Intellectual Property Basics R. Page Heller, PE CLP RTTP Director Center for Technology Commercialization National Univers...
Perspective <ul><li>I will be presenting from a business perspective, not a legal perspective. </li></ul><ul><li>I am not ...
Fun Patents
What is IP?
It is Property <ul><li>Results of Intellectual Activity </li></ul><ul><li>Means of Individualization </li></ul>
It is Property <ul><li>Results of Intellectual Activity </li></ul><ul><li>Means of Individualization </li></ul>
Fun Patents
Types of Intellectual Property <ul><li>1) works of science, literature, and art; </li></ul><ul><li>2) computer programs; <...
Types of Intellectual Property <ul><li>Patent </li></ul><ul><li>Copyright </li></ul><ul><li>Trademark </li></ul><ul><li>Tr...
IP Know How Trade Secrets Patents Copyrights Trade-marks
Fun Patents Help!
Types of Intellectual Property <ul><li>Patent </li></ul><ul><li>Copyright </li></ul><ul><li>Trademark </li></ul><ul><li>Tr...
What Can You Patent? <ul><li>Processes </li></ul><ul><li>Machines </li></ul><ul><li>Composition of Matter </li></ul><ul><l...
What Can You Patent? <ul><li>Processes </li></ul><ul><li>Machines </li></ul><ul><li>Composition of Matter </li></ul><ul><l...
What Can You Patent? <ul><li>Processes </li></ul><ul><li>Machines </li></ul><ul><li>Composition of Matter </li></ul><ul><l...
What Can You Patent? <ul><li>Processes </li></ul><ul><li>Machines </li></ul><ul><li>Composition of Matter </li></ul><ul><l...
What Can You Patent? <ul><li>Processes </li></ul><ul><li>Machines </li></ul><ul><li>Composition of Matter </li></ul><ul><l...
What Can You Patent? <ul><li>Processes </li></ul><ul><li>Machines </li></ul><ul><li>Composition of Matter </li></ul><ul><l...
What Cannot be Patented? <ul><li>Human Cloning </li></ul><ul><li>GMOs involving human embryos </li></ul><ul><li>Methods us...
What Cannot be Patented? <ul><li>Discoveries </li></ul><ul><li>Equations </li></ul><ul><li>Rules </li></ul><ul><li>Varieti...
Fun Patents
Software
Patents <ul><li>Invention </li></ul><ul><li>Utility Model </li></ul><ul><li>Industrial Design </li></ul>
Patents <ul><li>Invention </li></ul><ul><li>Utility Model </li></ul><ul><li>Industrial Design </li></ul>
Patents <ul><li>Invention </li></ul><ul><li>Utility Model </li></ul><ul><li>Industrial Design </li></ul>
Patents <ul><li>Invention </li></ul><ul><li>Utility Model </li></ul><ul><li>Industrial Design </li></ul>
 
Fun Patents
Patent Terms <ul><li>Invention  20 yrs </li></ul><ul><li>Utility Model  10 yrs extendible </li></ul><ul><li>Industrial Des...
Types of Patents <ul><li>Russia </li></ul><ul><li>Invention </li></ul><ul><li>Utility Model </li></ul><ul><li>Design </li>...
Fun Patents
Patents Must Be <ul><li>Novel </li></ul><ul><li>Useful </li></ul><ul><li>Non-obvious </li></ul>
 
Types of Intellectual Property <ul><li>Patent </li></ul><ul><li>Copyright </li></ul><ul><li>Trademark </li></ul><ul><li>Tr...
Copyright Points <ul><li>Protects Look & Form </li></ul><ul><li>Immediate Rights </li></ul><ul><li>Author’s Life +70 yrs <...
 
Title 17 of the United States Code §109. Limitations on exclusive rights: Effect of transfer of particular copy or phonore...
Now close to 1 million lawsuits filed
You May Not Copyright <ul><li>Ideas  (E=Mc 2 ) </li></ul><ul><li>Factual information  (phone book) </li></ul><ul><li>Short...
Software
Types of Intellectual Property <ul><li>Patent </li></ul><ul><li>Copyright </li></ul><ul><li>Trademark </li></ul><ul><li>Tr...
Trademarks <ul><li>Means of Individualization </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Word </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Abbreviation </li></ul...
 
 
 
 
 
IBM’s Word Trademarks <ul><li>FASTTRAC </li></ul><ul><li>SOFTTRAC </li></ul><ul><li>INFRABLUE </li></ul><ul><li>BLUEDREKAR...
 
