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  • 1. INTERNATIONAL MASONIC REVIEW PUBLISHED BY BONISTEEL MASONIC LIBRARY BONISTEELML.ORG Volume 20. Issue 1 • • WINTER 2010 Special Issue! Ann Arbor Masonic Authors US $9.95 09 The publications of The Rising Point are dedicated to Freemasonic information and education and is available in electronic vision as PDF file and you can download for free. Winter 2010
  • 2. Volume 20. Issue 1 • Volume 20. Issue 1 • • WINTER 2010 • WINTER 2010 Contents Volume 20. Issue 1 - WINTER 2010 FEATURE ARTICLES THE RISING POINT 3 Bonisteel Masonic Library fREEMASONRY IN ANN ARBOR Bro. Robert Blackburn Ann Arbor, Detroit. 6 E-mail: MICHIGAN MASONIC MUSEUM By Seymour Greenstone 9 ROSCOE O. BONISTEEL By Karl Grube 1 MASONIC RITUAL By Justin Krasnoff 0 Bro. Mitchell Ozog , 32º Bro. Karl Grube, Ph.D., 32º Editor 10 INTERNET MASONIC RUMORS Editor in Chief. By Sean Dykhouse 5 LAYOUT DESIGN – Bro. Mitchell Ozog fREEMASONRY IN TAIWAN By Shih-Ho (Simon) Chao THE RISING POINT is the official publication of Bonisteel Masonic Library and is published four times per year. Masonic 6 Bodies are welcome to reprint from this publication provided that the article is reprinted in full, the name of the author and the source of the article are indicated, and a copy of the publication containing the reprint is sent to the editor. Submissions to this publication and all Correspondence concerning this publication should come through the Editor Mitchell Ozog. The Editor reserves the right to edit all materials received. jUDGE AUGUSTUS WOODWARD Fair Use Notice: By Richard H. Sands 36 The Bonisteel Masonic Library web site and publication THE RISING POINT may at times contain copyrighted material the use of which has not always been specifically authorized by the copyright owner. We are making such material available in our efforts to advance understanding of environmental, political, human rights, economic, democracy, scientific, and social justice issues, etc.. We believe this constitutes a ‘fair use’ of any such copyrighted material as provided for in section HISTORY Of UNION LODGE # 3 107 of the US Copyright Law. If you wish to use copyrighted material from this site or the publication Rising Point for purposes of your own that go beyond ‘fair use’, you must obtain permission from the copyright owner. In accordance By William Krebaum 4 with Title 17 U.S.C. Section 107, the material on The Bonisteel Masonic Library web site and publication Rising Point is distributed without profit to those who have expressed a prior interest in receiving the included information for research and educational purposes. For more information go to: United States Code: Title 17, Section 107 Notwithstanding the provisions of HISTORY Of GOLDEN RULE sections 106 and 106A, the fair use of a copyrighted work, including such use by reproduction in copies or phonorecords or by any other means specified by that section, for purposes such as criticism, comment, news reporting, teaching (including By Jerry Preston multiple copies for classroom use), scholarship, or research, is not an infringement of copyright. In determining whether 48 the use made of a work in any particular case is a fair use the factors to be considered shall include - (1) the purpose and character of the use, including whether such use is of a commercial nature or is for nonprofit educational purposes; (2) the nature of the copyrighted work; (3) the amount and substantiality of the portion used in relation to the copyrighted work YORK RITE Of WASHTENAW as a whole; and (4) the effect of the use upon the potential market for or value of the copyrighted work. The fact that a work is unpublished shall not itself bar a finding of fair use if such finding is made upon consideration of all the above factors. By Paul Howell ADVERTISING RATES: 010 $5.00 for a business card $50.00 for a quarter page per issue $100.00 for half page per issue $50.00 for full page per issue BONISTEEL MASONIC LIBRARY fUND RAISER The Bonisteel Masonic Library of Ann Arbor Detroit has established a goal of raising $5,000 for 2010 operations. Your contribution will assure the continuance of our award winning quarterly publication Rising Point and the yearly costs of online publication. Simple scroll down to Pay Pal on the Index page donate by using a credit card. THE RISING POINT - WINTER 2010
