microcontroller. This application is very useful for those who work in the electronics field. It offers you the possibility to program a HEX file. The program will start the device, and you will able to see the progress of the operations below the HEX file. It also helps to select atmega IC and fuses. FIGURE 9: SINAPROG2. AVR STUDIO 5 Atmel® AVR Studio® 5 is the Integrated Development Environment (IDE) for developing and debugging embedded Atmel AVR® applications. The AVR Studio 5 IDE gives a seamless and easy-to-use environment to write, build, and debug C/C++ and assembler code AVR Studio 5 includes a compiler, assembler and a simulator, and interfaces seamlessly with in-system debuggers and programmers to make code development easier. FIGURE10: AVR STUDIO 53. EAGLE 6.1.0 EAGLE is a powerful graphics editor for designing PC-board layouts and schematics. EAGLE comes with a lot of library files that contain through-hole and surface mount devices. EAGLE drawings contain objects in different drawing layers. In order to obtain a useful result several layers are combined for the output. For example, the combination of Top, Pad, and Via layers is used to generate a film for etching the component side of the printed-circuit board. 23
  24. 24. 4. WINAVR WinAVR is a suite of executable, open source software development tools for the Atmel AVR series of RISC microprocessors and AVR32 series of microprocessors hosted on the Windows platform. It includes the GNU GCC compiler for C and C++. The compiler in WinAVR is the GNU Compiler Collection, or GCC. This compiler is incredibly flexible and can be hosted on many platforms, it can target many different different processors / operating systems (back-ends), and can be configured for multiple different languages (front-ends). The GCC included in WinAVR is targeted for the AVR processor, is built to execute on the Windows platform, and is configured to compile C, or C++. It consists of a) MFile An automatic makefile generator for AVR GCC. make is a program that is widely used to build software. make reads and executes makefiles, which are descriptions of how to build something. Makefiles typical do things such as group files together, set lists of compiler and linker flags, list rules of how to compile source code to object code, how to link object files, how to convert files from one type to another, and many other things. When you set up your project, add a makefile to control how to build your software. When you use Programmers Notepad, or other IDE, set it up to call make and have it execute your projects makefile. WinAVR also includes the MFile utility. MFile is a automatic makefile generator for AVR GCC written in Tcl/Tk and can run on various platforms including Windows, FreeBSD, Linux, etc. You can use this utility to help you quickly generate a makefile for your project based on some simple menu input. MFile for the Windows platform uses the WinAVR Makefile Template for its template. b) Programmers Notepad 2.0.8.718 Programmers Notepad (PN) is an Open Source editor with some IDE features. PN can call any command-line tool and capture its output. This is ideal for calling the make utility, which executes your makefile, which in turn calls the compiler, linker, and other utilities used to build your software. PN will then capture the output and display it in a window. You can also click on any GCC warning or error and PN will automatically open the file and go to the line where the warning or error occurred. To set up tools, go to the Tools menu up top, select Options, then select Tools on the left side menu. The best Scheme to add tools is under "(None - Global Tools)". After you add your tool, it will appear in the Main Menu under Tools. 24
  25. 25. CHAPTER 5METHODOLOGY 25