 
 
 
This bag contains 7 registered trademarks and 1 copyright
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Just Do It  ® Coke Adds Life  ® Управляй Мечтой  ®
 
 
 
 
 
 
TM of Harley-Davidson’s V-Twin engine sound.
 
 
 
Going  Gone <ul><li>Band-Aid </li></ul><ul><li>Superglue </li></ul><ul><li>Softsoap </li></ul><ul><li>Kleenex </li></ul><u...
Types of Intellectual Property <ul><li>Patent </li></ul><ul><li>Copyright </li></ul><ul><li>Trademark </li></ul><ul><li>Tr...
Trade Secret <ul><li>Any formula, pattern, device or compilation of information that is used in one’s business, which give...
 
Trade Secrets & Know-How <ul><li>Know-How : specialized knowledge or information that has economic value in not being wide...
IP Know How Trade Secrets Patents Copyrights Trade-marks
Trade Secrets & Know-How <ul><li>Know-How : specialized knowledge or information that has economic value in not being wide...
Trade Secret Term <ul><li>forever </li></ul>
Contact R. Page Heller, PE CLP RTTP, Director Center for Technology Commercialization NUST-MISiS [email_address] +7 (903) ...
Fun Patents
Fun Patents
Theft of Coke recipes ATLANTA – Three people have been arrested and charged with stealing confidential information about d...
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Intellectual property basics. Page Heller

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Presentation made at MIT Enterprise Forum of Russia Startup Bootcamp (9-11 December, Moscow). http://mitef.ru/ru/events/recent-events/282-startup-bootcamp-2011

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  • Doggie umbrella
  • Inch worm
  • We’ll be here all day! Let’s simplify this!
  • Let’s simplify the list into 5 major categories
  • You could think of them like this.
  • Kissing shield
  • Let’s simplify the list into 5 major categories
  • Machine: Life-expectancy watch
  • Software is patented as a process.
  • There are 3 types of patents in Russia.
  • We’ve been using invention patents as our fun patents.
  • Utility models only need to be novel in Russia. They are for incremental changes to machines.
  • A Ukraine patent for razor wire is an industrial design patent.
  • The shape (design) of this UV light is patented.
  • Baby bottom art
  • Patents give you the right to exclude others for this long.
  • A US plant patent would correspond to a Russian invention patent.
  • Goose hunter suit
  • Criteria for patents include 3 aspects that must be met. Non-obvious is hard to crack; it must not be obvious to someone skilled in the art. But, knowing the concept first is working backwards to determine that fact.
  • This cat toy has utility different from a presentation pointer. Do I infringe if I use it at home? In Russia, no; in the U.S., yes. In Russia personal use is permitted.
  • Turning to copyrights now…
  • Important points to remember are the following.
  • Well, the copyright law says you, as the owner of a single copy of a CD, for instance, can do whatever you wish with that CD. You can sell it in a garage sale, or give it to a friend. Napster was a vehicle to let one person give another their copy of a song. In fact, Napster never physically had the copy. It just went from one customer to another. The problem was, the original customer still had the copy. [A&amp;M Records Inc v. Napster Inc. (2001)]
  • In the case RIAA v. Tenenbaum , the jury awarded the RIAA $22,500 per song shared by Joel Tenenbaum resulting in a judgment of $675,000 for the shared 30 tracks (this was later reduced to $67,500 by the judge) and in the case RIAA v. Jammie Thomas-Rasset , the jury awarded $80,000 per song, or $1.92 million for 24 tracks.
  • Software is copyrighted to protect form.