  • 3. Volume 20. Issue 1 • • WINTER 2010 Freemasonry - it’s history and Future - in ann arbor, michigan Bro. WM Robert Blackburn Freemasons have been gathering in Ann Arbor for more than 180 years. The names of their members – including Zina P. King, Roscoe Bonisteel, and Charles E. Hiscock – grace many of the city’s street signs and public buildings. Ann Arbor’s most important institution and economic powerhouse, the University of Michigan, was even conceived by a Freemason and, at its inception in Detroit in 1817, largely financed by Freemasons. It may come as a surprise to some, therefore, that Ann Arbor’s Masons are finding themselves forced to sell their temple and 4.65 acre lot located at 2875 West Liberty Street. Freemasonry in Ann Arbor, as in so many other communities, is at a crossroad. It remains to be seen how, and in what form, it will continue. Masons first began meeting in Ann Arbor in 1824 at Allen’s Tavern, known also as “Bloody Corners.” This building once stood near the northwest corner of Main and Huron Streets. It was also at this site that the village’s first Mason- ic lodge, Western Star No. 6, was chartered in 1827. Those present at the celebratory ball included Gen. Lewis Cass, Governor of Michigan Territory and Grand Master of Masons in Michigan, Territorial Judge James Witherell, and Judge Samuel Dexter, a founding member of the lodge and the man after which nearby Dexter, Michigan is named. Despite its auspicious start, Western Star No. 6 dissolved within two years, being collateral damage of the “Morgan Affair.” Indeed, Ann Arbor, for a time, became a hotbed of sorts of anti-Masonry. Ann Arbor’s first newspaper, The Western Emigrant, was only five issues old when former Freemasons John Allen and Judge Dexter purchased it in December 1829. Intimidation may have played a part in the sale. Thomas Simpson, the original owner and editor, had responded curtly to an earlier letter sent to him by Dexter in the paper’s inaugural issue. Apparently Dexter had unspecified “concerns” regarding the Emigrant’s bias and position on Freemasonry. Simpson is known to have been a Democrat which, at the time, suggests that he may also have been a Freemason – a fact Dexter himself, formerly of Western Star No. 6, might have known with certainty. There was, however, no ques- tion where the Emigrant stood once Allen and Dexter took the reins. The paper became an open and continuous rant against Freemasonry, with the bulk of the columns devoted to anti-Masonry. At least initially, readership declined by as much as 80 percent. In response, Allen and Dexter made it a point to spitefully disclose the identities of Masons who sent in cancellation letters. THE RISING POINT - WINTER 2010 3
  • 4. Volume 20. Issue 1 • • WINTER 2010 Allen sold his interest in the Emigrant to Dexter in January 1831. That same year, Judge Dexter ran for Territorial Delegate to U.S. Congress as an “Anti-Mason.” Though he managed to carry Washtenaw County, he lost in the wider election to Austin E. Wing on the Democratic-Masonic ticket. Dexter’s fervor for Anti-Masonry faded with his defeat. Instead, he redoubled his interest in his other pet cause, temperance, no doubt alienating an even more dangerous segment of Ann Arbor’s population, its saloon keepers and their patrons. Freemasonry’s public image began to improve after 1832 when President Andrew Jackson, a Democrat and Past Grand Master of Masons in Tennessee, was re-elected to the White House. Nevertheless, the Grand Lodge of Michi- gan did not reorganize until 1844 and Ann Arbor did not have a new Masonic lodge until 1847. Oriental No. 15 met on the third floor of a commercial building located at 109 N. Main Street (“The Orient” variously described as a bar or barbershop/cigar store, was located on the first floor. It took its name from Oriental the lodge and was later im- mortalized in a glee club song, “I want to go back to Michigan”). A related Masonic organization, Washtenaw Chapter No. 6, Royal Arch Masons joined Oriental there in 1850. Oriental No. 15, like Western Star before it, suffered from bad luck. By 1856, it had succumbed to the twin blows of Gold Rush fever and internal discord. It was replaced by a new lodge, Ann Arbor No. 85. In 1865, two new Masonic organizations joined those at 109 N. Main Street: Golden Rule Lodge No. 159 (1865); Ann Arbor Commandery No. 13, Knights Templar (1865). In 1867, a separate, African-American Masonic club, St. Mary’s Lodge No. 9 (now No. 4), Prince Hall Masons, was founded. Prince Hall Masons, and their affiliated organizations, trace their origin to 1775 when Prince Hall, a free African-American, was initiated into Masonry by an Irish military lodge stationed in Boston. Until 1997, when the Grand Lodge of Michigan and Grand Lodge of Michigan, Prince Hall Masons, agreed to “recognize” each other, the two organizations had no fraternal interactions in Ann Arbor. By 1869, Ann Arbor’s several Masonic bodies had outgrown Oriental’s old quarters. Ann Arbor No. 85 was reluctant to move; it held the lease on the meeting rooms and claimed possession of all the furnishings. Washtenaw Chapter No. 6, R.A.M. shifted