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Winter 2012 Rising Point Winter 2012 Rising Point Document Transcript

  • INTERNATIONAL MASONIC REVIEW PUBLISHED BY BONISTEEL MASONIC LIBRARY TheBONISTEELML.ORG Rising Point Volume 25. Issue 1• • WINTER 2012 Myths and Masons: Romance in Our History: Page #3 “Human Progress is our cause, liberty of thought our supreme wish, the freedom of human conscience our mission, and the guarantee of US $9.95 1 equal rights to all people everywhere our ultimate goal.” Winter 2012 (The Scottish Rite Creed)
  • WELCOME TO WINTER 2012 For those of you who are new to this publication, we hope you enjoy what you see and come back. Suggestions and opinions are welcome. Contents Volume 25. Issue 1 - winter 2012 FEATURE ARTICLES MAILING ADDRESS THE RISING POINT Bonisteel Masonic Library 3 myths and masons 2520 Arrowwood Trl Ann Arbor, MI 48105 5 the origins of freemasonry 16 Web site: freemasons on the santa fe trail Bro. Mitchell Ozog , 32º Editor in Chief. 22 book review Bro. Karl Grube, Ph.D., 32º Managing Editor 23 book review Bro. Robert Blackburn 32º Book Review Editor LAYOUT & DESIGN 25 book review Bro. Mitchell Ozog COVER CREDITS Mitchell Ozog BONISTEEL MASONIC LIBRARY FUND RAISER The Bonisteel Masonic Library of Ann Arbor & Detroit has established a goal of raising $5,000 for 2012 operations. Your contribution will assure 26 the continuance of our award winning quarterly publication Rising Point and the yearly costs of online ann arbor Masonic temple publication. Simple scroll down to Pay Pal on the Index page at Bonisteel Masonic Library website donate by using a credit card. And More..............................THE RISING POINT is the official publication of Bonisteel Masonic Library and is published four times per year. Masonic Bodies are welcome to reprint from this publication provided thatthe article is reprinted in full, the name of the author and the source of the article are indicated, and a copy of the publication containing the reprint is sent to the editor. Submissions to thispublication and all Correspondence concerning this publication should come through the Editor Mitchell Ozog. The Editor reserves the right to edit all materials received.Fair Use Notice:The Bonisteel Masonic Library web site and publication THE RISING POINT may at times contain copyrighted material the use of which has not always been specifically authorized by thecopyright owner. We are making such material available in our efforts to advance understanding of environmental, political, human rights, economic, democracy, scientific, and social justiceissues, etc.. We believe this constitutes a ‘fair use’ of any such copyrighted material as provided for in section 107 of the US Copyright Law. If you wish to use copyrighted material from thissite or the publication Rising Point for purposes of your own that go beyond ‘fair use’, you must obtain permission from the copyright owner. In accordance with Title 17 U.S.C. Section 107, thematerial on The Bonisteel Masonic Library web site and publication Rising Point is distributed without profit to those who have expressed a prior interest in receiving the included informationfor research and educational purposes. For more information go to: United States Code: Title 17, Section 107 Notwithstanding the provisions of sections 106 and 106A, the fair use of a copyrighted work, including such use by reproduction in copies or phonorecords or byany other means specified by that section, for purposes such as criticism, comment, news reporting, teaching (including multiple copies for classroom use), scholarship, or research, is not aninfringement of copyright. In determining whether the use made of a work in any particular case is a fair use the factors to be considered shall include - (1) the purposeand character of the use, including whether such use is of a commercial nature or is for nonprofit educational purposes; (2) the nature of the copyrighted work; (3) the amount and substantialityof the portion used in relation to the copyrighted work as a whole; and (4) the effect of the use upon the potential market for or value of the copyrighted work. The fact that a work is unpublishedshall not itself bar a finding of fair use if such finding is made upon consideration of all the above factors. Rising point winter 2012 - 
  • Myths and Masons, Romance in Our History By John R. Snider, P.M. I would like to cover some of the highly romanced stories told conflict and discontent, which brought out armed men at Lexingtonby Masons about Masons. It is not particularly about them being Green and a shooting war at Concord’s North Bridge, with snipingMasons, although many are reputed to be members of the Craft, at the British column’s march back to much as it is about the practice of arrogating a history whichmay not be accurate, of which our Brothers have been active Paul Revere was a man of action, sympathetic to the resistance.participants. I have selected three themes which are part of the He, along with a number of other men, had volunteered to ride, atcore of Americana. First, Brother Paul Revere’s Ride, second, the the request of Joseph Warren, out to the countryside to warn ofsigning of the Declaration of Independence, which involved many the impending British advance from Boston, who’s purpose wasMasons, and third the apotheosis of Brother George Washington. to seize weapons in the hands of the colonists.Our understanding of Paul Revere’s Ride comes to us primarilythrough the poetry of Brother Henry Wadsworth Longfellow. This was not a solitary action by Revere, he was part of a much bigger effort to warn the countryside. He made it as far asThe signing of Lexington,the Declaration warningof Independence Sam Adamshas been and Johnextensively Hancock,portrayed (or mis- before he wasportrayed) and captured,was graphically and that wasmemorialized the end ofby Brother John his ride. TheTrumbull in his other men1817 painting were morewhich has been successful,incorporated on r i d i n gthe back of our farther and$ 2.00 bill. The wider, andlife of George promptingWashington has been told, and retold, ad nauseum, with many other riders. Only William Dawes and Samuel Prescott werearrogations of fact, and many of these come to us from Brother named in this ever expanding company of alarm riders.Mason Locke Weems, Washington,s assumed biographerin the early 19th century. And all of these are seriously Revere’s only comment on the ride was, “I proceeded to Lexington,misrepresented. through Mistick, and alarmed Mr. Adams and Col. Hancock.” His obituary, in 1818, made no mention of the ride. His minor roleThe definition of “romance,” as an intransitive verb, is: “to was left in the obscure details, to be discovered and romancedexaggerate or invent detail or incident,” as taken from Merriam – by Longfellow in January 1861, 86 years after the incident.Webster. Such has been the case in each of the aforementioned Longfellow was true to the definition of romance, with his lyricalevents. anapestic tetrameter, matching the rhythm of a galloping horse. The facts. Early historians have attempted to quantify the While poetic license is expected, his line, “the fate of the nation”American Revolution in nice neat packages, with definite dates, being in Revere’s hands belies the truth of the matter, but mostwatershed events and simplified details. This does not reflect the schoolchildren fondly recall, “Listen, my children, and you shallactual social dynamics or historical accuracy of these “events”. It hear of the midnight ride of Paul Revere.” Nothing is said of hisis arguable that the folks in Massachusetts revolted in 1774. It’s capture. Mistick and Lexington are but a small fraction of “everynot like one day we’re at peace with the civil authority and the Middlesex village and farm.” Longfellow’s Paul Revere was onnext we’re not. It is a gradual process of growing discontent and both sides of the river, arranging the signal, “one if by land, two ifincreased oppression. 1774 was when the folks in the countryside by sea”. No sea involved, it was a river. And then on the other sideoutside Boston started refusing to pay taxes. This resistance was of the river, he spends a lot of time awaiting the signal, patting hisrampant and the British response from Boston led to increased horse and stamping his feet. It was a borrowed horse, arranged Rising point winter 2012 - 
  • Continued from page 3and coordinated for him to mount as soon as he got there and persons in the painting are identified and Prince Hall, who wastime was of the essence. Revere never made it to Concord, as never a delegate to the Continental Congress, is not among them.the poem implies. The poem impresses us that Revere acted There is no record of him being in Philadelphia during this timealone and this was not the case. There were at least 50 named period. It is a romantic notion that he appears, probably attributedparties and a host of others, unnamed, who participated in the to the engraving process of printing money and wishful thinking.alarm. I guess Brother Longfellow got lost in a good story of his Certainly, he was very influential and a person of whom they areown making. The real story of a large number of citizens, infused rightfully proud, but he wasn’t there. So why include him? Well,with Enlightenment ideas of freedom and equality, rising to resist as the rest of the painting is fictitious, why not add one moreincreasing oppression over a period of years, is a far more romantic idea?complicated story, difficult to explain in prose, let alone poetry.But there is limited time to teach in schools, and we are left with Brother George Washington has been elevated to heroic status“The Midnight Ride of Paul Revere,” and it’s romance and his life story has suffered many distortions. Most notable is the biography of Washington written by Brother Mason Locke Turning to our vaulted Declaration of Independence, we again Weems, in 1800, a year after Washington’s death. Weems waswant definite dates, neat packages and simple explainations. We ordained into the Protestant Episcopal Church in 1784 and financialeven memorialize July 4th as a national holiday, commemorating a hardship forced him to take on book sales in 1792. Weems was anfictitious event. Who is the proper entity to declare independence? itinerant book salesman and even wrote a few that he could sell.We have attributed this to the Continental Congress, which had Washington was his first example. Parson Weems intermixedlimited authority in Colonial America. The real legislative body was moral stories with fact and came up with moralistic idealizations,the Pennsylvania Assembly, along with the individual assemblies of which the infamous felled cherry tree is but one. Weems wasin other diverse colonies. Pennsylvania was the keystone colony not alone in his deification of Washington. The whole country didin movement toward a break with British civil authority, and it was it, and Parson Weems just rode the wave of financial success.Tory leaning. The Continental Congress was primarily advisory, Washington’s last days have been recorded and he waswith no real legislative authority. And just what effect of law does attended by two Masonic friends who were the doctors treating hisa “declaration” have? In the month leading up to the declaration, final illness. In keeping with his wishes, they conducted a quietthere was an arrogation of authority to the Congress, led by the Masonic burial on the grounds of Mount Vernon. It was later, whencraftsmen and militia companies of Pennsylvania, manipulated by the folks in new federal city, learned of Washington’s death thatSam Adams, his brother John and Tom Paine. The country was the apotheosis, complete with Roman imagery, took root. Theysplit in thirds, one in opposition to the British Crown, one, the even named the federal city after him and included a burial vaultTories, in support, and one third didn’t care. The idea of making a for his body in the Capitol Building, which remains empty to date.declaration of independence had been widely discussed for some Parson Weems unabashedly romanticized Washington’s life withtime. Thomas Jefferson, and his committee, had been working these moralistic tales, They are only recently being debunked,on the justification for making such a declaration, for some time as more and more historically chic biographies appear. Butprior. His draft done by June 28th and the committee presented Washington’s ascension into the heavens graces our Capitol’sit on that date for discussion to the Congress. It was formally domeproffered by Charles Lee of Virginia, and it was approved by theCongress on July 2nd. There were revisions, deletions, changes So how does this process of aggrandizement occur? It wasin wording and Jefferson reluctantly complied. The final draft all done by good men, with the best of intentions. I suppose onewas not ready for signature until August 2nd. It was laid on a could attribute a profit motive. After all, Longfellow, Trumbull, andtable in the corner and various signers affixed their signatures Weems got paid for their work. Their agendae were not historicalover the next month and a half. There was no one big event accuracy. None of them were trained as a historian. They werewhere all the later dignitaries and retrospective revolutionaries all self trained in their respective professions, poet, paintergot together and committed an act of treason against the king. and hagiographer. The far greater stories are not condensedYet, we have visions of resolute men solemnly gathering, and descriptions of watershed events, hitting few points of historictaking an important step toward freedom. They were never all in accuracy. They are a story of grand social movements, inspiredthe room at the same time. Our vision comes to us from Brother by many folks, some unnamed, some heroic and some just beingJohn Trumbull’s painting of this fictitious event, done in 1817, 41 the best they could be, given the circumstances.years after the supposed event. Only 42 of the actual 56 signersare depicted in the painting. Trumbull consulted with men who And what of any Masonic influence? There was probablywere there at various stages of this extended process, noted their none. It is coincidence that many were members of our Craft.appearances and visited the site. Jefferson, who had maintained But the penetration of the Craft into society, in general, was morea copy of his rejected declaration, along with the final draft, asked pronounced in the days of these deeds. This is the downsideTrumbull to paint him standing on the foot of John Adams, with of Masonic name-dropping. It is also coincidence that all rodewhom he disagreed over revisions. The event as depicted never horses, but we do not blame the horse. Our history is rich withhappened. Trumbull’s painting, purchased in 1819, ended up on ideas, and we need not add to them, but rather ascribe the greatthe Rotunda wall in the current Congress building and has been truisms of life to their proper place in their lives. They each hadreproduced on the reverse of the $ 2.00 bill. their own motivations, which we can only surmise. Let us use our There is a mis-conception among our Prince Hall Affiliate gavels to divest ourselves of the vices and superfluities attendantbrothers that Prince Hall is depicted in this painting. All of the with our aggrandized history. Thank you for listening. Rising point winter 2012 - 