  • Apple is one. But, how can you trademark such a common word as apple?? Well, like a patent, a trademark is only protected as to its use. So, I can’t trademark the word apple to describe a fruit, but I can for its use with a computer.
  • Hewlett Packard and the Russian car company UAZ.
  • Abbreviations may also be trademarked. IBM is the king of trademarks, as they are the king of patents. 23 patents issued per workday in 2010. 40k patents in their portfolio.
  • Here is a sampling of words you can’t use because IBM has trademarked them. What is an example of a building that has been trademarked?
  • Named for Forrest Mars, Sr., &amp; Bruce Murrie of Hershey&apos;s
  • Russian Olympic Bear, Misha
  • Pillsbury Doughboy
  • Chester Cheetah
  • Would you believe this one bag contains 7 registered trademarks and 1 copyright? In fact, the U.S. Patent and Trademark Office estimates Americans see 1,500 trademarks each day. Unless they go to the grocery store, that is, when the number will go to 30,000.
  • And who’s this? Tony the Tiger? The Exxon tiger? Wait! Which is it?
  • Actually, it is the ExxonMobil tiger
  • After 30 years of peaceful co-existence, Kellogg sued Exxon over the use of the tiger trademark at the end of 1998. Why?! Because Exxon started using the tiger on food products in their food marts attached to the gas stations.
  • Remember, trademarks tie to their use. See, I’m not the only one with sick humor…
  • Tony won. That must have been when he became all muscular.
  • Symbols can be trademarked, like McDonalds, of course. Right. Nike.
  • Mercedes
  • What’s the matter, getting harder? Nike.
  • What?! It’s Nike, again!
  • Under Armour
  • Toyota slogan in Russia. Nike, of course. An old one for Coca-Cola, used when introduced in China. It was translated as “Coke brings the dead back to life.”
  • Coke has a shape trademark on its bottle, but when they went to cans they had to use it to keep it.
  • A more familiar shape is the coke bottle. When they went to cans, Coca Cola began printing a picture of the bottle on the side of the can. This way they could say they were continuing to use the mark.
  • No, not the Empire State Building, as many people will guess. But, the Transamerica building is.
  • Mostly, though, it is used in the restaurant industry. Notice that the building is dotted out in this drawing. Here, only the roof is trademarked.
  • The intel chime
  • Harley
  • A sad note…so to speak…for a sound trademark. Harley Davidson just gave up their sound trademark for the engine sound. How about a scent ?
  • Beeline trademark colors
  • John Deere green and yellow are trademarked colors…for tractors, shirts, caps, toys…
  • Infringers are everywhere. You must protect your trademark with lawsuits to keep it.
  • You can lose a trademark if it becomes so popular that it is considered a common word in your language. This often happens when it is used as a noun rather than an adjective.
  • Finally, trade marks and know-how.
  • A trade secret is the last form of intellectual property protection I’ll mention. You don’t register a trade secret…you simply keep it a secret. It is often the form of protection for customer lists. Can you name some famous examples of other things protected as trade secret?
  • Here are some familiar examples of famous trade secrets.
  • Know-how is larger than trade secret since a trade secret is know-how that is held under strict guidelines.
  • You could think of them like this.
  • Know-how is larger than trade secret since a trade secret is know-how that is held under strict guidelines.
  • Here at MISiS, we are serious about the coming innovation economy. Thanks for listening.
  • Kissing shield
  • Comb over patent
  • Intellectual property basics. Page Heller