  26. 26. METHODOLOGYFirst the body of helicopter was designed and implemented for this we bought theparts and assembled them.When the physical body is ready we go for the controlling circuit of RC Helicopter. Inthis we have to design two circuits 1. Transmitter 2. Receiver.In Transmitter circuit we have to interface CC2500 module and Switches withAtmega 8.In Receiver circuit we have to interface CC2500 module, L298, LED array andBrushless DC motors with Atmega 8.After designing circuit diagram, make schematic using any software (Eagle), designPCB, then itch PCB and mount components on it. After PCB is ready its continuity ischecked, if it is correct then we are done with Electronics part. Or if it‘s incorrect thenrepair PCB and debug the error.Now comes the main part of programming. Write the program using AVR studio 5compiler or WINAVR‘s Programmers notepad can also be used.After programming compile it and generate Hex file which is then burned into microcontroller using Sinaprog Software.Check the functioning if the code works properly then ok or else correct the errors andthen again compile and dump program in Atmega 8.Repeat this process until it functions properly.After successful testing we will mount the wireless camera transmitter on the frontend of helicopter. FIGURE11: BLOCK DIAGRAM OF TRANSMITTER 26
  27. 27. FIGURE12: BLOCK DIAGRAM OF RECIEVERFIGURE 13: FLOWCHART OF METHODOLOGY 27
  28. 28. CHAPTER 6IMPLEMENTATION 28
  29. 29. IMPLEMENTATION6.1 IntroductionA helicopter has no aerodynamic qualities that would suggest it is capable of sustained flight.Its historical development contains a myriad of problems, ingenious solutions to problems,and solutions to problems caused by other solutions. The helicopter is thus an extremelycomplex machine that is naturally unstable during flight. Small helicopters, as used in thiswork, are even more unstable due to their very low weight and moment of inertia. These RChelicopters are nonlinear systems that represent a very challenging control problem.The control method used in this application is operating dual shaft and dual propeller mainrotor and tail fan with the PWM effect from the controller.6.2 Basic Control MechanismsThe helicopter is controlled using a remote control which is controlled by user. The workingof helicopter is dependent on the dual propeller main rotor and tail fan. Since main rotor hastwo propellers, one moves in clockwise and other moves in anticlockwise direction thuscancelling the back thrust. The movement of helicopter is controlled as a. Uplift: the center motors moves with equal speed in opposite directions. b. Forward: the center motors rotates with same speed and tail motor rotate in clockwise direction. c. Backward: the center motors rotates with same speed and tail motor rotate in anticlockwise direction. d. Right: one center motor moves with less speed in anticlockwise direction and other moves with full speed in clockwise direction and tail motor remains off. e. Left: one center motor moves with less speed in clockwise direction and other moves with full speed in anticlockwise direction and tail motor remains off. 29
  30. 30. 6.3 Actual WorkingWhen the user press any switch in transmitter the input is detected on the pins ofmicrocontroller since the input is continuously scanned in the program the codecorresponding to the input is then transmitted to the receiver through CC2500 module.The address of the receiver is transmitted first and then data so as to protect the misplacing ofdata. The receiver with corresponding address will receive the data that is our receiver then itwill decode the data and it will check the data code and corresponding action would be taken.The codes we have defined are:Forward: FBackward: BRight: RLeft: LUplift: UThe corresponding action to the code is nothing but the inputs of L298 Motor controller ICwhich in response gives the signals to the motors of helicopter. 30
  31. 31. CHAPTER 7 RESULTS 31
  32. 32. RESULTSFIGURE 14: TRANSMITTER PCB FIGURE 15: RECEIVER PCB FIGURE 16: HELICOPTER ASSEMBLY 32
  33. 33. CHAPTER 8CONCLUSION 33