  • The Origins of Freemasonry Bro. Prof. Dr. U. Gauthamadas“…we must despair of ever being able to reach the fountain‑head Abraham, a descendant of Noah, who had learned the sevenof streams which have been running and increasing from the sciences, taught them to the Egyptians when he migratedbeginning of time. All that we can aspire to do is only to trace their there. Euclid, a worthy disciple of Abraham, taught the sciencecourse backward, as far as possible, on these charts that now of Geometry to the sons of the nobles of Egypt, that they mayremain of the distant countries whence they were first perceived practice an honest craft. He also gave them charges. And they to flow” (Brand’s Popular Antiquities, 1849) used Geometry to develop the craft of masonry to build great monuments. David, king of Jerusalem, loved masons and employed them toPreamble build the Temple of Jerusalem after giving them charges similarHaving explored the history of Freemasonry in Madras, I wanted to those by Euclid. And after the death of David, his son Solomonto explore the origin of Freemasonry. I had recourse to a few who succeeded him, gathered together 24,000 masons from farhistorical treatises and the plethora of (authenticated) material on and wide to and finished the temple started by his father. Amongthe Web and decided to give it a shot. these masons was one named Mamon Grecus, who travelled to France and taught the craft to people there. And among his pupilsLittle did I know what I was getting into! It is said that fact becomes was one called Carolus Martill who became the King of France,history when written down; otherwise it remains a legend and, and propagated the craft throughout France.ultimately becomes a myth. Having said that, we must also keep inmind that all that is written down, as history, need not be fact. Much St. Alban, the first British Christian martyr, who was himself aof the available material is a mix of legend, myth, and unfounded mason, employed many masons and obtained a charter forextrapolation of facts with a generous dash of fanciful conjecture. them from the king. And after the death of St. Alban, EnglandIt was quite a task to wade through it and tease out recorded facts. was invaded by the people from other nations and Masonry wasMoreover, most of the material consists of prodigious accounts destroyed till the rule of King Athelstan of York, the first King of alaid out, sometimes, in exhaustive detail mixing masonry, with Unified England from 927 A.D. King Athelstan introduced masonryFreemasonry and other crafts, and in no particular chronological, at the annual assembly convened by him. And his son Edwin,or historical order. Space constraints have also required me to who learned Geometry and Masonry, obtained a charter fromconfine the narrative to the history of Stone Masonry as it relates his father to convene an annual assembly of masons to monitorto Freemasonry. However, I trust that I have managed to put the craft. In these assemblies, he made the members recountforth a fairly concise and chronological sequence of recorded the charges or understandings of the charges and manners ofevents, having rarely to resort to an educated guess to produce a masons in England or any other country, and commissioned ameaningful narrative. Any errors are my own. book in which they were gathered. And these became the Ancient Charges of masonry.The Legend of Freemasonry: FinisThe earliest complete reference to the origin of Freemasonry isto be found on a parchment roll (estimated to be dated between The players in this story, belonging to different historic periods from1660 and 1680) presented to the Grand Lodge of England by those described, Douglas Knoop, in his “Genesis of Freemasonry”,George Buchanan, Whitby, on March 3, 1880). The gist of the considers that this account may have been conceived with thelegend is as follows: objective of providing the masons with something resembling the charters, or records of privileges, possessed by craft gilds at thatThe craft of Masonry was first introduced in the form of geometry time. Or, that some clergyman, or other relatively learned personby Jaball, an ancestor of Noah, who built the first house in stone. connected with the building industry, may have compiled such aJaball and his 2 brothers Juball and Tuball, and sister Naamah history out of an interest in the craft and a desire to show howfounded the crafts of Geometry, Music, Metal work, and Weaving, ancient and honorable it was.and inscribed them on two pillars of stone. These pillars werefound, after the great flood by Hermes, the father of wise men, We will now try to trace how Freemasonry may actually havewho taught the craft of masonry to others. The craft was used the building of the Tower of Babylon by Nemorth, the King of The origins of stonemasonryBabylon who was himself a mason. Nemorth, gave two chargesof the craft to 60 masons and sent them to his cousin the King of Masonry is the preparation and combination of stones to indentNeneveh, and herein originated the charges of masonry. and lie on each other and become masses of walling and arching, Rising point winter 2012 - 
  • Continued from page 5for the purposes of building. Stonemasonry is one of the earliest And King Hiram replied “I am sending you Huram-Abi, a man ofcraft in the history of civilization. great skill, 14 whose mother was from Dan and whose father was from Tyre. He is trained to work in gold and silver, bronze andThe New Stone Age, began about 9500 BC in the Middle East, iron, stone and wood, and with purple and blue and crimson yarnand is traditionally considered the last part of the Stone Age. It and fine linen. He is experienced in all kinds of engraving and canwas a period in the development of human technology, and execute any design given to him. He will work with your skilledarchaeological data indicate that c. 8000–3000 BC various forms workers and with those of my lord, David your father (2 Chroniclesof domestication of plants and animals arose independently in 2: 13-14).six separate locales worldwide in southwestern and southernAsia, northern and central Africa and Central America. This Thus according to the Hebrew Bible, Huram was the architect“Neolithic Revolution” provided the basis for high population who built King Solomon’s temple using stone and craftsmen fromdensity settlements, requiring non-portable architecture. During Phoenicia, and workers from Hebron. In the Old Testament (1this period people learned how to use fire to create quicklime, Kings 7: 14) we find him referred to as “the son of a widow of theplasters, and mortars. They used these to fashion homes for tribe of Naphtali, and his father was a man of Tyre”. The namethemselves with mud, straw, or stone, and masonry was born. Huram-Abi is not a misspelling. It is akin to the name Hammur-The Ancient civilizations then learned to cut and shape stone and Abi, and is pronounced “hyoo’ ram-ah’ bih”, and means “my fatherthus were born the stonemasons who built impressive and long is an exalted brother” (Holman Bible Dictionary).lasting monuments such as the Egyptian pyramids, and the Incan There is some material evidence that Phoenician templesand Peruvian step pyramids. Egypt, Chaldea, Phoenicia, India, incorporated two pillars: one for Astarte and one for Baal, andand China are the first countries to record masonry worthy of the this influence was probably carried through in the Temple ofname. Solomon. The Temple was completely destroyed in 587 BC byEgypt: By 4000 BC, Egypt had developed an elaborate cut- the Babylonians when they captured Jerusalem and we havestone technique. It was to endure for over three millennia and it no historical or archeological record, other than biblical, as to itsis perhaps the most instantly recognizable of all ancient cultures building or Egyptian architecture was colossal and rich in symbolism. Greece: Stone masonry appears to have spread from Egypt toThe prevailing thought of the Egyptian was death. Existing the island of Minoa in the Mediterranean sea around 2000 BCEgyptian temples were aligned with astronomically significant (giving rise to the grand Minoan palaces), and thence to Greeceevents, requiring precise measurements at the moment of the by the migration of the Dorians in 1000 BC, who developed Doric,particular event. Corinthian, and Ionic architectural styles.Phoenicia: Phoenicia was an ancient civilization in Canaan Italy: The Etruscans, who migrated from Asia Minor to nearby(roughly corresponding to the region encompassing modern-day Tuscany (Italy), picked up the craft from the Greeks during the 8thIsrael, Palestinian territories, Lebanon, and the western parts of and 7th century BC and developed their own architectural style. InJordan) from c. 4000 BC. Phoenician architecture may have been the 10th century BC, a small agricultural community was foundedinfluenced by that of Egypt or may have developed independently. on the Italian Peninsula and developed into Ancient Rome whichThe Hebrew Bible mentions the cities of Phoenicia being expanded into one of the largest empires in the ancient world.strongholds and walled in. The architecture of the Phoenicians The Romans began to absorb and synthesize influences frombegan with the fashioning of the abundant native rock and there both the Etruscans and the Greeks, and built hundreds of roads,is archeological evidence that they built impressive, though not bridges, aqueducts, baths, theaters and arenas. Technologicalartistic, palaces, temples, and tombs. advancements were often divided and based on masonry.King Solomon’s Temple: The Hebrews were a nomadic race who The origins of Masonic craft associationswere enslaved in Egypt for centuries till their exodus c. 1400 BCguided by Moses. Yet, they never had the enough opportunity to Greek Eranoi: Around the 7th century BC there were permanentmaster the art and science of building in Egypt. When they arrived societies in Greece called Eranoi. Their members contributed toin Canaan/Phoenicia after wandering in the desert they were still a general fund for the purpose of aiding one another in necessity,nomads with very little skills or knowledge. Being preoccupied by provided for funerals, met in an assembly to deliberate on theirwar they had very little newly acquired capabilities by the time affairs and celebrated feasts and religious ceremonies in common.they captured Jerusalem c. 1000 BC. When Solomon became Strict rules against disorder were enforced by fines. He who didking, he was in need of artisans, architects, craftsmen, builders not pay his yearly quota to the society was excluded unless heand building material to build a temple and palace as desired could show good cause of poverty or sickness. Some writersby his predecessor and father David. The best known and most assert that it was from the Eranoi that Numa gained his idea ofgifted people who could help fulfill the kings’ needs were the the Collegia.Phoenicians famed for their construction at that time. Roman Collegia: The earliest authentic record of the associationScholars agree that Solomon applied to Hiram the King of Tyre of artisans relates to those instituted among the Romans byfor assistance in the construction of his temple. Archaeologist, Numa Pompilius, second King of Rome (715 BC). He organizedCharles Warren was the first to document certain masons’ marks the artisans into Collegia (legal associations) and the Masons oron the foundation stones which were believed to be letters of the stone workers became leaders of this fraternity. One CollegiumPhoenician alphabet, thereby establishing the Biblical statement was attached to each legion of troops so that when a Romanconcerning the Phoenician origin of the edifice. colony was established, the work of civilization and art proceeded Rising point winter 2012 - 
  • Continued from page 6without delay. Franci, a West Germanic tribal confederation, raided Roman territory, and one of their tribes, the Salii, formed a kingdom inCollegium parallels: A college could consist of no fewer than the region in ancient Gaul that came to be known as Francia. Thethree sodales or companions, was presided over by a Magister Francian King Merovich established a dynasty that reigned from(Latin: Master) and decurions (Stewards), and had a treasurer, the 5th to the 8th century AD. The Merovingians were Christianssub‑treasurer, secretary and archivist. They had a common chest and continued the Roman Basilica tradition, and innovated upon(fund), a common cult (rituals), a meeting‑house (Lodge) and a it. The focus being on building Basilicas, few other truly largecommon table (festive board). There was a bond of relationship stone buildings were attempted between the 4th century, and theamong them and they called and regarded themselves as fraters 8th century AD. Between the 6th and 8th century AD the Byzantine(Latin: brothers). This bond required the duty of accepting the architecture was combined with the Roman style into a form ofguardianship of the child of a deceased colleague. The brothers stone architecture named Romanesque and many churches andpublicly interred their dead in a common sepulcher, with all the castles were built in this style in the Western European Romansurvivors being present. Thus the Roman collegia could be taken the precursors of Freemasons Lodges. Some very ancient records, note that during the MerovingianThough the rules or by‑laws of the Collegia tenuiorum are not dynasty (as early as 628), the trades and crafts of Paris organizedavailable, those of the Collegia Cultorum Dei which were similar themselves into associations called corps de métiers along theassociations are, and they are identical to the corresponding lines of the Roman colleges.regulations of the guilds in England. The Roman artificers continuedin their growth and following the destinies and conquests of Rome The Corps de Metier: The oldest code of the corps de métiersspread into every country that came under Roman domination. which has been preserved is probably that of Boileau (about 1260) that unites the masons, stonemasons, plasterers (both makersByzantium: When the Roman Emperor Constantine (272 – 337 and users) and the mortarers (both makers and users of mortar)AD) became the patron of Christianity in 312 AD Christianity under the banner of St. Blaise. From other sources we know thatbecame the dominant religion of the Roman Empire. In 324 AD the quarry‑workers and the tuilières (tile makers) owed allegianceConstantine shifted his capital to Byzantium in Asia Minor, giving to the same banner, also the millstonemakers.birth to Constantinople (Istanbul). Constantine wanted to buildgrand churches, but he considered the existent forms of Christian The Corps de St. Blaise: In 1467 Louis XI organized the craftsbuildings inappropriate considering the status of Christianity, and into a species of militia or garde national. The various trades weresought an architecture that had fresh meaning. He found this in the ranged under sixty‑one banners. The leading banners were thoseSaracenic architecture in Byzantium and the marriage of Roman of the six corps of merchants; the thirty‑second being that of St.and Saracenic architecture begot the Byzantine architecture with Blaise, comprising the masons, quarrymen, stonemasons, etc.the magnificent Basilicas that served as a combination of an The Confraire: An institution closely allied with the Corps deimperial audience hall, law court, financial center, and army drill Metier was that of the social assemblies (confrairie, conphrairie,hall. frairie). These met at stated periods, for religious exercises andBritain: When Julius Caesar conquered England in 55 B. C. social pleasures. Every craft banner belonged, as a body, to somehe found the Britons entirely uninformed about architecture of Confrarie. The society was composed of the same members asany kind. There is evidence of the establishment of a college the craft but comprised only of the Masters. Their most usefulat Regnum (today’s Chichester) in the form of a slab of marble sphere of action was the sustenance and relief of aged and poor(found in 1733) with the inscription ““The college or company of Masters, their widows and children, the assistance rendered toartificers and they who preside over sacred rights by the authority members in cases of illness and to companions on their travels.of King Cogibunus, the legati of Tiberius Claudius Augustus, in Their downfall was their excess in the social pleasures. A codeBritain, dedicated this to Neptune and Minerva for the welfare of preserved in the archives of the city of Amiens, dated Junethe Imperial family. Pudens, the son of Pudentius, having given 15, 1407 is styled the “Statutes regulating the Fraternity of thethe site.” masons’ trade (du mestier de Machonnerie) of Amiens “ which regulated their finances and their banquets.This decline of the Roman Empire began around 150 AD andcontinued over a period of approximately 320 years, culminating In 1498, the Parliament prohibited all banquets and Confrariesin 476 AD, when Romulus Augustus, the last Emperor of the and, at the same time, enacted laws to regulate the associations;Western Roman Empire, was deposed by Odoacer, a Germanic by 1534 when fresh laws regulating the associations were passed,chieftain. When the Roman Empire fell, most of the Collegia the Masonic Confrairies were in a large measure dispersed andbecame extinct except those of the stone masons, who probably dissolved and their scattered fragments were absorbed by theshifted their operations to France. Buildings of stone decreased much of Western Europe, with a resulting increase in timber- The Compagnons: The Compagnons (Companions) du Tour debased construction. With their departure the British Isles were France are a French organization of the journeymen of Franceinvaded (449 AD) by the barbaric Saxons who were accustomed formed for mutual support and assistance during their hovels of mud and habitations of rough stone with straw The title ‘journeyman’ derives from the French “journée” or day, ascoverings, and destroyed everything else. Consequently, the use such workers were generally paid by the day. After being employedof wrought stone for building was discontinued for the next two by a master for several years, and after producing a qualifyinghundred years. piece of work, the apprentice was granted the rank of journeymanFrance: In the meantime, from the 3rd to the 5th century AD the and was given documents (letters or certificates from his master Rising point winter 2012 - 