    1. 1. Intellectual Property Basics R. Page Heller, PE CLP RTTP Director Center for Technology Commercialization National University of Science & Technology MISiS © Heller 2009
    2. 2. Perspective <ul><li>I will be presenting from a business perspective, not a legal perspective. </li></ul><ul><li>I am not a lawyer and do not offer legal advice. </li></ul>
    3. 3. Fun Patents
    4. 4. What is IP?
    5. 5. It is Property <ul><li>Results of Intellectual Activity </li></ul><ul><li>Means of Individualization </li></ul>
    6. 6. It is Property <ul><li>Results of Intellectual Activity </li></ul><ul><li>Means of Individualization </li></ul>
    7. 7. Fun Patents
    8. 8. Types of Intellectual Property <ul><li>1) works of science, literature, and art; </li></ul><ul><li>2) computer programs; </li></ul><ul><li>3) databases; </li></ul><ul><li>4) performances; </li></ul><ul><li>5) phonograms; </li></ul><ul><li>6) broadcasting or diffusion of radio- or television transmissions via cable; </li></ul><ul><li>7) inventions; </li></ul><ul><li>8) utility models; </li></ul><ul><li>9) industrial designs; </li></ul><ul><li>10) selection attainments; </li></ul><ul><li>11) topographies of integrated circuits; </li></ul><ul><li>12) secrets of production (know-how); </li></ul><ul><li>13) trade names; </li></ul><ul><li>14) trademarks and service marks; </li></ul><ul><li>15) appellations of origin; </li></ul><ul><li>16) commercial names. </li></ul>
    9. 9. Types of Intellectual Property <ul><li>Patent </li></ul><ul><li>Copyright </li></ul><ul><li>Trademark </li></ul><ul><li>Trade Secret </li></ul><ul><li>Know-How </li></ul>
    10. 10. IP Know How Trade Secrets Patents Copyrights Trade-marks
    11. 11. Fun Patents Help!
    12. 12. Types of Intellectual Property <ul><li>Patent </li></ul><ul><li>Copyright </li></ul><ul><li>Trademark </li></ul><ul><li>Trade Secret </li></ul><ul><li>Know-How </li></ul>
    13. 13. What Can You Patent? <ul><li>Processes </li></ul><ul><li>Machines </li></ul><ul><li>Composition of Matter </li></ul><ul><li>Manufacture </li></ul><ul><li>Improvements </li></ul>© 2011 MISiS
    14. 14. What Can You Patent? <ul><li>Processes </li></ul><ul><li>Machines </li></ul><ul><li>Composition of Matter </li></ul><ul><li>Manufacture </li></ul><ul><li>Improvements </li></ul>© 2011 MISiS
    15. 15. What Can You Patent? <ul><li>Processes </li></ul><ul><li>Machines </li></ul><ul><li>Composition of Matter </li></ul><ul><li>Manufacture </li></ul><ul><li>Improvements </li></ul>Russian Federation Patent № 2051705 © 2011 MISiS
    16. 16. What Can You Patent? <ul><li>Processes </li></ul><ul><li>Machines </li></ul><ul><li>Composition of Matter </li></ul><ul><li>Manufacture </li></ul><ul><li>Improvements </li></ul>Sergiu M. Gorun, PhD, associate professor of chemistry at NJIT © 2011 MISiS
    17. 17. What Can You Patent? <ul><li>Processes </li></ul><ul><li>Machines </li></ul><ul><li>Composition of Matter </li></ul><ul><li>Manufacture </li></ul><ul><li>Improvements </li></ul>© 2011 MISiS
    18. 18. What Can You Patent? <ul><li>Processes </li></ul><ul><li>Machines </li></ul><ul><li>Composition of Matter </li></ul><ul><li>Manufacture </li></ul><ul><li>Improvements </li></ul>© 2011 MISiS
    19. 19. What Cannot be Patented? <ul><li>Human Cloning </li></ul><ul><li>GMOs involving human embryos </li></ul><ul><li>Methods using human embryos </li></ul><ul><li>Things inconsistent with public interest and humane or moral principles </li></ul>© 2011 MISiS
    20. 20. What Cannot be Patented? <ul><li>Discoveries </li></ul><ul><li>Equations </li></ul><ul><li>Rules </li></ul><ul><li>Varieties of Plants </li></ul><ul><li>Varieties of Animals </li></ul><ul><li>Combinations of things </li></ul><ul><li>that don’t share function </li></ul>© 2011 MISiS
    21. 21. Fun Patents
    22. 22. Software
    23. 23. Patents <ul><li>Invention </li></ul><ul><li>Utility Model </li></ul><ul><li>Industrial Design </li></ul>
    24. 24. Patents <ul><li>Invention </li></ul><ul><li>Utility Model </li></ul><ul><li>Industrial Design </li></ul>
    25. 25. Patents <ul><li>Invention </li></ul><ul><li>Utility Model </li></ul><ul><li>Industrial Design </li></ul>
    26. 26. Patents <ul><li>Invention </li></ul><ul><li>Utility Model </li></ul><ul><li>Industrial Design </li></ul>
    27. 28. Fun Patents
    28. 29. Patent Terms <ul><li>Invention 20 yrs </li></ul><ul><li>Utility Model 10 yrs extendible </li></ul><ul><li>Industrial Design 15 yrs extendible </li></ul>
    29. 30. Types of Patents <ul><li>Russia </li></ul><ul><li>Invention </li></ul><ul><li>Utility Model </li></ul><ul><li>Design </li></ul><ul><li>(invention) </li></ul><ul><li>(no equivalent) </li></ul><ul><li>USA </li></ul><ul><li>Utility </li></ul><ul><li>(no equivalent) </li></ul><ul><li>Design </li></ul><ul><li>Plant </li></ul><ul><li>Provisional </li></ul>© 2011 MISiS
    30. 31. Fun Patents
    31. 32. Patents Must Be <ul><li>Novel </li></ul><ul><li>Useful </li></ul><ul><li>Non-obvious </li></ul>