its meetings to the nearby Odd Fellows Hall. What happened next remains the subject of debate. The Commandery and Golden Rule No. 159 leased the third floor of 215-217 South Main Street, then under construc- tion (a skull and cross, alluding to the building’s Masonic past, still ornament two windows). While Ann Arbor No. 85 debated joining them, their charter document – required for Masonic meetings to take place – was found to have been stolen from its frame. Though an injustice had clearly occurred, Michigan’s Grand Lodge refused to intercede. Ann Arbor No. 85 was forced to dissolve and a new lodge, Fraternity No. 262, was organized to replace it. Meanwhile, Ann Arbor No. 85’s property was transferred to Golden Rule No. 159, who promptly carried it to Freemasonry’s new South Main Street address. Freemasons occupied 215-217 South Main Street for 16 years, taking over the second floor as a club room. In 1885, the two Masonic lodges, Chapter, and Commandery agreed to significantly upgrade their lodgings. Together they leased the third floor of the new “St. James Building” (later known as the “Masonic Building”), on the northwest corner of Main and Huron Streets. By sheer coincidence, Ann Arbor’s Freemasons had returned to their starting place, back where Allen’s Tavern once stood. The Masons spent freely on their hall, ensuring that it was beautifully decorated and had every luxury for the period. Albert Sorg, a member of Fraternity No. 262, even painted a series of frescoes around the lodge room. Between 1894 and 1922 the number of Masons in Ann Arbor grew markedly. Five new Ma- sonic organizations joined those at the St. James Building: Ann Arbor Chapter No. 122, Order of the Eastern Star; Ann Arbor Masonic Mutual Benefit Association (an early insurance company for Masons); Order of DeMolay; Ann Ar- bor Council No. 86, Royal and Select Masters. On the University of Michigan campus, there was The Craftsmen Club, the Masons of the University of Michigan Law School, and Acacia Fraternity which, though it is no longer a Masonic, was founded at the University of Michigan in 1905 by and for Freemasons. Lastly, the Zal Gaz Grotto, Caldron No. 7, M.O.V.P.E.R., and its sister body, the Daughters of Mokanna, took up their own meeting place in Ann Arbor. The early 20th-century witnessed a period of grand Masonic construction in America. By 1910, Ann Arbor Masons had selected 327 South Fourth Street as the location for a new, exclusively Masonic meeting place. Albert Rousseau, an architecture professor at the University of Michigan, designed the building in the art deco style. The building’s cornerstone was laid in 1922; three years later it was ready to be occupied. On February 27, 1925, five thousand THE RISING POINT - WINTER 2010 4
  • 5. Volume 20. Issue 1 • • WINTER 2010 people turned out for the dedication ceremony. But trouble was already in the air. By year’s end, the Temple Asso- ciation, which held title to the building, reported that it had insufficient funds to payoff its contractors. Though this short-term problem was resolved, and a third Masonic Lodge, Ann Arbor No. 544, took up residence at the Temple in 1926, financial problems persisted and, indeed, became worse with the onset of the Great Depression in 1929. By 1940, the Temple Association was broke and unable to pay its property taxes. A new Temple Association was quickly organized and managed to repurchase the building at its foreclosure sale in 1944. Five years later, the Masons again owned their temple free and clear. Between 1948 and 1959, two new Masonic organizations appeared in Ann Arbor: Arbor Shrine No. 54, White Shrine of Jerusalem; Ann Arbor Assembly, Order of the Rainbow Girls; and several new Masonic clubs, including the Washt- enaw Shrine and the Scottish Rite Clubs. New members and Masonic groups, however, did not translate into greater financial stability. By 1956, the Temple Association was forced to lease portions of its building to make ends meet, beginning with the basement dining room and later the auditorium and club room. This arrangement continued through 1964. By 1972, the Temple Association was again facing the prospect of foreclosure. The Masons hoped to sell their temple for $300,000 and rent the fourth floor, as lodge space, from the new owner. Such was not to be. In order to obtain additional parking space for a new federal court and office building, the U.S. General Services Admin- istration seized the Masons’ temple and demolished it in 1975. After a protracted legal battle, the Temple Association received only $120,000 for its loss; worse for the City of Ann Arbor, an architectural gem had been traded for a patch of black asphalt. The Masons could not afford to replicate the building they had lost. They purchased