  • Continued from page 7and/or the guild itself) which certified him as a journeyman and refuge in the Temple, which was under a separate jurisdiction,entitled him to travel to other towns and countries and work for and the clergy forbid the ceremonies and institutions.other masters. The birth of Operative FreemasonryCompagnon parallels: The origin of the Compagnons is shrouded With the resurgence of stone work in Europe in the 6th to 10thin history, and is traditionally traced back to the time of Solomon, centuries, due to Christian religious fervor, thousands of impressivehelping to build the first temple in Jerusalem before migrating to stone churches and cathedrals were built across Western EuropeGaul. in a style known as Romanesque. The Italians builders with theThe Companions’ legend of Maitre Jaques, one of the first masters Greeks, French, German and Flemings among them, joined into aof Solomon and a colleague of Hiram, (recorded by Perdiguier - Fraternity of Architects, procuring Papal Bulls that rendered them1805-1875 , a joiner belonging to the Compagnonange “Sons of official and gave then certain privileges. They styled themselvesSolomon”) so remarkably parallels the tragic assassination of the as Freemasons referring to their freedom to move and work, andWidows Son as to have been its predecessor. But the ceremonies ranged from one Nation to another as they found Churches toand rituals of the Companions were kept a close secret and be built. They were governed by a Surveyor with groups of tenshrouded in mystery. Even Perdiguier has not gone into much member led by an officer called a Warden. This is the earliestdetail except to the following customs and arrangements: “A evidence we have of a society of Freemasons. There is no proofyoung workman presents himself and requests to be made a that the traveling Freemasons of the middle ages made use ofmember of the society. His sentiments are inquired into, and if the symbolism. Technical skill and study were the two requisites forreplies are satisfactory, he is embauche (recruited). successful endeavor in their line of work. Whatever secrets these builders recognized were purely technical and belonged to theAt the next General Assembly he is brought into an upper room … trade with the exception possibly of means of recognition thatwhen, in the presence of all the companions and of filier (network they employed to make themselves known to one another.or fellows), questions are put to him to ascertain that he has madeno mistake, that it is into this particular society and not in some Meanwhile, the art of building using squared stone and mortarother that he wishes to enter; and he is informed that there are was introduced in England by Benedict Biscop, the Abbot ofmany distinct societies and that he is quite free in his choice. The Canterbury. In 674 AD King Ecgfrith of Northumbria grantedordinances, to which all companions …..are obliged to conform, Benedict land for the purpose of building a monastery. Biscopare then read to him and he is asked whether he can and will brought in Freemasons from France in 674 AD to build St.conform thereto. Should he answer “No,” he is at liberty to retire; Peters’s monastery at Monkwearmouth, in the Romanesqueif he replies “Yes,” he is affiliated and conducted to his proper style. The King was so delighted at the success of St Peter’s,place in the room. If he is honest and intelligent, he obtains in due that he gave Biscop more land in Jarrow and urged him to buildcourse all the degrees of the Companionage, and succeeds to the a second monastery and Benedict erected the sister monsateryvarious offices of the society.” – Gould. of St Paul at Jarrow, again employing Freemasons from France. From the 7th to the 10th centuries the Anglo-Saxons constructedThere are three further degrees in the Companionage: accepted many churches using mainly square-cut building stones calledcompanion, finished companion and initiated companion, Ashlers.probably attended with a ceremony comprising the enactment ofsome tragic scene similar to that recounted in the career of Maitre The Norman conquest of 1066 brought with it a fresh interestJacques or of Hiram Abiff. in the building art. The Norman kings were great builders. They demolished the Anglo-Saxon churches and built the greatThory, in his History of the Grand Orient, reproduces the material Romanesque cathedrals in England. During these periods theportions of the Compagnon of charcoal burners: “At their initiation travelling Freemasons established themselves in England.a white cloth was spread on the ground, on which was placed afull salt‑cellar, a goblet of water, a wax candle and a cross. The The first reliable account of these traveling Freemasons is foundcandidate took the oath lying prostrate on the cloth and, with in connection with the erection of Melrose Abbey Church, nearhis hands, one on the salt, and the other on the goblet. He was Edinburg, in 1136. On a block of stone at one of the doors isthen raised and, after some “mystification “given the password; an inscription attesting the fact that John Monroe was a Generalwhich would prove him a true and good “cousin “in all forests. The or Grand Master of all Mason work. Engraved on the walls overmaster afterwards explained the symbols; the cloth represents the one of the doors is a shield carved in relief and displaying ashroud; the salt, the three theological virtues; the fire, our funeral pair of compasses. Also in Melrose Abbey churchyard amongtorches; the water, that which will be sprinkled over our grave; the the inscribed stones, is one marked “Andrew Mein: Meayson incross, that which will be borne before our coffin”. This is probably Newsteid, aged 63,” and dated February, 1624.the first reference we find to a ritual that parallels the speculative The Steinmetzen in Germany: From the 9th to the 12th century,rituals in Freemasonry. devout men from the British Isles, chiefly from Ireland, crossedAs the reader can gather, the ceremonies detailed above closely over to the mainland and, penetrated into the depths of the Germanparallel those of Freemasonry. An inscription found with the forests, carrying the doctrines of Christianity to the German tribes.names of Sons of Solomon, who died in the battle of Lacrau in the Wherever they went, they cleared the forests and raised churchesmid 17th century, bears carvings of masons’ picks, compasses, and dwellings for their priests. The monasteries they built affordedsquares, levels and other stonemasons’ tools. the means of acquiring skill in the manipulation of building materials. They may thus be looked upon as the earliest schoolIn 1648, with the interdiction of assemblies, the Compagnons took of masonry and the cradle of architecture in Germany, furnishing Rising point winter 2012 - 
  • Continued from page 8large numbers of cunning artificers and experienced master true, loyal, and obedient mason; that he would maintain the craftbuilders. It is probable that in the 12th century, or thereabouts, as far as possible; that he would not of his own initiative alterthe skilled masons of the convent builders left the employ of their or change his distinctive mark ; that he would not disclose themasters, who were unable to provide them with further work, and greeting (Gruss) or grip (Schenck) to any non‑mason ; and that heamalgamated with the Steinmetzen. would not commit any part of the ceremony to writing.By the 10th century Stonemasons’ skills were in high demand in The methods of recognition were then imparted to him and theMedieval Europe, and in order to safeguard their skills, enforce the ceremony concluded with a jovial feast, which was partly at theflow of trade to the select few, and to retain ownership of tools and master’s expense, and partly at his own. At this feast the Ordinancesthe supply of materials, it is believed that they were organized in a were read out and the Master renewed his pledge accompaniedmanner something between a trade union, a cartel, and a secret by the drinking of a toast with a prescribed movement of handsociety, and known as the Steinmetzen (Stonecutters). The first and cup, accompanied by a fixed form of words. It is not knownauthentic charter of the Steinmetzen was in the 13th century. what the grip was. But we have the account of Herr Osterrieth, an architect, who had been a member of the stonemasons’ guildSteinmetzen parallels: The Steinmetzen met in halls that they in Strassburg. Upon being admitted to Freemasonry at the endconstructed (Lodges), and were bound together by strong ties of the 18th century, Herr Osterrieth expressed his astonishmentof brotherhood, containing in their midst, master builders whose at recognizing the token of the Strasburg stonemasons in theminds were stored with all the mathematical knowledge of those entered apprentice grip.days. Records show that a meeting was rendered by the opened chestThey had three classes of members: apprentices, journeymen, of the society which contained their documents, minute‑books,and master masons. Apprentices were indentured to their masters registers and treasury; that this chest was usually secured by threeas the price for their training; journeymen had a higher level of locks and keys, which keys were in possession of three differentskill and could go on journeys to assist their masters; and master officials; that the presiding officer then knocked with some symbolmasons were considered freemen who could travel as they of authority (usually a staff or hammer), to procure silence; thatwished, to work on the projects of the patrons. the periodical contributions of the members were then collected,The Universal Fraternity of Stonemasons: In 1459, due to strife complaints heard and strife adjusted; that the locksmiths, andamong the various Steinmetzen in Germany and Switzerland, a therefore probably the stonemasons, closed their meetings byuniversal fraternity was instituted with four chief lodges, to which three formal inquiries, whether anything for the good of the craftall disputes must be referred. This Universal Fraternity issued or of the fraternity offered itself.ordnances to all the Steinmetzen whose masters chose to join All ceremonies were operative and conducted in the form of athe fraternity. In 1563 the Ordnances were revised and printed dialogue between the officials and there are no authenticatedin folio and described as The Brother Book of 1563, containing records of any speculative ceremony or secrets to be“The Ordinances and Articles of the Fraternity of Stonemasons communicated.renewed at the Chief Lodge at Strasburg on St. Michael’s DayMDLXIII” but first published as the Secret Book (Geheimbuch) Gould gives an indicative description of the ceremony of affiliatingof the Stonemasons. This is one of the earliest references to a a journeyman joiner: “He was ushered into the assembly and“Lodge” or to a book of constitutions. placed before the president in an upright position, his heels joined, his feet at right angles, which was ensured by the square beingA copy of this folio was distributed to every Lodge. The master placed between them. His posture was proved by the level, hewho had charge of the book was made to swear that the Book was required to stand erect, elbows on his hips and hands spreadwas not copied or lent, and that the Ordinances would be read out sideways so as to represent an equilateral triangle, of whichevery year to the fellows in the lodge. his head was the apex.Fraternity of Stonemasons’ parallels: The Ordnances provide He was denominated throughout “rough wood.” He was thenfor the master to appoint “pallier”s (guardian or warden of the directed to listen to a lecture. The first part of this lecture treats ofenclosure) to help rule the lodge. The Warden was to preserve the origin of the joiner’s art and includes remarks on architecture inthe order, the privileges, the tools and appliances of the Lodge general, couched in rude verse…..he underwent a rude symbolicaland to see that all instruments of precision (square, gauge, ceremony called Hdnseln …that is, handling or manipulation. Inetc.,) were maintained in full accuracy. He was to act as general the case of the joiners this consisted of being stretched on ainstructor to the fellows and apprentices and prepare, prove and bench, rather roughly planed and shaped with various tools, in factpass their work for them; to reject spoilt work and to levy all fines treated as rough wood under the joiner’s hands. The locksmithsfor negligence or otherwise. He was to call the brethren to labour turned a key round three times in the mouth of the candidate …at the proper time, “without fear or favor” and to fine those who did After this ceremony the joiner was called in future “smooth wood “not make their appearance. and, the proceedings being ended, was once more placed underOn the completion of his apprenticeship the young workman was the level”.declared free of the craft and obtained rank as a Fellow-craft. Gould also gives an account of examination of a travelling saluteThis act was solemnly performed before the assembled Lodge mason recounted by Steinbrenner:and was accompanied by some formalities. He had to take asolemn obligation “ on his truth and honour in lieu of oath”, under “What was the name of the first mason?” – “Anton Hieronymus”,the penalty of being expelled from the craft, that he would be a “And the working tool was invented by?” - “Walkan “. Rising point winter 2012 - 
  • Continued from page 9The most interesting part of this catechism is the tradition organized along lines of particular trades. Not much is knowncontained in the following dialogue “Where was the worshipful about the craft gilds of masons, though they surely must havecraft of masons first instituted in Germany?” – “At the Cathedral existed. The primary purpose of the craft guild was to establish aof Magdeburg, under the Emperor Charles II, in the year 876.” complete system of control over all who were associated in theCharles II was the King of West Francia from 840–877 and craft.the Holy Roman Emperor from 875–877. However, there is no Gild Parallels: The administration of craft gilds lay in the handshistorical evidence to show that there was any construction on the of wardens, bailiffs, or masters. The general membership wassite of the Cathedral of Magdeburg prior to 937. divided into the three grades of masters, journeymen or fellowThe fraternity admitted honorary members, and so it is assumed crafts and apprentices. Any journeyman could become a master.that the stonemasons were in the habit of admitting into their The typical gild had a common chest for incidental upkeep andfraternity the most learned men of the age such as Albertus for the relief of the widows and orphans of deceased members;Argentinus the designer of the Strasburg Cathedral, Albertus periodical meetings, with banquets; admitted members on anMagnus who planned the Cologne Cathedral (both of the 13th oath; administered fines; adopted ordinances for the regulation ofcentury), and Emperor, Frederick III (1440‑1492) who are all its own activities; and punished members for improper conduct.claimed by various works to have been masons. They held prayers for the dead, provided old age and sick pensions, pensions for widows, and burial funds. . As we can see,It is interesting to note that two pillars stand within the Cathedral the parallels are few compared with the previously mentionedof Wurzburg, in Germany (built between 1040 and 1075), which craft some period formed a part of the original porch. Their names,Jachin and Boaz, suggest a derivation from the celebrated pillars As a result of their alliance with the church, many gilds,at the entrance of King Solomon’s Temple, with which, however, participated in pageants with mystery, morality and miracle plays.their architectural form in no way corresponds. Their names These plays were staged on wagons drawn in a “procession”merely prove that the masons were acquainted with that part of from one exhibition point to another across the town. The variousthe Old Testament most interesting to them as architects, which gilds divided up the plays among themselves, e.g. at Norwich,in itself may have suggested the idea of constructing something the mercers, drapers and haberdashers presented the creationunusual. of the world; the grocers, Paradise; and the smiths, the fight between David and Goliath. At Hereford, the glovers gave AdamThe British Craft Gilds: The word gild originated c.1230, from and Eve; the carpenters, Noah’s ship; the tailors, the three kings.the Old English “gegyld” meaning “ a tribute or payment” to It is possible that these mystery plays were the forerunners of thejoin a protective or trade society. Originally Gilds were voluntary later drama of speculative Freemasonry, but there is no evidenceassociations for religious, social, and commercial purposes. to bear this out.These associations, which attained their highest developmentamong the English, during the Middle Ages, were of four kinds: In the course of time gilds multiplied until they came to be usedreligious, frith (peace), merchant, and craft gilds. for every conceivable purpose, for good-fellowship, for drinking, for insuring a decent burial, for worship, for hunting, travel, artThe oldest existing charter of a gild dates from the reign of King and for banking. In the time of Edward III (1312 – 1377) thereCnut c. 985 AD (known more commonly as King Canute). From were more than 40,000 religious, trade and crafts gilds listed inthis we learn that a certain Orcy presented a gegyld-halle (gild-hall) England. During the Protestant Reformation (1517 – 1648) allto the gyldschipe of Abbotsbury in Dorset, and that the members gilds were suppressed as superstitious foundations. The tradewere associated in almsgiving, care of the sick, burial of the dead, gilds survived as corporations or companies - one such wasand in providing Masses for the souls of deceased members. The the Masons Company of London - but they were devoid of theearliest gilds were formed for religious and social purposes and power and influence they had possessed. It is not clear as to whatwere voluntary in character. Subsequent enactments down to the happened to the craft gilds, let alone the gilds of masons.time of King Athelstan (925-940) show that they soon developedinto frith guilds or peace guilds, which were associations with a The origin of the term Lodgecorporate responsibility for the good conduct of their members It is not quite clear as to how the term “Lodge” came to be appliedand their mutual liability. to the basic organizational unit of Freemasonry. The term per seWith the building of towns based on trade, merchant guilds most probably originated during the Frankish period (see “Thewere formed and controlled the town government. From existing origins of Masonic craft associations: France”, in Part 1 of thisgild statutes of Berwick, Southampton, Leicester and Totnes article) from the “laubja” or temporary shelters made of foliagewe learn that each gild was presided over by an two alderman that the masons built against the sides of the cathedrals, to live in(literal meaning “elder man” – practically, a high ranking member during construction. This was later transformed into the Old Frenchelected to lead) assisted by two or four wardens who presided “loge” (pronounced “loje”), and the Medieval English “logge”. Theover the meetings and administered the funds. Merchant gilds term “logge” or “loge” was used in particular for a cabin erected byenforced contracts among members and policed members’ masons working on the site of a major construction project, suchbehavior because medieval commerce operated according to the as a church or cathedral, and may consequently have also beencommunity responsibility system. a type of occupational nickname for a mason. By the 14th century the term began to be applied to a mason’s workshop. A manuscriptSeeing that the merchant guilds had become closely allied with dated 1370 notes,”All ye masons…sall be…ilka day atte mornthe municipality, the craftsmen struggled to break down the atte yare worke, in ye loge ya: es ordained to the masonnes attetrading monopoly of the merchant gilds and formed the craft gilds, Rising point winter 2012 - 10