  34. 34. CONCLUSIONIn this project we have presented the idea of making of RC Helicopter control panel. The useof Atmega 8 has made it quite easy to make, as it provides various key features essential forcontrolling RC Helicopter. It‘s easy and also cheap then other methods. And the idea ofmounted camera has made it quite useful in various important and dangerous operations.For future scope we have thought of making it capable of temperature sensing, goodsupplying etc. and this information can also be transferred from the places where humanbeing cannot reach. 34
  35. 35. CHAPTER 9FUTURE SCOPE 35
  36. 36. FUTURE SCOPEWith increasing global warming and increasing burden on the Mother Earth, naturalcalamities are occurring frequently these days. To combat these calamities ‗AeromodellingSurveillance‘ is of great use. It can be used to access the areas which are not accessible forhuman being and thereby reducing casualties and loss. In the future by using GPStechnology, it will trace its own path hence there will be no requirement of remote. By usingimage processing it can be used to track a particular object. With the use other moderntechnologies, this ‗Aeromodelling Surveillance‘ has great future scope. 36
  37. 37. APPENDIX 37
  38. 38. APPENDIX A - PCB LAYOUTFIGURE 17: TRANSMITTER PCB LAYOUT. FIGURE 18: RECIEVER PCB LAYOUT 38
  39. 39. APPENDIX B - SPECIFICATIONS Helicopter specifications Length 65 cm Height 30 cm Width 15 cm Propeller length 50 cm WeightFrequency of operation 2.4 GHz Operational range About 40 m.Weight can be handled 300 gm 39
  40. 40. APPENDIX C - ACHIEVEMENTS1) We presented paper in ‗Diligence‘ (Paper Presentation) in National Level Technical Fest XPLORE 3.0 organised by Dept. of Electronics & Telecommunication of Rajiv Gandhi College of Engg. & Research, Nagpur on 10th & 11th February 2012.2) We presented paper in ‗ELECTRO-CEMICS 2012‘ Paper Presentation in National Level Technical Event organised by K.D.K. College of Engineering, Nagpur on 4th February 2012. 40
  41. 41. APPENDIX DPAPER PRESENTED 41
  42. 42. 42
  43. 43. 43
  44. 44. 44
  45. 45. APPENDIX E - COST TABLESr.No. Components Specifications Quantity Cost(in Rs.) 1 RC Helicopter Assembly 1 6000.00 2 AVR Microcontroller 2 340.00 (Atmega 8) 3 L298 Motor Driver IC 1 150.00 4 CC2500 Serial 2 2000.00 transceiver module 5 Programmer for 1 800.00 Atmega8 6 Wireless Camera 1 3000.00 7 Power Jack Male-female 2 40.00 8 Battery 9V 3 60.00 9 Battery Snap 2 20.00 10 Resistors 330 K 2 2.00 11 Capacitors 22µF 4 8.00 1000µF 2 10.00 10nF 6 12.00 10µF 2 10.00 12 Diodes 1N4007 2 4.00 13 IC base 28 pins 2 60.00 14 Connectors Female 2 40.00 Male 3 60.00 Wires 10 70.00 15 Switches Push button 6 18.00 On-Off 2 10.00 16 LEDs 3mm 4 8.00 17 Soldering Iron 1 100.00 18 Soldering Metal 1 60.00 19 Crystal 16MHz 2 40.00 20 7805 IC 2 40.00 21 Pot 10K 1 12.00 22 Heat Sink 1 50.00 Total 13024.00 45
  46. 46. APPENDIX F - CONTACT DETAILSNikhilesh Gupta : 9579277599, nikhilesh.j.gupta@gmail.comMitesh Agrawal : 95615444854, mitesh.s.agrawal@gmail.comHimanshu Rewatkar : 9766908475, hrewatkar09@gmail.comPritam Shete : 8149341281, pritam.shete4@gmail.comHarshal Unhale : 9890315428, hunhale1991@gmail.com 46
  47. 47. APPENDIX G - BIBLIOGRAPHYa. http://www.flyingrobot.co.in/b. http://ieeexplore.ieee.org/xpl/freeabs_all.jsp?arnumber=4209118c. http://www.engineerprojects.info/electronics-projects/flying-and-spy-robot/d. http://www.themachinelab.com/mmp8cam.htmle. http://www.robot-electronics.co.uk/f. 2007 IEEE International Conference on Robotics and Automation Roma, Italy, 10-14 April 2007g. Proceedings of MUCEET2009 Malaysian Technical Universities Conference on Engineering and Technology June 20-22, 2009, MS Garden, Kuantan, Pahang, Malaysia MUCEET2009h. http://www.rchelicopterfun.com/rc-helicopter- gyro.htmli. http://www.avrfreaks.net/index.php?name=PNphpBB2&file=viewtopic&theme=print&p =921106j. http://www.rchelicopterfun.com/beginners-guide-to-flying-rc-helicopters.htmlk. http://www.rhydolabz.com/index.php?main_page=product_info&cPath=137_141&produ cts_id=662 47

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