    32. 34. Types of Intellectual Property <ul><li>Patent </li></ul><ul><li>Copyright </li></ul><ul><li>Trademark </li></ul><ul><li>Trade Secret </li></ul><ul><li>Know-How </li></ul>©
    33. 35. Copyright Points <ul><li>Protects Look & Form </li></ul><ul><li>Immediate Rights </li></ul><ul><li>Author’s Life +70 yrs </li></ul><ul><li>Work-for-Hire gives rights to employer </li></ul>© 2011 Page Heller
    34. 37. Title 17 of the United States Code §109. Limitations on exclusive rights: Effect of transfer of particular copy or phonorecord. (a) Notwithstanding the provisions of §106(3), the owner of a particular copy or phonorecord lawfully made under this title, or any person authorized by such owner, is entitled, without the authority of the copyright owner, to sell or otherwise dispose of the possession of that copy or phonorecord.
    35. 38. Now close to 1 million lawsuits filed
    36. 39. You May Not Copyright <ul><li>Ideas (E=Mc 2 ) </li></ul><ul><li>Factual information (phone book) </li></ul><ul><li>Short names or slogans </li></ul>
    37. 40. Software
    38. 41. Types of Intellectual Property <ul><li>Patent </li></ul><ul><li>Copyright </li></ul><ul><li>Trademark </li></ul><ul><li>Trade Secret </li></ul><ul><li>Know-How </li></ul>TM ®
    39. 42. Trademarks <ul><li>Means of Individualization </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Word </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Abbreviation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Character </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Symbol </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Slogan </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Shape </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Representation of building </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Sound </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Colors </li></ul></ul>
    40. 48. IBM’s Word Trademarks <ul><li>FASTTRAC </li></ul><ul><li>SOFTTRAC </li></ul><ul><li>INFRABLUE </li></ul><ul><li>BLUEDREKAR </li></ul><ul><li>REALHUNTER </li></ul><ul><li>TAXTRAC </li></ul><ul><li>ENDURIMER </li></ul><ul><li>VERITRAN </li></ul><ul><li>FLIPTOUCH </li></ul><ul><li>THINKSCRIBE </li></ul><ul><li>BUDDYBOTS </li></ul><ul><li>WATCHPAD </li></ul><ul><li>FLEXFOLD </li></ul><ul><li>FLASHCOPY </li></ul><ul><li>SANSAVE </li></ul><ul><li>+1283 more </li></ul>
    41. 53. This bag contains 7 registered trademarks and 1 copyright
    42. 67. Just Do It ® Coke Adds Life ® Управляй Мечтой ®
    43. 74. TM of Harley-Davidson’s V-Twin engine sound.
    44. 78. Going Gone <ul><li>Band-Aid </li></ul><ul><li>Superglue </li></ul><ul><li>Softsoap </li></ul><ul><li>Kleenex </li></ul><ul><li>Rollerblades </li></ul><ul><li>Yo-Yo </li></ul><ul><li>Nylon </li></ul><ul><li>Cellophane </li></ul><ul><li>Aspirin </li></ul><ul><li>Escalator </li></ul><ul><li>Shredded Wheat </li></ul><ul><li>Thermos </li></ul>
    45. 79. Types of Intellectual Property <ul><li>Patent </li></ul><ul><li>Copyright </li></ul><ul><li>Trademark </li></ul><ul><li>Trade Secret </li></ul><ul><li>Know-How </li></ul>
    46. 80. Trade Secret <ul><li>Any formula, pattern, device or compilation of information that is used in one’s business, which gives its owner an opportunity to obtain an advantage over competitors who do not know or use it. </li></ul>
    47. 82. Trade Secrets & Know-How <ul><li>Know-How : specialized knowledge or information that has economic value in not being widely known </li></ul><ul><li>Trade Secrets : like know-how, but satisfies more rigorous statutory or common law requirements </li></ul><ul><li>Has value in being known to you and not others </li></ul>
    48. 83. IP Know How Trade Secrets Patents Copyrights Trade-marks
    49. 84. Trade Secrets & Know-How <ul><li>Know-How : specialized knowledge or information that has economic value in not being widely known </li></ul><ul><li>Trade Secrets : like know-how, but satisfies more rigorous statutory or common law requirements </li></ul><ul><li>Has value in being known to you and not others </li></ul>
    50. 85. Trade Secret Term <ul><li>forever </li></ul>
    51. 86. Contact R. Page Heller, PE CLP RTTP, Director Center for Technology Commercialization NUST-MISiS [email_address] +7 (903) 726 24 47
    52. 87. Fun Patents
    53. 88. Fun Patents
    54. 89. Theft of Coke recipes ATLANTA – Three people have been arrested and charged with stealing confidential information about drink recipes from The Coca-Cola Co. and trying to sell it (for $1.5 million) to rival PepsiCo, Inc., federal prosecutors said Wednesday (7-5-06) . The suspects included an executive administrative assistant at Atlanta-based Coke, Joya Williams, who is accused of rifling through corporate files and stuffing documents and a new Coca-Cola product into a personal bag. Williams, 41, of Norcross, GA, and 30-yr-old Ibrahim Dimson of New York and 43-yr-old Edmund Duhaney of Decatur, GA., are charged with wire fraud and unlawfully stealing and selling Coke trade Secrets, Federal prosecutors said.

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