  • Continued from page 10wyrke” (All you masons shall be at your work in the morning every The birth of Speculative Freemasonryday: as ordained to the masons at work). By the 15th century it In order to prevent the total extinction of these old operativecame to be applied to a lawful meeting of Master craftsmen. It is societies and to preserve them because of their historicallogical to assume, therefore, that a lawful gathering of masons associations and their value as social recreation centers, acame to be called a “logge”, for the term “atte Logge” appended proclamation was issued in England somewhere between theto a personal name (e.g. Adam atte Logge), often denoted the years 1707 and 1717, admitting men of all professions providedwarden of the masons’ lodge. Medieval English had no spelling they were regularly approved and initiated into the society.rules and words were spelled according to sound, and so it The societies then began to admit members who were notappears that the word came to be spelled “lodge”. stonemasons. Pritchard writes, “Lords and Dukes, Lawyers andThe demise of Operative Freemasonry Shopkeepers, and the other inferior Tradesmen, Porters not excepted, were admitted”, “the first sort at very great Expence,Operative Masonry began to decline in the fifteenth century; in the second sort at a moderate Rate, and the latter at an expencethe following century it almost went out of existence. of six or seven Shillings, for which they receive that Badge ofThe Hundred Years War in France (1337 to 1453), the Black Honour”. Thus these old societies ceased to be operative inDeath (1348 to 1350), and the wars of Roses (1455 to 1485) character, but retained a semi-professional relationship to theresulted in a great waste of human life and the depopulation communities wherein they existed.of villages. Arts and sciences were neglected and the people The term “Freemason” which was first used to designate a workerlost faith in the church culminating in the Reformation (1517 in free stone, began to assume a new significance - that of “freeonwards) that dealt a death blow to Mediaeval architecture. All of the gilds.” And, as the number of operative masons decreasedgilds were suppressed by Henry VIII, monastery corporations and the number of speculative Masons increased, the society inwere dissolved, Cathedrals were no longer erected, and existing due time became known as the “Society of Free and Acceptedones demolished. All these circumstances impoverished the Masons”, consisting of fraternal groups which observed thepeople so that architecture rapidly declined. traditional culture of stonemasons, but were not typically involvedThe great London fire (1666) caused massive destruction and in modern construction projects.resulted in untold misery and suffering. In the rebuilding of From the minutes of the Lodges at Kilwinning and Aberdeen weLondon (for 50 years after the fire) the influx of foreign workmen learn that the Scottish Lodges not only took in non-Operatives aswas so great that the existing gilds of operative Masons were early as 1642, but that they were given an active part in lodgedemoralized and soon commenced to disintegrate. Surviving affairs. The extinct Haughfoot Lodge had a non-Operative majority,lodges met but occasionally and with extreme difficulty. Darrah with a ritual and ceremony, as early as 1702. The earliest existingnotes, “In 1646, when Elias Ashmole was initiated, there were record of a man having been made a non-Operative Mason inbut seven present to participate in the ceremonies”. England is that of Robert Moray who was “made” at Newcastle,The last account we have of the operative guilds of the Middle by members of the lodge of Edinburgh with the Scottish army,Ages is in connection with the erection of St. Paul’s cathedral in on 20th May 1641. But the most famous of all the earliest non-London, in the 17th Century, under Sir Christopher Wren. Just Operative Masons by far was Elias Ashmole, made a Mason athow many of these gilds were in existence at this time or to what Warrington on 16th October 1646.extent their influence reached is not known. Whatever record The minute book of “The old lodge of Melrose” dated 1675may have been kept was probably destroyed. It is, therefore, records a mutual agreement signed by eighty names. “In theimpossible to arrive at any definite conclusion as to what may mutual agreement betwixt the masons of the lodge of Melrosehave been the status of these operative societies. Darrah asserts ye master mason and wardines were invested with full powersthat it is beyond doubt that “there existed among them nothing in to enforce regulations, collect fees, fines, and penalties.” “Theirthe way of a central organization. Each guild was a trades union papers, notes, and money were kept in a box in charge of the Boxcomplete in itself, establishing its own rules, admitting whom it Master, or Master. Their funds seem to have been freely loanedpleased, and exercising its functions independent of all other to the members on “Tickets, Obligat’n’s and Bonds.” Early in theirsimilar societies”. proceedings, the terms “prentises” and “fellow-crafts” appear,The gild system also became a target of much criticism as the and the proceedings in 1695, record: “At Neusteid the 27 day ofgilds were believed to oppose free trade and hinder technological deer. 1695 it is heirby enacted and ordained be the Masons treadinnovation, technology transfer and business development. that nather prentis nor fallow Craft be received into our companieAccording to several accounts of this time, gilds became unless they hev ther gloves presentile produst to those personsincreasingly involved in simple territorial struggles against each they are concernd to pay too.”other and against free practitioners of their arts. In 1686, Dr. Robert Plot wrote in his “Natural History ofFollowing the great London fire, the rebuilding of St. Paul’s Staffordshire” about the Society of Freemasons: “for here I foundcathedral and other civil and religious edifices gave some new persons of the most eminent quality, that did not disdain to be oflife to operative Masonry, but it was not sufficient to revive this Fellowship. Nor indeed need they, were it of that Antiquitythese old societies and restore them to their former glory. At the and honour, that is pretended in a large parchment volume theybeginning of the 18th Century there was no general organization have amongst them, containing the History and Rules of the craftof Masonry. Ongoing building caused workmen to come together, of masonry…. Into which Society when they are admitted, theyform a temporary lodge, complete the work, and disband. call a meeting (or Lodg as they term it in some places), which Rising point winter 2012 - 11
  • Continued from page 11must consist at lest of 5 or 6 of the Ancients of the Order, when King Aheltstan who was a student of geometry, granted a charterthe candidats present with gloves, and so likewise to their wives, in A. D. 926 to a company of Masons. Legend has it that Princeand entertain with a collation according to the Custom of the Edwin assembled the Masons at York in 926, and ordered themplace: This ended, they proceed to the admission of them, which to submit available written documents in various languages aboutchiefly consists in the communication of certain secret signes, societies of Masons. From the documents so submitted he hadwhereby they are known to one another all over the Nation, by formed the English Masonic Constitutions, known more popularlywhich means they have maintenance whither ever they travel: for as the Gothic Constitutions.if any man appear though altogether known that can shew any of Gould notes that there is no sufficient evidence that thesethese signes to a Fellow of the Society, whom they otherwise call Regulations now called the York Constitutions or the Gothican accepted mason, he is obliged presently to come to him, from Constitutions are those that were adopted in 926.what company or place soever he be in, nay, tho’ from the top ofa Steeple (what hazard or inconvenience soever he run) to know Darrah remarks that, “So far as this assembly of Masons in Yorkhis pleasure and assist him; viz., if he want work he is bound relates to Freemasonry it is simply a myth.”… “While the holdingto find him some; or if he cannot doe that, to give him mony, or of such an association must be viewed as legendary only, yetotherwise support him till work can be had; which is one of their whatever assembly may have been held was simply that of anArticles.”. aggregation of rough stone Masons. In no sense did it relate to the cathedral builders of the middle ages.”The birth of the Grand Lodges Plot notes that the Ancient Charges were “brought into EnglandEngland: There is some indication that there was an ancestry of by St Amphibal and first communicated to St Alban, who set downFreemasonry that was associated with both working and non- the Charges of masonry and was made paymaster and Governorworking masons in England during the 17th century. In York there of the King’s works and gave them charges and manners as Stis evidence of a Masons’ Guild lodge in 1663. Amphibal had taught him. Which were after confirmed by KingThe Grand Lodge of York: The earliest reference to the Grand Athelstan, whose youngest son Edwyn loved well masonry, tookLodge at York is the minute book of the Lodge at York dated upon him the charges and learned the manners and obtained for1705. This Lodge functioned as a Grand Lodge in as much as it them of his father, a free Charter. Whereupon he caused thempossessed its own collection of Old Charges and claimed the right to assemble at York and to bring all the old Books of their craftto authorize men, to form themselves into attached extensions of and out of them ordained such charges and manners, as theythe York Lodge in the towns of Bradford and Scarborough. then thought fit ; which charges on the said Schrole or Parchment volum, are in part declared”. This charter has not been found.There are other records that attest the active condition of English The Grand Lodge of York considered Prince Edwin their firstFreemasonry at Yorkshire in 1705. It is inferred, therefore, that must have been in existence from earlier times and that itinterposed between the purely operative and purely speculative Gothic Constitutions: The earliest record of the old Constitution’sFreemasonry. However, the earliest document of the Grand Lodge is the Ancient poem commonly known as the Halliwell or Regiusof York available is a roll of parchment, dating from 1712 to 1730. Manuscript dated around 1390. The 794 line poem begins byThese York minutes give accounts of meetings of Private lodges evoking Euclid and his invention of geometry in ancient Egypt and(general meetings), General lodges (meetings on the festival day then the spreading of the art of geometry in “divers lands.” Thisin June), and St. John’s Lodges (meetings on the festival day is followed by fifteen points for the master concerning both moralin December). The ruler of the Lodge was called the President, behaviour and the operation of work on a building. There are thenand brethren, who temporarily presided, in the absence of the fifteen points for craftsmen which follow a similar pattern.President, were described as Masters. In the minutes we also find Another manuscript known as the Cooke manuscript, dating fromproceedings of meetings described as those of the “Honourable the 15th century also gives a legendary origin of stonemasonry.Society and Fraternity of Freemasons”. While the Regius claims that stonemasonry was invented byThe Grand Lodge of York therefore considered itself the Mother Euclid to provide employment for sons of the nobility in ancientLodge, and co-existed amicably with The Grand Lodge of England Egypt, Cooke, extends the antiquity of the craft back beyondin the South till late 18th century Egypt to biblical times, with the origins of the craft placed in the pre-flood era during Cain’s lifetime.Following the formation of the Grand Lodge of England, the titleof the Grand Lodge of York was changed to “The Grand Lodge of The legends have been embellished by succeeding authors.all England, TOTIUS ANGLIA”. There are 19 major and many minor manuscripts, totaling approximately 100 in number, whose contents build upon theThere is abundant evidence to prove that the Grand Lodge of medieval manuscripts and were compiled between 1583 andYork was active till 1792. However, for some reason, it seems to 1717. The contents of all these ancient manuscripts are all veryhave broken up, for Hughan notes in Ars Quatuor Coronatorum similar and historians presume that they are copies of some earlierthat “All the ‘York’ Lodges succumbed on the decease of their documents which were, apparently, lost through wars, holocaust,‘Mother Grand Lodge,’ and there has not been a representative required book-burnings and the chaos and destruction throughof the Antient York Grand Lodge anywhere whatever, throughout the ages. These Gothic Constitutions guided Freemasonry inthis (19th) century.” Britain for a century and half till doubt was cast on them after theThe Legend of York: From a 15th century manuscript written in formation of the Grand Lodge of London.the reign of Edward IV, we learn that Prince Edwin, the brother of Rising point winter 2012 - 12
  • Continued from page 12Prior to the 16th century, no mention of Hiram Abif is found in any a half can be attributed purely the publication of the legend byof the records of rituals of craft associations or gilds. The first Anderson, and subsequently by Preston.mention of Hiram Abif is in the Dowland Manuscript (1550), but In December 1721, a committee of fourteen learned brethren wasonly as one name among many. The legend of King Solomon appointed to examine the result of Anderson’s labors. In Marchand Hiram Abif appears to have been incorporated into the 1722 Anderson’s work was adopted by the Grand Lodge. It wasFreemasons’ ritual after the publication of the King James Version published in 1723, entitled “The Book of Constitutions of theof the Bible in 1611 with its Old Testament accounts of Solomon Freemasons, containing the History, Charges, Regulations, etc.,and his Temple. of the Most Ancient and Right Worshipful Fraternity, for the use ofThe Grand Lodge of London: In 1717 there were only four lodges the Lodges.”existing in London, and they determined to form a Grand Lodge The “Constitutions” formed the code governing modern speculative(according to Gould in his “History of Freemasonry” there were Freemasonry. To this was annexed the regulation binding theno Grand Lodges prior to the formation of the Grand Lodge in Grand Master and his successors, and the Master of every1717). Anderson’s Constitutions, published in 1738, is practically Lodge, to preserve these regulations inviolable, and orderingthe only known account of the formation of the Grand Lodge for them to be read in open lodge at least once in each year priorthere is no existing record of the transactions or activities of the to his installation in the chair of the Lodge. The Book mentionsnewly formed Grand Lodge between the year 1717 and 1723. that “All these foreign Lodges are under the Patronage of ourThe Grand Lodge of London and Westminster was formed, on Grand Master of England….. But the old Lodge at YORK City,24 June 1717 (the Feast of St. John the Baptist) at a meeting and the Lodges Of SCOTLAND, IRELAND, FRANCE, and ITALY,of the four lodges held in the “Apple Tree Tavern,” in London, affecting Independency, are under their own Grand Masters, tho’and Anthony Sayer was elected as the first Grand Master. It was they have the same Constitutions Charges, Regulations, &c., foragreed, among other things, “that no lodge should thereafter be Substance, with their Brethren of England.”permitted to be held (the four old lodges alone excepted) unless The Grand Lodge of England: In 1738, the Grand Lodge ofby authority of a charter granted by the Grand Master, with the London and Westminster changed its name to “The Grand Lodgeconsent and approbation of Grand Lodge.” of England”, and Anderson rewrote the Constitutions.The four Lodges agreed to recognize every Lodge, which should The British Constitutions, or “Old Charges,” do not seem to havethenceforth be regularly constituted, and to admit the Masters and predecessors nor rivals. Gould contends that, “The so-calledWardens to all privileges of the Grand Lodge. “Constitutions,” peculiar to England and Scotland, contain legendsThe Book of Constitutions: or traditional history, which are not to be found in the regulations or working statutes of the latter country, nor do they appear in theIn June 1718, George Payne was proclaimed Grand Master, and Ordinances of the Craft either in France or Germany”.he invited the brethren to bring to the Grand Lodge any old writingsand records concerning Masons and Masonry that referred to The Grand Lodge of Ireland: No specific record exists of theMasonic procedures of ancient times. foundation of the Grand Lodge of Ireland. There are references to Lodge meetings across Dublin in a speech given in TrinityIn June 1719, Dr. John T. Desaguliers was elected as the third College, Dublin as far back as 1688. The oldest artifact of FraternalGrand Master. Dr. Desaguliers was an erudite and learned man Masonry in Ireland, and one of the oldest Masonic artifacts in theknown in some circles as the Father of Modern Speculative world, is a brass square recovered from Baals Bridge in LimerickFreemasonry. it His learning and social position gave a social during excavations, which dates back to 1507 and is inscribedstanding to the Institution, and brought into its fold noblemen and with the phrase, “I will strive to live with love and care, upon themen of influence. The Craft rapidly increased in numerical strength, level and by the square.”respectability and influence under him with many noblemen takingpart in the ceremonies, and subsequently officiating as officers. The oldest reference to the Grand Lodge of Ireland comes fromAnother point in which Desaguliers took much interest was in the the Dublin Weekly Journal of 26 June 1725 in which is describedinvestigation and collection of the old records of the society. a meeting of the Grand Lodge to install the new Grand Master, the first Earl of Rosse, on June 24 1725. The Grand Lodge todayIn 1720 Payne undertook the first compilation of the available has jurisdiction over 13 Provincial Grand Lodges covering all thematerial into the “General Regulations”, commonly known as the Freemasons of the island of Ireland, and another 12 provincesAncient Charges. worldwide.In June 1721 the Duke of Montague, who was at that time GrandMaster, ordered James Anderson to “revise and digest them in abetter method.” Anderson took the fragmentary data which had The Grand Lodge of Scotland: The oldest record of the Grandbeen collected by Payne and added to it the findings of his own Lodge of Scotland is the meeting minutes of the Lodge ofresearch and submitted his findings. He gives the legend of Prince Edinburgh (Mary’s Chapel) which date from 31st July 1599. InEdwin taken, as he says, from “a certain record of freemasons 1598 William Schaw, signed and promulgated two sets of statutes,written in the reign of King Edward IV,” which manuscript, Preston or codes of laws, (known as the Schaw Statutes and incorporatedasserts, “is said to have been in the possession or the famous into the Gothic charges) one for use by the Craft in general, theElias Ashmole.” As the old manuscripts were inaccessible, and other for use by the lodge of Kilwinning. Schaw signed himself astill date few authentic records have been discovered, the general “Master of the Work, Warden of the Masons.” In these Statutes,adoption of the legend by the Craft for more than a century and he declared that the ordinances issued by him for the regulation Rising point winter 2012 - 13
  • Continued from page 13of lodges considered the lodge at Edinburgh to be for all time, the banned Freemasonry, for political reasons.first and principal lodge in Scotland. The first lodge whose existence is historically certain was foundedSchaw established permanent lodges for particular towns under by some Irishmen in Paris around the year 1725 and met “in thehis direct control. These lodges started to keep regular minutes, manner of English societies”. In 1728, the Freemasons decided toin which the initiation of entered apprentices and fellow crafts is recognize the 1st Duke of Wharton (Philip Wharton), Past Grandrecorded. The earliest available Lodge minutes are the those Master of the Grand Lodge of London, as “grand-master of theof Mother Kilwinning (1642), and Aberdeen (1670). Schaw Freemasons in France”. In 1732 the Lodge received official patentsencouraged members of the lodges to take an interest in the from the Grand Lodge of London under the name “Saint Thomas”.latest philosophical and esoteric movements. These new lodges But it was only in 1738 that an assembly of representatives from allattracted interest from men who were not working stonemasons, the “English” and “Scottish” lodges formed the first Grande Logeand intellectuals joined Scottish Masonic lodges. Eventually, de France, which gave birth to the French Masonic jurisdictionsthese “gentleman Masons” began to dominate the membership which exists today.of the Scottish Masonic lodges. The Grand Lodge of Antient, Free In 1743 the Grand Lodge of England is said to have warrantedand Accepted Masons of Scotland was founded in 1736 the “Grande Loge Anglaise De France” (Grand English Lodge ofThe Ancient Grand Lodge: During the 1730s and 1740s antipathy France), which in 1756 was changed to the National Grand Lodgeincreased between the Grand Lodge of England and the Grand of France. However, disputes and poor management led to itsLodges of Ireland and Scotland who considered the London demise and the formation of the “Grand Orient”, which held its firstGrand Lodge to have deviated from the ancient practices of the meeting on March 5, 1773. In 1871 the Grand Orient abolished theCraft. From 1717 to 1750, there were a number of Masons and office of Grand Master, since which time the duties of that officelodges that never affiliated with the Grand Lodge of England. have been performed by the President of the Council. A newThese unaffiliated Masons and their Lodges were referred to as Grand Body, known as The National Grand Lodge, was organized“Old Masons”, or “St. John Masons”, and “St. John Lodges”. In in 1914 to erect lodges practicing Ancient Craft Masonry on the1751, five lodges, comprising mainly of Irish freemasons, who same principles as those adhered to by the Ancient Grand Lodgewere dissatisfied with the way freemasonry was practiced by the of England, but to date it remains small in size and influence.Grand Lodge of England, gathered at the Turk’s Head Tavern, in Grand Lodges in Germany: There is no record of a FreemasonsGreek Street, Soho, London, and formed a rival “Grand Lodge Lodge in Germany prior to 1737 when a Lodge was possiblyof England According to the Old Institution”, also known as the formed in Hamburg. It is believed that Freemasonry wasAncient Grand Lodge (as opposed to the Modern Grand Lodge). introduced into Germany from England. Freemasonry in GermanyLaurence Dermott compiled the constitution of the Ancient Grand has been fragmented and undergone many transformations withLodge borrowing heavily from the Constitutions of the Grand Lodge differing Rites and degrees. In 1740 the Provincial Grand Lodgeof Ireland which had been published in 1751. His work was titled of Hamburg was warranted, based on Schroeder’s Rite which is“Ahiman Rezon; or a Help to a Brother; showing the Excellency closest to the English Rite, and a Provincial Grand Master wasof Secrecy, and the first cause or motive of the Institution of appointed. To date there exist eight Grand Lodges in Germany.Masonry; The Principles of the Craft; and the benefits from a Strict Grand Lodges in Italy: In 1733 the English Freemason CharlesObservance thereof, etc., etc.; Also the Old and New Regulations; Sackville, formed a Lodge in Florence that accepted Italianetc. To which is added the greatest collection of Masons’ Songs, members. In 1736 the Lodge was investigated by the Inquisition,etc.”. and published in 1754. and condemned in 1737 leading to the first Papal ban in 1738.The United Grand Lodge of England: In 1809 the Ancient and “Now it has come to Our ears, and common gossip has madeModern Grand Lodges appointed Commissioners to negotiate an clear, that certain Societies, Companies, Assemblies, Meetings,equitable Union. Over a period of four years the articles of Union Congregations or Conventicles called in the popular tongue Liberiwere negotiated and agreed and a ritual developed reconciling Muratori or Francs Massons or by other names according to thethose worked by the two Grand Lodges. On 27 December 1813 various languages, are spreading far and wide and daily growinga ceremony was held at Freemasons’ Hall, London forming the in strength; and men of any Religion or sect, satisfied with theUnited Grand Lodge of England with the Duke of Sussex, as the appearance of natural probity, are joined together, according toGrand Master. The combined ritual was termed the Emulation their laws and the statutes laid down for them, by a strict andRitual and adopted as a standard ritual by the United Grand unbreakable bond which obliges them, both by an oath upon theLodge of England, although other rituals continue to be used in Holy Bible and by a host of grievous punishment, to an inviolablemany lodges. silence about all that they do in secret together.”Grand Lodges in France: Tradition has it that the first lodge was However there were constant changes in Italian ecclesiasticalfounded at Paris in 1725 by the Earl of Derwentwater and his and political affairs and therefore in the enforcement of this ban.fellow Jacobites, who had fled from England upon the fall of Italian Freemasonry therefore developed a variety of confusingthe Stuart dynasty, but there is no evidence to support this. It is forms. In 1859 a movement was developed culminating in 1861most probable that Freemasonry was introduced into France and when twenty-two lodges assembled at Turin and formed theGermany from England. Though Perdiguier fixes the introduction Grand Orient of Italy which united most Lodges in 1873. The 1917of Freemasonry into France at 1715, there is no record of a Code of Canon Law explicitly declared that joining FreemasonryFreemasons Lodge in France prior to 1728, though there are entailed automatic excommunication. In 1919 a breakaway factionseveral unconfirmed accounts. In the 18th century, the Pope from the Grand Orient, formed themselves into the Most Serene Rising point winter 2012 - 14
  • Continued from page 14National Italian Grand Lodge. Today there are two Supreme Compagnons, and the German Steinmetzen have a lot inCouncils in Italy, one connected with the Grand Orient, the other common with the existing practices and rituals of the Free andthat works with the Serene National Grand Lodge, and the Grand Accepted Masons today, there is no recorded evidence to proveLodge of Florence. the link. However, it is possible that the practices of Freemasonry as we know of it today may have originated from practices ofSummary: these associations. Operative Freemasonry appears to haveThe craft of Stone Masonry originated in the ancient civilizations originated with the resurgence of stone work in Europe in the 6thof Peru and Egypt. It proliferated from Egypt in 4000 BC to Minoan to 10th centuries and the formation of roving stone masons into aCrete and from there to Greece, whence it was imbibed by the formally chartered society of Freemasons.Romans and dissipated throughout the Roman Empire. Speculative Freemasonry probably originated in England followingThe earliest recorded association of Stonemasons was the Greek the Great Fire of London when men other than masons beganEranoi, and the Roman Collegia. With the fall of the Roman to be admitted into the Lodges. Modern Freemasonry originatedEmpire in the 5th century AD, all Collegia became extinct except with the formation of the Grand Lodge of London and Westminsterfor the Colegium of Stonemasons, whose members migrated to in 1717, renamed as the Grand Lodge of England in 1738, andFrance where the Meringovians were building Basilicas. In France was established by the union of the Grand Lodges of England,the Stonemasons were organized into the Corps de Metiers Scotland, and Ireland into the United Grand Lodge of Englandwith their social associations the Confraire. With the banning in 1813. The combined Emulation Ritual has been adopted as aof the Confraires by the French Parliament in the 15th century, standard ritual by the United Grand Lodge of England and thencetheir members joined the Compagnons de Tour de France, an the Grand Lodge of Indiaorganization of roving journeymen, who took refuge after theinterdiction of assemblies in the 17th century. Bro Prof Dr. U. Gauthamadas was raised in 2001 in the Lodge of PerfectMeanwhile, Christian religious fervor led to the building of Unanimity No. 150 EC. IG 2006.Cathedrals throughout Western Europe with the stonemasons Member of Lodge C A Ramakrishnanforming themselves into an official organization called Freemasons, No. 192 GLI, Founder Member of Lodgewho ranged freely from one nation to another, selling their skills Prudentia No. 369 GLI consecrated inwherever required. Benedict Biscop reintroduced the craft of October 2010 in which he has served as SD 2011, and is the Secretary 2012.stone buildings into England by employing these Freemasons in 7th century AD, and it proliferated throughout Britain. Fromthe 9th to the 12th century the Christians from Britain undertook Professional life:missions into Germany where they built many churches and Dr. Gautham has 30 years of goodtaught the craft to the Germans. experience at best leading centers, and is currently Professor and Head of Psychiatry, MAP Institute of MedicalThe stonemasons in Germany organized themselves into Sciences and Research, and Seniorsocieties called the Steinmetzen, in order to safeguard their Consultant in Neuro-behavioral medicine, Child Psychiatry, Psychiatryskills. Gilds were also formed in England along similar lines. of Old Age, Womens Mental Health,The gilds were considered a threat to the economy and banned. and Neuro psychiatrist. Dr. Gautham is a Fellow of Indian PsychiatricThe wars in France and England, the Plague, and the Great Society, Fellow of Indian AssociationLondon Fire resulted in depopulation and decrease in building. for Geriatric Mental Health, Member of World Psychiatric Association, and Fellow of the Association of IndustrialIn order to survive, the guilds began to admit members who Psychiatry of India.were not stonemasons, and speculative freemasonry was born He graduated in Medicine from University of Madras in 1980 and then trainedin England. for 2 years in Neurology and Psychiatry at the National Institute for Mental Heath & Neurosciences, Bangalore (the best in Asia), a further 2 years in PsychologicalGrand Lodges were formed in York, Ireland, and Scotland which Medicine and 2 years in Psychiatry at the Institute for Mental Health, Chennaifollowed the Gothic Constitutions said to have been promulgated (the premier institute in India). Dr. Gautham has also trained in Child behavior & Development, and Geriatric Mental Health in Prince Edwin in 926. The Grand Lodge of London andWestminster was formed in 1717 and renamed the Grand Lodge Dr. Gautham holds a MD in Psychiatry, Diploma in Psychological Medicine (DPM) , Diploma in Child Behaviour and Development (DCBD), and has done researchof England in 1738. The Gothic Constitution was found defective for his PhD after his the Grand Lodge of London which commissioned the Book Dr. Gautham’s service to Disaster Mental Health in the aftermath of the Superof Constitutions which forms the governing Code of modern Tsunami 2004 and South Asia earthquake 2005. and the Tamilnadu and Andhraspeculative Freemasonry. Pradesh floods 2005, 2006, and 2007 is recorded in the Wikipedia (Click here for more...).In 1809, the Ancient Grand Lodges united with the modern Grand Dr. Gautham was instrumental in getting the University of Madras to introduceLodge of England forming the United Grand Lodge of England, concessions for students with Learning disabilities in 2004.with the Emulation Ritual that reconciled the ancient rituals with His popular appearances on Jaya TV’s channel produced “Iniya Illam” program tothe modern, and which forms the basis of the ritual adopted by deliver informative tips about mental illness and mental health ran for nearly four years with more than 180 appearances.the Grand Lodge of India. Freemasonry was introduced into theother European countries by Freemasons from Britain. Dr. Gautham has appeared on NDTV 24X7 alongside personalities such as Kapil Sibal. He has also done live phone-in Q & A programs on Sun TV, Podhigai,Conclusion Raj TV, and Jaya TV. He has written articles on various mental health issues for various newspapers and magazines including the Times Group, and the Hindu, and local language Tamil magazines including Dinakaran Vasantham, KumudamWhile the practices of the Roman Collegia, the French etc. Rising point winter 2012 - 15
  • Freemasons on the Santa Fe Trail By Paul GordonFreemasonry has been described as the world’s oldest and largest mainly of Masons.5fraternity, with a goal of “making good men better.” Freemasonry, Lewis and Clark were both Freemasons. A branch of the Santa Feor Masonry, has spread its branches over the four corners of the Trail crosses the Missouri River at Leavenworth, Kansas, and thusglobe. Where man has gone, so has Freemasonry. This includes intersects with the famous 1804 Corps of Discovery exploratorythe American Southwest and the development of the Santa Fe route of Meriwether Lewis and William Clark. Brother MeriwetherTrail, which generally dates from its opening in 1821 by William became a Freemason in 1797 in Door to Virtue Lodge #44 A.F.Becknell. While there is no claim that Becknell was a Freemason, & A.M., Albemarle County, Virginia. Brother William became amany Masons have contributed to the development and use of Freemason after petitioning and being accepted for membershipthe Trail. in Saint Louis Lodge No. 111, warranted under the Grand LodgeFreemasons, who refer to each other as “Brother,” meet in groups of Pennsylvania. But there are no records of his initiation. Saintcalled Lodges. Most Masonic Lodges in the United States trace Louis Lodge No. 111 did issue a traveling certificate to him intheir charters back to England in colonial times. Freemasons and work together for mutual and civic improvement. They The first explorers to travel what later became the famed Santause the working tools of stone masons as symbols of the values Fe Trail, Captain Zebulon Pike and his second in command, Dr.they promote, such as truthfulness, morality and brotherly love. A John H. Robinson, were both Master Masons. Robinson wasMason knows he can trust and depend upon a brother Mason. This a member of Lodge No. 13 in Virginia, and later with Louisianais very valuable, especially in circumstances such as the dangers, Lodge No. 109 at St. Genevieve, Missouri. These two discoveredchallenges and vagaries of the early southwestern frontier. While Pike’s Peak in 1806.6 They were sent on this exploratory ventureall are equal in the lodge and every Mason’s participation and by General James Wilkinson, Commander of the U.S. Army andwell-being is valued and appreciated, there are some who have a Freemason. He was a member of Nova Caesarea Harmonybecome more well-known outside of Freemasonry. Many of these Lodge No. 2, Cincinnati, Ohio.7 Robinson was actually Generalare associated with the Santa Fe Trail. In as much as Freemasonry Wilkinson’s eyes and ears in the foreign Spanish lands that thehelps to “build” the character of a person and a stable society, Pike expedition would ultimately find themselves.8 They hadso have Freemasons helped “build” the Santa Fe Trail. From followed the Arkansas river from the east, searching for its source.Franklin, Missouri to Santa Fe, New Mexico, many Freemasons This took them along parts of what would later become known ashave traveled from east to west over the Santa Fe Trail, some the wet route where the trail splits west of what is now Dodge City,making the journey several times. Kansas. At that time Spain actively discouraged American, FrenchFreemasonry in the Southwest Before the Trail Freemasons have and British expansion and exploration in the area it claimed as itsbeen involved in some of the major events in the southwest that own. On February 6, Pike reached the Conejos River, where hepredate the Santa Fe Trail and impacted its early development. built a substantial stockade (near present day Alamosa, Colorado)Freemasonry came to central Mexico from Spain. In those for the protection of the men.areas once controlled by Spain from the 1500s to the Mexican In 1810 Pike published reports of his 1806 exploration of theRevolution, including what is now New Mexico, Colorado, Texas Spanish held Colorado area. He had included information as toand other western areas, Freemasonry was slowed or actually how much profit could be made by bringing eastern US goodsdiscouraged by the effects of the Spanish Inquisition.1 to the Spanish occupied areas.9 The travels of Masons Pike andThis was also the time of early American exploration and limited Robinson would factor later into William Becknell’s opening of thefur trading in the west and southwest. One of the first fur traders Santa Fe venture into the Rocky Mountains was Andrew Henry, a Today, Pike’s contribution to the opening of the southwest isFreemason and member of Western Star Lodge No. 109 at honored by the “Zebulon Pike Memorial Plaza” in Larned, Kansas.Kaskasia, Illinois. His business must have been profitable because There is also a Pike National Trail supported by the National Parkby 1808 he amassed sufficient capital to become a partner in the Service.well-known Missouri Fur Co., an organization composed largely Official Spanish and Mexican Government attitudes towardsof Freemasons. Among the partners were Pierre Chouteau, Freemasonry changed dramatically in 1808 when Napoleon placedJr., and William Clark, both members of St. Louis No. 111.2 In his brother, Joseph Bonaparte, on the throne of Spain. Joseph1804 Baptiste Le Land3 set up a Trading Post in Santa Fe for the was the Grand Master of Masonry in France, having received theMissouri Fur Company. This was the year the Lewis and Clark degrees in 1805.10 When he was placed on the Spanish throne, allExpedition left St. Louis for the western exploration.4 A rival firm, restrictions on Freemasonry in Spain were immediately lifted. TheThe American Fur Company, also of St. Louis, was composed Freemasonry of Spain and France differed from that of England Rising point winter 2012 - 16
  • Continued from page 16and Scotland in that mainland European Masonry was strongly In later years Becknell served in the Texas Army during the Texaspolitical, while English Masonry discouraged ties to politics. By War for Independence from Mexico. During that time he becamethe early 1800s, however, there was a strong Masonic presence in a friend of Freemason Davy Crockett, 19 who was later killed withMexico. The traditional Masonry in Mexico which came from Spain other Masons at the Battle of the Alamo, where General Santawas called the Escosese (Scottish Rite). There is some evidence Anna had given his “no quarter” order. Becknell was under thethat indicates these Escosese Masons may have been involved command of General Sam Houston, a Freemason. After the battlewith the movement which led to Mexican independence.11 of San Jancinto, Houston had Becknell and his soldiers guard theThe official change of attitude toward Freemasonry is captured Santa Anna.20understandable by Freemasons. Freemasonry upholds the Freemasons were among some of the first to use the Trail. Oneprinciples of “Brotherly Love, Relief and Truth,” otherwise related, Mason, Meredith Miles Marmaduke (1791-1869) was a famedas in France: “Liberty, Equality, Fraternity.” Moral lessons are Santa Fe Trader and Governor of Missouri. In 1824 he led a wagonritually given, working through the rituals by degrees. The French train to Santa Fe and his journal of the trip was published in theRevolution was fought for the equality, liberty and fraternity of the October 1911 “Missouri Historical Quarterly. “21 Arrow Rock Lodgethird social class in France.12 These ideas were carried on into the No. 55 has several records of him as a Mason.22 He was buriedpost-revolutionary era of Napoleon Bonaparte. It is not surprising according to the Rites of Freemasonry in Sappington Cemetery inthat they would be extended by Freemason Joseph Bonaparte Arrow Rock, Missouri.when he lifted the Spanish restrictions. The development of the Santa Fe Trail was quickly recognizedWhen Mexico did become independent from Spain in 1821 as being in the national interest of the United States. Freemasonthere were significant ramifications for Masonry and for what and Missouri Senator Thomas Hart Benton, charter member ofwould become the Santa Fe Trail. The first three Presidents of Missouri Lodge #1, St. Louis, Missouri, Grand Master of the GrandMexico were Masons. Another Mason displaced the third, and, Lodge of Iowa, one of the most powerful men in the Senate andin February 1833 Freemason General Santa Anna was elected the most influential advocate of western expansion, introducedpresident.13 Santa Anna’s Masonic affiliations were tenuous.14 a bill to have the Santa Fe Trail surveyed. In 1825, GeorgeWilliam Becknell would cross paths with Santa Anna, and many Champlin Sibley was commissioned to survey the Trail, a clearother Masons, later during the Mexican–American war. In the “trace” having been worn in many places by the wagon wheels.meantime, Freemasonry’s growing popularity in Mexico would His recommendations as to placement of forts and trading postsprovide fertile grounds for the expansion of Freemasonry into were acted on by Congress.23 Benton was the promoter of theareas such as New Mexico, Colorado, and Texas. slogan “Manifest Destiny.” One of his Lodge Brothers, CharlesAnother significant development after the Mexican revolution Bent, helped establish trading posts, or Forts, along the Santa Fewas the opening of trade with the United States over what would Trail and later become New Mexico’s first American Governor.become the Santa Fe Trail. The new country of Mexico was eager One of those hired onto an early trading trip on the Trail was Kitfor such trade and no longer attempted to exclude Americans from Carson, who made several trips over the trail as a guide andits territory. Thus, when Becknell came into contact with Mexican in other capacities. Carson became a Freemason in 1854 insoldiers at Rock River and was escorted to Santa Fe 1821, he Montezuma Lodge #109 Santa Fe, Territory of New Mexico underwas welcomed and trade was encouraged. dispensation for the Grand Lodge of Missouri. He then became aFreemasons Help Establish the Trail Charter Member and first Junior Warden of the new Bent LodgeCaptain William Becknell is known as the Father of the Santa Fe #204 in Taos, New Mexico under a dispensation from the GrandTrail. Becknell had many contacts with Freemasons throughout Lodge of Missouri. He lived in Taos at the time. At various timeshis life. He served as a sergeant in the Missouri Militia during in his life he was a mountain man, scout, Indian Agent, soldier,the War of 1812 under Captain Nathan Boone, who was the son and rancher. Built in 1825, his home in Taos remains and is now aof Daniel Boone. Considered a famous American Freemason,15 Museum remembering Brother Kit Carson and early Southwesternaccording to Nathan, Daniel Boone was a Mason.16 Becknell culture. It is owned by Bent Lodge #42 (reconstituted) andmay have been familiar with Boone as Nathan and Daniel lived operated by the Kit Carson Memorial Foundation, Inc. He died inin Missouri in the later years of Boone’s life before his death in 1868 and is buried in the Kit Carson Cemetery in Taos.1820. Becknell made his first trading expedition from Franklin, In 1829 William and Charles Bent led a caravan to Santa Fe. AMissouri. Franklin Missouri was named after Benjamin Franklin. year later they formed Bent, St. Vrain & Company with Ceran St.Benjamin Franklin was one of the great American Freemasons. Vrain, a Taos trader and ex-trapper. Charles directed the SantaUnion Lodge No. 7 was chartered in 1821 at Franklin. Fe trade, taking up residence in Taos and making seasonal tripsPike’s maps and notes were used by Becknell in 1821 when he to St. Louis. Ceran St. Vrain ran the company stores in Taos andopened the Santa Fe Trail.17 In deciding to seek his fortune in the Santa Fe and served as American Consul in Santa Fe during theSouthwest, probably his main sources of information were an old 1830’s. They established several Forts, or trading posts, alongtrapper, Zeke Williams, and the man who was second in command what was becoming the wet route on the western part of the Santaunder Zebulon Pike, Dr. Robinson. It is known that both men lived Fe Trail. Charles Bent and St. Vrain were both that time within one hundred miles of where Becknell lived in Bent had always been recognized as a brother by all Masons whoFranklin, Missouri. Williams would have known the details of the came in contact with him. It was a matter of common knowledgefur traders’ route followed by Becknell on this first trip to Santa among Freemasons that he had been buried with Masonic honorsFe. Dr. Robinson could have supplied the latest details about the by his brethren and comrades at Santa Fe, that when a Lodgepolitical situation in Mexico because he was in correspondence of Masons was formed at Taos in 1860 it was chartered by thewith other doctors and, apparently, with political figures in both Grand Lodge of Missouri as Bent Lodge No. 204, and that when,Europe as well as the US.18 in after years, a Lodge was chartered by the Grand Lodge of New Rising point winter 2012 - 17
  • Continued from page 17Mexico for Taos, it took the name of Bent Lodge No. 42. It was not Scottish Rite in the Southern Jurisdiction. He had traveleduntil a copy of the Reprint of the Proceedings of the Grand Lodge extensively in the undeveloped Southwest, arriving at Taos,of Missouri was obtained by Brother T. P. Martin, M. D., of Taos, New Mexico in 1831. He became a Master Mason in Westerna co-worker in Masonic research, that any definite information Star Lodge No. 2, in Little Rock, Arkansas in 1850. He rewrotewas uncovered. By it we find the name of Charles Bent standing the ritual of the rite of the Southern Jurisdiction, and authoredalongside of Senator Benton as a charter member of Missouri “Morals and Dogma,” the most extensive work ever written on theLodge, No. 1, of St. Louis. This was in 1821.24 fundamentals and traditions of Scottish Rite Masonry.29 There isIn 1826 Ceran St. Vrain was captain of a party of trappers leading included in the modern Scottish Rite Degrees a setting that takesan expedition down through New Mexico as far as the river Gila. place on the Oregon Trail, which intersects with part of the SantaIt was on this expedition that Kit Carson made his maiden trip Fe Trail in northeast Kansas.beyond the frontier. At this time St. Vrain was probably associated Another well known person was William “Buffalo Bill” Cody, whowith William Bent, who, about 1824, had erected a stockade on as a young man hunted buffalo along the Trail to supply meat forthe bank of the Arkansas River near where Pueblo now is. Soon the railroads as they worked their way west.30 Indian scout, buffaloafterwards the Bents and St. Vrain erected another stockade near hunter, pony express rider, circus owner, Buffalo Bill Cody remainsthe junction of the Purgatoire River with the Arkansas. In 1828 St. one of the all-time colorful heroes of Western lore. He became aVrain, associated with William and Charles Bent, commenced the Freemason in 1870. Cody was buried with Masonic pomp anderection of a formidable fort, afterwards known as Bent’s Fort or ceremony by Golden City Lodge No. 1 of Golden, Colorado, atFort William, on the north bank of the Arkansas River, a few miles the request of his home Lodge, Platte Valley Lodge No. 32, ofeast of the present city of Las Animas, Colorado. 25 The Bent’s North Platte, Nebraska. His body lies on Lookout Mountain nearFort site is preserved by the National Parks Service. Denver, Colorado.31Colonel St. Vrain, like many other sturdy men of the frontier, was In settled areas and times there are and have been Masonic Lodges,long prepared in his heart to become a Freemason, before he Lodge buildings and Masonic Temples in most communities ofhad had an opportunity to knock at the door of a Lodge. He had any size. That certainly was not the case on the southwesternbeen intimately acquainted and more or less associated with men frontier in the early days of the Trail. Masonic jurisdictions hadlike Charles Bent, Dr. David Waldo, James Kennerly, and Colonel not yet been clearly established by the Grand Lodges of States.Dodge, who had long been members of the Order. He therefore For the frontier Freemasons, most of the meetings held beforepresented himself for initiation March 22, 1853, was passed establishment of a state’s Grand Lodge might be consideredApril 16, 1853, and raised Jan. 28, 1855, receiving his degrees “irregular” or not correct today, but small informal gatheringsin Montezuma Lodge, No. 109, of the jurisdiction of Missouri, at happened whenever three or more Masons met on the trails,Santa Fe. He demitted there from April 7, 1860, and together at trading posts or at small settlements. Sometimes they met inwith Bros. Kit Carson, Peter Joseph, Ferdinand Maxwell, John cabins, sometimes in tents.32M. Francisco, A. S. Ferris, and others he formed a Lodge at Taos, As communities developed, Masonic Lodges were often soonunder a charter from the Grand Lodge of Missouri, issued on June established. Some communities that developed along the Santa1, 1860. This Lodge was known as Bent Lodge, No. 204.26 Fe Trail are good examples. The Mora and Sapello Rivers joinDuring the first ten years following Mexican independence a at La Junta (The Junction) now called Watrous. The Mountainlarge number of trappers visited the Southwest. Mason Stephen and Cimarron Branches join there to make one Trail to SantaCooper, a trapper, went through New Mexico in 1821-1822, visiting Fe. Samuel B. Watrous was Charter Master (1849) of the lodgein Santa Fe and Taos. Another Mason, George C. Yount, became meeting in the old Masonic Hall in La Junta. It also had membersintimately acquainted with Brothers St. Vrain, Bent, Kit Carson from the Fort Union military.33and others headquartered in Taos. Dr. Rowland Willard, Junior The military made good use of the Trail and helped spreadWarden of Hyram Lodge No. 3, St. Charles, Missouri, visited New Freemasonry along the way. Masonic Lodges have sometimesMexico in 1825.27 been associated with military units, often called military lodges.Freemasonry teaches and encourages the tenants of fortitude As already seen, a great many military leaders were Freemasons.and perseverance. No doubt these early Masons had ample Several military forts were established along the Santa Fe Trailopportunities to exercise and practice these virtues as they forged to protect travels and secure the frontier. Use of the Trail wastheir way through the hardships and dangers along the Santa Fe very helpful for the military itself. On the eastern side of the TrailTrail. As they crossed the Indian frontiers and into what was still the departure point for most of the military goods became FortMexico in the early years of the Trail, these Masons were traveling Leavenworth on the Missouri River north of Kansas City. Hereinto foreign countries to work and receive their wages. Many goods were received that had been shipped up the Missouri Riverbettered their circumstances and had the opportunity to practice by steamboat and then loaded on wagons for the trip to Newcharity, the distinguishing characteristic of a Freemason’s heart. Mexico. 34 Leavenworth, Kansas, on the Missouri River and a spurFreemasons On and Over the Trail of the Santa Fe Trail, has a long and rich Masonic background.As more traders, pioneers, and settlers began using the trail, During the Mexican War the territory of New Mexico and Arizonait was natural that Freemasons would be among them. At was taken over by the United States Army under General StephenIndependence, Missouri, Independence Lodge No. 76 would Watts Kearny. Stephen Kearny and his army of some 3,700hold public and somewhat elaborate commemorations for the men departed Ft. Leavenworth along the Santa Fe Trail to pushdeparture of Brother Masons as they set off over the Trail. 28 the Mexican army out of the New Mexico territory and defendAn influential Freemason, Albert Pike, was a relative of Zebulon California.35 General Kearny occupied Las Vegas, New Mexico,Pike. Albert Pike was an author, lawyer and soldier. He became without opposition on August 15, 1846. Three days later he enteredthe eighth Sovereign Grand Commander of the Ancient Accepted Santa Fe and issued a proclamation taking formal possession of Rising point winter 2012 - 18
  • Continued from page 18the territory. The proclamation assured the inhabitants of freedom a wonderful Masonic Temple Building. Much of the wood work,of worship and protection of property. Before General Kearny left furnishings and accoutrements came from the east across theNew Mexico, he proclaimed a code of laws for the area known as Santa Fe Trail. There is a wonderful 19 minute video showingthe Kearny Code. 36 The General on September 22, appointed the the inside and outside of the Temple, and a detailed explanationfollowing to civil offices: Charles Bent, Governor, Donaisano Vigil, of the Lodge and its functioning, on YouTube at of the Territory; Richard Dallam, Marshal; Francis P. com/watch?v=nbuBzTpf3wQ, October 12, 2011 entitled “MasonicBlair, United States District Attorney; Charles Blummer, Treasurer; Lodge 150 years + 116 yr Bldg, Las Vegas New Mexico.” 44Joat Houghton, Antonio Jose Otero, and Charles Beaubien, As the United States Territories and States expanded in the areasJudges of the Superior Court. Of these, Bent, Dallam, Blummer, covered by the Trail so did Freemasonry. The Grand Lodge ofHoughton, Otero and Beaubien were Masons.37 Missouri was established in early 1821. The three founding LodgesIn January 1847 Colonel Price quelled an insurrection at Taos had originally been chartered by the Grand Lodge of which Governor Bent was assassinated. Colonel Price was a Representatives of these three Lodges met on February 22,member of Warren Lodge No. 74, Keytesville, Missouri.38 1821 in St. Louis. Grand Lodge Officers were installed on MayOne of the early Military Lodges to operate along the trail was 4, 1821.45“Missouri Military Lodge No. 86,” chartered by Grand Master Ralls. The Grand Lodge of Kansas is the governing body of FreemasonryIt held its first meeting in Independence, Missouri. It was called in Kansas, formed March 17, 1856, nearly five years beforean ambulant or traveling Lodge “holding its communications when Kansas statehood. Bleeding Kansas, the prelude to America’scalled to labor in the movement of troops as occasion permitted.” Civil War, provided the backdrop to Kansas Freemasonry. In 1854,On September 18, 1847, a special meeting was held at Santa three Wyandot Indians and five white settlers – all of whom wereFe. This meeting of Missouri Military Lodge No. 86 is believed Masons – coalesced in what is now Wyandotte County, Kansas,to be the first sanctioned Masonic meeting to be held in the vast and petitioned the Grand Lodge of Missouri to establish a Lodgeexpanse extending from the Missouri on the east to the Pacific of Masons in a Wyandot Indian village. On August 4, 1854, theOcean and from Canada to Texas and Old Mexico.39 dispensation was granted and one week later Kansas Lodge U.D.Hardin Military Lodge No. 87 was created at a meeting of Military (eventually to become Wyandotte Lodge No. 3) opened for work.Lodge No. 86 in Santa Fe, on October 8, 1847. At this meeting Within two years, two other Lodges in Kansas were formed anda petition was presented for a dispensation of a Lodge which in 1856 the trio formed the Grand Lodge of Kansas as America’s“should be without limit to a particular location but to be itinerant Civil War loomed.46as may best suit the convenience of its members and be only Colorado soon followed. In 1861 three chartered Lodges withlimited in its duration to six months after the close of the Mexican dispensations from Kansas and Nebraska: Golden City (today’sWar.” This Lodge apparently was attached to First Regiment of Golden), Summit Lodge in Parkville and Rocky Mountain at GoldIllinois Fort Volunteers. The record shows Military Lodge No. 87 Hill, plus two Lodges under dispensation from Kansas - Aurariahad its meetings in Albuquerque, Santa Fe, and Las Vegas, New and Nevada---sought to obtain permission to form their ownMexico.40 jurisdiction for the purposes of advancing their fraternity. TheWhen the war was over and the time elapsed, Harding Military Colorado Masons obtained their dispensation to form a GrandLodge No. 87 was dissolved and no longer was a lodge. That is Lodge from the Grand Lodge of Kansas. Kansas obtained theirswhy the Santa Fe Masons petitioned for a charter for Montezuma from Missouri and Missouri from Tennessee in 1821. TennesseeLodge. They asked two different Grand Lodges for a charter, finally was chartered by North Carolina’s Grand Lodge. North Carolinagetting one from Missouri on May 8, 1851. 41 Montezuma Lodge was granted their charter from England in March 1754. Sofrom its beginning assumed a leadership role and did everything Colorado Masonry is only four steps from ancient its power to pave the way for Masonry in the entire territory. There were 52 Masons in Colorado when it became a GrandMontezuma Lodge brought men of like minds together, furnished Lodge.47them a social life and mutual protection. For nine years it was In New Mexico, the strain of life for Masons in that rugged countrythe only lodge in the territory. Most of the furniture of the original is believed to have manifested a great need for friendship withlodge was transported, at least part of the way, by wagon train those holding like beliefs, but Masonic representation for the tenover the old Santa Fe Trail from Missouri.42 Lodges formed under the Grand Lodge of Missouri (a thousandAt the Forts along the Trail there were more permanent Masonic miles away) was limited to a District Deputy Grand Master whoLodges. Fort Union, near Las Vegas, New Mexico, is important to was empowered to do about anything he deemed proper. It alsothe history of Freemasonry in the Southwest because it was here took several weeks for the communications to travel such a greatthat Chapman and Union Lodges were established. Chapman distance between the Mother Grand Lodge and so few Masons inLodge was first organized as Missouri Lodge No. 95 and Union the New Mexico Territory. Because of these factors New MexicoLodge as Missouri Lodge No. 480. The first communication of Masons felt the need of a Grand Lodge of their own. They wantedChapman Lodge was held March 28, 1862. On May 24, 1867, a Grand Lodge that was dedicated to building Masonic Lodges andfor military reasons, the Lodges were requested to move outside new communities within the Territory. So in the summer of 1877of the Government reservation, the last meeting at the Fort eight men representing 165 Masons in four Lodges chartered bybeing held on July 27, 1867. Thereafter, Chapman Lodge was the Grand Lodge of Missouri came together in Santa Fe to beginpermanently established in Las Vegas. It was one of the four the process of creating a new Grand Lodge of Masons for theLodges instrumental in organizing the Grand Lodge of New New Mexico Territory. On August 7, 1877 the Grand Lodge ofMexico in August 1877 and was chartered as Chapman Lodge New Mexico was declared formed.48No. 2.43 Part of the Santa Fe Trail crosses what is now the panhandle ofChapman Lodge No. 2, named for Colonel William Chapman, has Oklahoma. On October 6, 1874, representatives of three Lodges Rising point winter 2012 - 19
  • Continued from page 19met and organized the Grand Lodge of Indian Territory. With for children with dyslexia and other learning disabilities, and thethe opening of Oklahoma Territory to white settlers, many of the Shriners Hospitals for Children. Many other local charitable eventsbrethren felt it was time once again for a new Grand Lodge. In are supported by local Lodges. All Lodge-supported charities are1892 the Grand Lodge of Oklahoma was formed. Thus, at this without cost to those helped or their families and are available totime there were two Grand Lodges in Oklahoma. In November anyone regardless of Masonic affiliation.1907, things changed. Indian Territory and Oklahoma Territory nolonger existed as the State of Oklahoma was born.Since American Masonic tradition asserted that only one Grand Bro. Paul Gordon is a Freemason living in Madison,Lodge could exist in any given political division, there was a Wisconsin. He was initiated, passed and raised in Chippewa Fallsproblem with two Grand Lodges in the new state. They merged Lodge No. 176 in Chippewa Falls, Wisconsin. He is also a memberin 1909.49 of Middleton – Ionic Lodge No. 180 in Middleton, Wisconsin andPrince Hall Freemasonry also followed the Santa Fe Trail. Prince Benjamin Franklin Lodge No. 83, Madison, Wisconsin where he isHall is recognized as the Father of Black Masonry in the United a Past Master. Benjamin Franklin Lodge No. 83 is an EmulationStates. The origin of the M.W. Grand Lodge of Missouri began Ritual Lodge, one of only a very few Emulation Rite Lodges inwhen the M.W. Grand Lodge of Free & Accepted Masons of Ohio, the United States. Gordon is also a member of the Scottish Riteestablished in 1849, chartered H. McGee Alexander Lodge #8 Valleys of Eau Claire and Madison in Wisconsin. A Tripoli Shriner,in St. Louis, Missouri in 1864. The Most Worshipful Prince Hall he is an Emeritus Member of the Board of Governors for ShrinersGrand Lodge of Missouri was formed in 1865. 50 In Kansas, John Hospital, Twin Cities.Jones was the Most Worshipful Grand Master in the organizationand chartering of Western Star lodge #1 at Lawrence in 1865,with D.G. Lett as Worshipful Master; soon followed by Euclid 1 Freemasonry came to México sometime in the last twenty years of the 18thLodge #2 at Topeka, and Mt. Oliver (later changed to Mt. Olive) century. The scarcity of documentation is not surprising if we remember that our early brethren worked under the shadow of the Holy Inquisition. WhenLodge #3 at Leavenworth. These three lodges remained under independence came in 1821, many of the main actors are known or believedthe jurisdiction of the Grand Lodge of Ohio until 1875, when they to have been Masons, but there was no Grand Lodge organization as such.met in the City of Lawrence and organized and established Prince The first Lodge known to exist in México met at the shop of French watchmakerHall Grand Lodge of Kansas, A.F. & A. M., with Brother D.G. Lett Juan Esteban Laroche, until the Inquisition arrested them while celebratingas its first M.W. Grand Master August 24, 1875. 51 In Colorado, the Summer Solstice in 1791. The next mention of Freemasonry in Mexico is in 1806. In this year, a Lodge was established in Mexico City in the residenceRocky Mountain Lodge #1 F. & A.M., the first of several lodges in of Don Manuel de Cuevas Moreno de Monroy Guerrero y Luyando in CalleColorado, was organized in 1867 by a warrant from the National de las Ratas (today Calle Bolívar).Compact System of Kansas, on November 17. On January 10, From: “A History, The York Grand Lodge of Mexico,” The Craftsman (July1876 Western Lodge #2 was organized and on January 11, 2001) Volume 1, Number 4, ( Mount Olive Lodge #3 came into existence from the same 2 an excerpt from: Ray V. Denslow, “Territorial Masonry, Masonic Pathfinders” The Masonicsource. Rocky Mountain Lodge #1 worked under the National Service Association of the United States Southern Publishers, Inc.(1925)Compact System of Kansas from 1867 until 1876. On January (, 1876 in accordance with a previous call, the delegates from 3 There is no confirmation that Le Land was a Freemason as of this writing.Rocky Mountain Lodge #1, Western #2, and Mountain Lodge #3 4 Melvin Cl. Friendly, MPS, “Kit Carson, Master Mason and the Santa Femet in convention in the hall of Rocky Mountain #1 of Denver for Trail, “February, 1995 The Philalethes Magazine (February, 1995) Vol. VIII Number 5the purpose of organizing a Grand Lodge in the then Territory ( Carson, Masterof Colorado.52 The Prince Hall Grand Lodge of New Mexico was Mason)organized September 21, 1921 and elected the Honorable T. B. 5 Ibid.J. Barclay, Grand Master. However, there was some difficulty 6 Charles L Roblee, “Freemasonry and the Development of the West” Theexperienced with regard to Lodges working under the authority Philalethes, (October, 1955) Volume VIII Number 5. ( a Sister Jurisdiction. These conditions continued until August elopmentoftheWest.)17, 1937, when a Board of Arbitration composed of members of 7 Henry Baer, “Pioneer Masonry in the Northwest Territory, The story ofseveral neighboring jurisdictions was called. In 1957 the Supreme Nova Caesarea Harmony Lodge, No. 2, Cincinnati.” The Builder Magazine,(Court of the State of New Mexico upheld a lower court decision, November 1927) Volume XIII Number 11holding that Prince Hall Grand Lodge is the Supreme Masonic ( 8 C.C., “Zebulon Pike’s Expedition to the Southwest, 1806-1807.”, Santa FeAuthority in the State of New Mexico under Masonic Law.53 Trail Research website,(November 2005) (http;//www.santafetrailresearch.It has sometimes been said that Freemasonry follows the flag. In com/pike/expedition.html)many cases it was a Freemason carrying the flag. As seen, it was 9 Pike National Historical Trail Association web site,( 2001-2010)sometimes carried by Freemasons on the Santa Fe Trail. ( glory days of the Santa Fe Trail faded after the completion See, Craig Crease, “THE SPY WHO CAME IN FROM THE COLD: DR JOHN HAMILTON ROBINSON-SECRET AGENT, FILIBUSTERER,, MEXICANof the railroads along the route. However, Freemasonry along REVOLUTIONARY, AND PATHFINDER ON THE SANTA FE TRAIL” Wagonthe Trail continues to flourish and Masons continue their work. At Tracks, Volume 22 Number 3 ( November 2007)present there are Masonic Lodges in many cities and towns along See also, Allan J. Wheeler, “Story of the Santa Fe Trail. The Trail Thatthe Trail still “making good men better” and contributing to the Changed History – The Story of the Santa Fe Trail” William Becknell web sitewell being of their communities. All Lodges are active in charitable (November 2011) ( and support the work of the appendant bodies. Among these 10 Joseph E. Bennett, Masons Along The Rio Bravo. (Masonic Grand Lodgeefforts are innumerable college and technical college scholarships, Library and Museum of Texas 1966),.2research for a cure for schizophrenia, Masonic Learning Centers 11 Jack B. Pace, “The Influence of Freemasonry on Texas. (citations omitted) Rising point winter 2012 - 20
  • Continued from page 20Jacques De Molay Lodge No. 1390 web site ( Ibid13 Bennett 5, 614 No body or Lodge has ever acknowledged him as a member. The tenants of Freemasonry had little impact on Santa Anna. The attributes of brotherlylove, relief and charity were not part of his character. He had ordered “no quarter” at the Alamo, although he must have known a few of the defenders wereMasons, as he was. Bennett 3, 1215 Jason, “Famous American Freemasons,” Freemason Hall July 2, 2011) ( Steve Harrison, “Daniel Boone.” One Minute Mason (March 15, 2011)( David K Clapsaddle, “Zebulon Pike Plaza, Pawnee Fork Crossing.” Santa Fe Trial Research Site ( Ibid 13119 Historical Marker for Home of William Becknell,( Ibid21 Melvyn C. Friendly MPS, “Kit Carson, Master Mason and the Santa Fe Trail,”, The Philalethes Magazine ,(February 1995) Volume VIII Number 5( Carson, Master Mason)22 William R. Denslow and Harry S. Truman, 10,000 Famous Freemasons Part 2. Pp.135, 136.23 Friendly24 F.T. Cheetam, “Governor Bent, A Masonic Martyr Of New Mexico.” The Builder Magazine, (December 1923)Volume IX Number 12.25 F.T. Cheetham, “Brother Colonel Ceran St. Vrain: A Study of the Life of a Masonic Pioneer of the Southwest,” The Builder Magazine, (November 1925)Volume 11 Number 11.( Ibid.27 W. Peter McAtee, “Masonry in New Mexico,” Masonic Americana,.144-145. ( Edwin Bryant, What I saw in California, 1848, 14-15.29 Bennett, p. 57.30 Friendly31 Robert H. Golmar, “William “Buffalo Bill” Cody, The Digital Freemason. (November 1, 2010) ( Mike Moore, PM, “Lodge Historian, March 22, 2010, The 150th Anniversary of Freemasonry in Colorado, Masonic History”, Englewood Lodge No. 166web site( Friendly34 ”History of the Santa Fe Trail” The Santa Fe Trail Association web site( “From the Halls Of Montezuma” Temple 6 Chronicles, Temple Lodge No. 6, F & AM Of New Mexico., Albuquerque, New Mexico (March 2011)( McAtee 144-145. ( Roblee38 Ibid39 Allen E. Roberts, Freemasonry in American History. (Maco Publishing & Masonic Supply Co. 1985) 29840 Ibid41 Montezuma Lodge No. 1, Santa Fe, New Mexico web site( “Freemasonry in the United States,” Sandoval Lodge No 76 Masonic History, Rio Ranch, New Mexico January 1, 2010)( Ibid44 ( October 12, 2011. Masonic Lodge 150 years + 116 yr Bldg, Las Vegas New Mexico45 Roberts 224, 22546 “Grand Lodge, Kansas Freemasons”, 2010, Grand Lodge of Kansas web site (2010)( Mike Moore, PM, “Lodge Historian, March 22, 2010, The 150th Anniversary of Freemasonry in Colorado, Masonic History”, Englewood Lodge No. 166web site( “New Mexico Grand Lodge History” Temple Lodge No. 6, Chronicles.49 “Grand Lodge of Oklahoma, A Historical Snapshot”. Grand Lodge of Oklahoma F. & A. M.web site (2011)( Robert N. Campbell, FPS, Grand Historian, M.W.P.H.G.L. of Missouri & Jurisdiction, “History of the Most Worshipful Prince Hall Grand Lodge of Missouri.”Most Worshipful Prince Hall Grand Lodge of Missouri web site (2011)( “Grand Lodge History” Most Worshipful Prince Hall Grand Lodge of Kansas, Leavenworth, KS web site (2011-2012).( “Grand Lodge of Colorado History,” The Most Worshipful Prince Hall Grand Lodge of Colorado, Wyoming and Utah web site (February 2011)( “History of the Prince Hall Grand Lodge of New Mexico” Most Worshipful Prince Hall Grand Lodge of New Mexico web site (2011)( Paul Gordon is a Freemason living in Madison, Wisconsin. He is an Attorney and Labor Arbitrator. The author thanks the Editor of Wagon Tracks Magazinefor historical accuracy review and stylistic suggestions. Published with permission of the author. Rising point winter 2012 - 21
  • INTERNATIONAL Masonic REVIEW PUBLISHED BY BONISTEEL MASONIC LIBRARY Michael G. Maness, Character Counts: Freemasonry is a National Treasure and a Source of our Founding Fathers’ Constitutional Intent (Arthur House 2010, $23.50 USD). Winter 2012 character counts: Freemasonry is a National Treasure and a Source of our Founding Fathers’ Constitutional IntentIt didn’t take long after Freemasonry began to spread from of a legion of legendary men did not count tothe British Isles for it to draw unfair and unwarranted the critics. We document how small or false theattention. Cosmopolitan in outlook, democratic in evidence is that the critics use to support theiroperation, and non-dogmatic in matters of personal allegations and how little they utilized in theirreligion, it was often perceived as a threat by the period’s constructions from the vast secular, religious andsecular and religious leaders alike. To be fair, there was Masonry archives. Then we show how Masonrysome justification for this. Freemasonry did promote contributed to the founding of the USA like nonotions of liberty, fraternalism, single church or institution preciselyand religious tolerance that ran upon character counting among thecontrary to authoritarian regimes and Founding Fathers.establishment churches. Masonic Maness shows up to this fight ‘loadedlodges and individual Freemasons for bear.’ It is clear he takes thewere also known to have played critics’ barbs personally - both as aroles in the American Revolution, Freemason and as a Southern Baptist,the failed 1798 Irish Rebellion, and a Christian sect which activelythe French Revolution. But a devil promotes such misrepresentations.worshiping cabal bent on world But characterizing the result of hisdomination? Such ridiculous, though effort is difficult. Part rebuttal, partreadily accepted libels, have grown personal musings on Masonry, itsinto a cottage industry. Thankfully, philosophy, historical characters,various Grand Lodges and individual and accomplishments, CharacterMasons are speaking out and setting Counts is, frankly, an overwhelmingthe record straight. book. Maness covers a lot material,Character Counts is Freemason perhaps too much, which meansMichael G. Maness’ line in the sand. the reader isn’t always sufficientlyIt was originally published in 2006 but has now come briefed to follow his arguments and insights. His proseup in a revised second edition. Maness notes: style and the book’s format can also be cumbersome. Today, two entire literature venues come against Nevertheless, Maness has done yeoman’s work Freemasonry: (1) the anti-Masonic critics for documenting and defusing some of Masonry’s most over 200 years and (2) the David Barton-like vocal critics. Christian establishment revisionisms. The first concoct on Frankenstein after another, and Michael G. Maness, Character Counts: Freemasonry the second rides the same train of obscuring is a National Treasure and a Source of our Founding Freemasonry in the Founding Fathers of the Fathers’ Constitutional Intent (Arthur House 2010, USA. The greatest mystery is why the character $23.50 USD). Rising point winter 2012 - 22
  • INTERNATIONAL Masonic REVIEW PUBLISHED BY BONISTEEL MASONIC LIBRARYBook Review: Joy Porter, Native American Freemasonry: native Associationalism and Performance in America american (University of Nebraska Press 2011, $60.00 USD) freemasonry: Winter 2012 Associationalism and Performance in AmericaNative American Freemasonry these relationships could be.represents another in a growing list The first recorded Nativeof academic studies of Freemasonry. American Mason was ChiefPorter’s book is unique, however, Joseph Brant, a Mohawk,the in manner in which she initiated at Hiram’s Cliftonianconducts her examination – by Lodge No. 417 in London inviewing the Fraternity in terms of 1776. Later he helped found“performance” and sacred space. one of the earliest lodgesMoving beyond dates, persons, in Upper Canada (now theand events, she explores how and Province of Ontario), Lodgewhy Native American Masons No. 11 in Brant’s Town,and their European American and was reputed to havecounterparts used a shared ritual been its Master until aroundto forge ties, advance personal and 1801. He, like so manycommunal goals, and surmount, Native American brothersif only within the lodge, race to follow, would have aprejudice against Native peoples. complicated relationship withPorter summarizes her approach British/European Americanand thesis thus: society, Freemasonry, and In terms of Freemasonry his indigenous heritage. as an area of study in itself, Brant, who spoke English, performance cannot replace was well educated, and an other extremely valid and Anglican convert, would be established approaches remembered both as a brutal such as viewing the fraternity through adversary (the “Monster Brant”) and mythologized as a the lens of gender or class or as part Masonic savior, rescuing a number of brothers in distress of the history of association, just as it from grisly deaths at the hands of Native captors. No cannot do away with the structural or doubt this was inevitable given the conflicting interests, cultural inequities of power. I argue that visions, and social-cultural norms surrounding Native although certain Indians found positive Americans and their admission into Masonic lodges intercultural space in the Masonic lodge, and, by extension, European American society. As this does not mean that what went on America’s colonial period ended and its shaping as a in lodges was necessarily “pure” in nation began, Porter notes: terms of intercultural representation or The Indian men welcomed into the that the balance of power between the Masonic lodges of the nineteenth century dominant culture and the Indian cultures and early twentieth were special people, was wholly refigured by the Masonic who may have sought compensation for context. the enormous price they paid adoptingIndeed, Porter goes on to show exactly how nuanced an alien culture in the unique and assured Rising point winter 2012 - 23
  • INTERNATIONAL Masonic REVIEW PUBLISHED BY BONISTEEL MASONIC LIBRARY promotional structure of the Masonic lodge. Masonry.’ For their part Masons embraced Indians Native American Freemasonry provides an important because… they too sought a means insight into how Native and European Americans made use whereby they could reintegrate into their of Masonic space for mutual recognition, acceptance, and lives those things that seemed slipping cultural exchange and how popular notions of “Nativeness” away… Individual Indians were attractive were exploited within the context of American fraternalism. to Freemasons, who were keen to use them While Masonry’s playing field, at the time, may not have to legitimize their claims to having access been well and truly ‘level,’ it is undeniable that real and to arcane or essential truths… Individual lasting friendships were formed between Native and Indians meanwhile used Masonry to insert European Americans within Masonic lodges and that these and Indian identity into a subculture that connections helped carry individual Native Americans to has remained at the heart of the American positions, both inside and outside the Fraternity, that would community until relatively recently. otherwise have been closed to them. Native American Another intriguing reason why early Native Americans participation in Masonry, moreover, helped affirm and may have sought admission, and why European Americans make visible the place of all Native peoples, rather than as a may have been more receptive to their requests, is a ‘dying race,’ as part of America’s living and dynamic social shared tradition of fraternalism. In fact, there are uncanny landscape. similarities between Freemasonry and Native American brotherhoods such as the Ojibwe Mide’ wiwin or ‘Grand Medicine Lodge’ and the Seneca ‘Little Water Medicine Society.’ These include the use of admission ‘fees,’ Joy Porter, Native American Freemasonry: Associationalism and Performance in America (University of Nebraska Press 2011, $60.00 multiple degree systems, delineation of sacred space and USD) structure, ritualized artifacts, and even a ‘raising’ ceremony akin to Masonry’s Hiram Abiff legend. Early 20th century Freemasonry,674870.aspx Masonic writers were so struck by these details they began referring to these wholly Native American orders as ‘Indian INTERNATIONAL MASONIC REVIEW PUBLISHED BY BONISTEEL MASONIC LIBRARY The purpose of this publication is to disseminate the The writings of Freemasons and to provide contemporaryBONISTEELML.ORG Rising Point Volume 24. Issue 3• Special Issue! • FALL 2011 information on Freemasonry. Bonisteel Masonic Library wants your feedback! Tales of The The Bonisteel staff is interested in discovering how you feel about Knights Templar your experience with reading our e-magazine - The Rising Point. Your willingness to share your impressions honestly will help us make adjustments that improve our future publications. Please all future communication send to: Mitchell Ozog, 32º Editor-in-Chief, US $9.95 10 Fall 2011 Rising point winter 2012 - 24
  • Bo ok Re man and mason - vie w: rudyard kiplingIn our post-modern world, India on December 30, 1865.a man like Rudyard Kipling His parents, like many Britishcan’t help but be viewed as a Colonials, sent young Rudyarddeeply ambiguous character. and his sister back to EnglandUnapologetically conservative for their education. Thisand an avid booster of British separation proved especiallyimperialism, he nevertheless lonely and difficult for Kipling. Apenned a broad volume of mediocre student and medicallywork that, in verse and prose, unfit for the military, he returnedinfluenced millions during to India in 1882 and began ahis lifetime and continues to career as a journalist in Lahoreentertain to this day. Lesser (now Pakistan). He was madeknown or appreciated by many a Mason in 1885 in Hope andreaders, however, is Kipling’s Perseverance Lodge No. 782,deep and heartfelt connection E.C. and immediately became itsto Freemasonry - a tie which secretary. In 1887, Kipling alsodirectly and indirectly played joined Fidelity Mark Lodge No. 83a part in some of his most and Mount Ararat Mark Mariner’sfamous writings. Lodge No. 98. This period wouldRichard Jaffa is a past grand be his most Masonically active;officer of the Grand Lodge later, Kipling only infrequentlyof England and a popular visited lodges. But his time withlecturer on both Freemasonry Hope and Perseverance – aand Rudyard Kipling. He mixed lodge of British and Nativenotes about Kipling: Indians – left an indelible impression on the emerging author and, as Jaffa argues, helped shaped Kipling’s When you survey the whole of Kipling’s personal vision of the world. writings, both fictional and factual, the number of Masonic references is Man and Mason – Rudyard Kipling offers a solid extensive. With his retentive memory, biographical survey together with some very interesting just as he found Biblical language came insights into how Freemasonry influenced Kipling as a easily, he frequently used a word, phrase man and a writer. Indeed, Jaffa spends much of the or expression that he had absorbed book identifying and discussing Masonic references in from Masonic ritual. Many referenced Kipling’s individual works. This is essential reading for have not generally been recognized, anyone serious about understanding Kipling and the as most non-Masonic writers have not Craft. always spotted when Kipling slips into the language of Masonic ritual. These Richard Jaffa, Man and Mason – Rudyard Kipling words are found scattered in his stories, (Arthur House 2011, $18.65 USD) poems, and speeches, as well as the use of Freemasonry as a benchmark for the Website: conduct or behavior of characters.Rudyard Kipling was born in Bombay (now Mumbai), Rising point winter 2012 - 25
  • From Bro. Tom Jameson: I’ve been a Mason since 1956 and joined Golden Rule Lodge #159 in 1960, so I was privileged to have been here for a few years when the downtown temple was standing. I wish I could have seen it in its full splendor, before the lower floors were chopped up to accommodate renters. We have been told that the magnificent auditorium on the first floor was the site of many extravaganzas, including at one point even a circus, with a live elephant on stage. The pipe organ in the fourth floor Masonic Hall, which I played on occasion, was disassembled, stored in pieces for several years and later reassembled and is in use at the Northside Community Church on Barton Drive. Architects - McConkey & Rousseau 327 S. 4th Avenue - Ann Arbor, Michigan Karl W. Grube, Ph.D., research & text1925 - original Construction - $324,0001973 - Replacement Costs - $1,496,7141922 - Cornerstone Laying - Grand Lodge of MichiganLot size - 132 ft. 154 ft. - 22 car parking with 2 municipals structures within one blockBuilding size - 127 x 255 - 5 storiesPerimeter - 386 ft.Interior space - 665,502 cubic ftClass B Fraternal Building - prestige building built for impact as well as occupancy. (Marshall & Swift Valuation)Structure: concrete beams and columns, concrete and clay tile walls, poured concrete floors, steel reinforcing.Exterior Walls: Face brick over masonry. Brick is laid up in stretcher bond but with decorative Masonic emblems. Rising point winter 2012 - www.bonisteelml.org26
  • Continued from page 26Interior Walls & Ceilings: Original partitions are masonry walls Women’s Lounge - 438 sq. ft.and ceilings and are finished in plaster with Masonic decorativegold leaf trim. Ceiling under roof is plaster on suspended methal Boiler Room - 252 sq. ft.lath. Masonic Brass fittings throughout structure Interior Features: Lobby and entry areas have Masonicdecorative terrazzo flooring. Wash rooms are fitted with marble 1977: After a 3 year Federal “Eminent Domain” Law Suit courtfixtures. battle, the USA Government narrowly prevailed. The Federal Government was required to pay $204,000 of which $80,000 was Five Floors - 20,000 sq. ft. - designed for Masonic functions deducted to raize the Temple on behalf of the US Government.Original building had entry Tyler’s quarters. In other words, the Masons had to put settlement money up to demolish their former Temple. The $120,000 figure was one third Lobby - 1st floor - raised Masonic decorative ceilings of a M.A.I. appraisal by The Gerald Alcock Company of Ann Arbor. Federal Judge Charles Joyner of Detroit gave no value to Main Lodge - 65 ft. x 44 ft. - 2,860 sq. ft. the Masonic Temple structure, definitely one of the finest 1920’s art deco architectural masterpieces in the City of Ann Arbor. The Chapter Room - 50 ft. x 35 ft. - 1,750 sq. ft. City Council and Mayor wanted the Federal Building and cleared away the political hurdles by allowing all structures in the 4th 2 smaller lodge rooms - 902 sq. ft. Avenue and Liberty Rd. block to be removed; all these properties were removed from the property tax rolls. The $120,000 net figure Dining Room - 100 capacity to the Masons bought 4.65 acres of land and started construction of a modest 7,200 sq. ft. Temple building at 2875 W. Liberty Road, Masonic Library - 374 sq. ft. Ann Arbor, Michigan 48103. Board Room - 238 sq. ft. By Karl Grube and Mitchell Ozog For more information please visit Bonisteel Masonic Library website at: Rising point winter 2012 - 27
  • The Temple of Solomon: From Ancient Israel to Secret Societies: A fully illustrated history of the Temple of Solomon • Examines the Temple of Solomon in the Hebrew Scriptures, the New Testament, and Apocryphal writings • Explores its role in the founding of Freemasonry, the legends of the Knights Templar, the doctrines of the Kabbalah, and the teachings of Islam • Explains the sacred nature of the Temple Mount--the site of the Temple of Solomon--and the secrets that may still be hidden there • Richly illustrated, including many photos and images from rare archives The spiritual heart of many esoteric societies, the Temple of Solomon was located atop the Temple Mount in Jerusalem, a site venerated by the three great monotheistic religions as the intersection of Divine and human. Built by King Solomon at the peak of ancient Israel’s power,the Temple of Solomon housed the golden Ark of the Covenant in its Holy of Holies, a sacred chamber whereone could communicate directly with God. Centuries after the temple’s destruction, the Temple Mount wasused as the headquarters for the Knights Templar during the Crusades, and countless legends have come downthrough the centuries about the secrets they may have uncovered there, including discovery of the Holy Grailor the Ark of the Covenant.Richly illustrated with biblical and Masonic illustrations, photographs, and ancient and modern paintings manyfrom rare archives this book explores the Temple of Solomon in the Hebrew Scriptures, the New Testament, andApocryphal writings as well as its role in the founding of Freemasonry, the legends of the Knights Templar, thedoctrines of the Kabbalah, and Muhammad’s visionary journey from the Temple Mount through the heavens.Seeking to understand the powerful desire of many religions and secret societies to re-create the templethrough ritual and prayer, James Wasserman explains why it was built, the magical forces King Solomon mayhave used in its creation, what its destruction meant for Jews and Christians alike, and why the Knights Templaras well as several modern secret societies named their orders after it. Detailing the sacred architecture of thisperfectly proportioned mystical edifice through words and art, the author reveals the Temple of Solomon as theaffirmation of God’s presence in human affairs, the spiritual root of Western culture, and an important monumentto the Divine nearly forgotten in today’s secular times but sorely needed to bridge the divide between ourancient past and our spiritual future. NOW AVAILABLE FROM: Rising point winter 2012 - 28