some undeveloped land along West Liberty and erected the current Masonic temple on the site. In 1978, at the time of the building’s dedication, only eight Masonic groups were left to share it: Golden Rule No. 159; Fraternity No. 262; Ann Arbor No. 544; Ann Arbor Chapter No. 122, O.E.S.; Arbor Shrine No. 54, White Shrine of Jerusalem; Washtenaw Chapter No. 6, R.A.M.; Ann Arbor Council No. 86, R. S.M.; Ann Arbor Commandery No. 13, K.T. (the last three also known as York Rite Masonry). During the 1920s, when participation was at its height, Golden Rule No. 159 had as many as 1,036 mem- bers and Fraternity No. 262 had up to 726. Today, only five of these Masonic clubs remain - Golden Rule No. 159 with 194 members, Ann Arbor-Fraternity No. 262 with 251, and the three York Rite bodies draw even smaller numbers from around Washtenaw County. Additionally, the Zal Gaz Grotto continues to meet in its building at 2070 West Sta- dium Boulevard, while St. Mary’s Lodge No. 4, Prince Hall Masons, numbering 48 members, meets at Bethel A.M.E. Church, located at 900 John A. Woods Drive. Despite their setbacks and diminished membership, local Masons remain optimistic about the fraternity’s future in Ann Arbor. According to Seymour Greenstone, Secretary for Ann Arbor-Fraternity Lodge No. 262, “It remains to be seen how much the success of Masonry depends on occupying an identi- fiable building. Ann Arbor-Fraternity Lodge has seen a significant increase in new members in the last five years, mostly young men in their twenties and thirties. These young members are seriously interested in the philosophy and ethical foundations of Masonry and come to the fraternity well-read and with great enthusiasm. If this trend continues, I have no worry about a vibrant future for Freemasonry in Ann Arbor.” For the time being, the groups that shared Ann Arbor’s Masonic Temple will be going their separate ways. Golden Rule No. 159 will remain at the Temple until it is sold, the York Rite Masons have moved to nearby Ypsilanti, Michigan’s Masonic Temple, while Ann Arbor-Fraternity No. 262 is holding its meetings at a private hall, known as Hathaway’s Hideaway, on South Ashley Street. Nevertheless, someday, it is hoped, these bodies may again be united not only in spirit, but in place as well. Bro. Robert Blackburn is a member of Dalkey Lodge No. 262, Grand Lodge of Ireland, Middleton-Ionic No. 180 Benjamin Franklin No. 83, F. A.M. of Wisconsin, and Ann- Arbor Fraternity No. 262, F. A.M. of Michigan THE RISING POINT - WINTER 2010 5
  • 6. Volume 20. Issue 1 • 33 Ill. Brother Seymour D. Greenstone, • WINTER 2010 o Spring Reunion Class Honoree A BRIEF HISTORY OF THE MICHIGAN Illustrious Brother Seymour D. Greenstone, 33o, has been named Class Honoree for the MASONIC MUSEUM AND LIBRARY Open 346th Reunion of the 32o Masons of the Valley en’s of Detroit to be held April 21st and April 22nd, 2006, at the Shrine Convention Center in our Southfield, Michigan. Illustrious Brother Seymour was born in Detroit on March 22, 06 1935. He attended the Detroit public schools and graduated from Thomas M. Cooley High School. Brother Seymour received un- Bro. Seymour D. Greenstone, P.M. 33º dergraduate and graduate degrees in political science from the University of Michigan in Ann Arbor. In 1957, he was commis- The purpose of this essay is to document the evolution and establishment of the Michigan Masonic Museum and sioned a Second Lieutenant, U.S. Army, and attained the rank of Major, U.S. Army Reserve. He served thirty years in Federal Service, all but three in Washington, D.C. Of the thirty years, the Library, an activity of the Masonic Foundation of Michigan, Inc. last sixteen were in the Senior Executive Service. Most were in the White House Office of Management and Budget where he 5 attained the position of Deputy Assistant Director. Brother Seymour also served as Deputy Assistant Director of the Con- Early History gressional Budget Office when it was formed in 1975. He served as the Environmental Protection Agency’s first Director of Man- agement and Organization, assisting Administrator William D. Bro. Greenstone Ruckelshaus in the design of the agency’s organizational and pro- A Museum and library function has been a principal responsibility of the cedural systems. He concluded his Federal Service, returning to the EPA a second time during the Reagan Administration to serve stated: Masonic Foundation of Michigan, Inc., since its inception on June 27, as a Deputy Assistant Administrator. Arbor in 1957 In age of twenty-one while a graduate student 1980. at the fact, the first stated function in the Foundation’s By-Laws is “to “I have been blessed both in my Our Illustrious Brother was initiated in Fraternity Lodge in Ann establish, erect, support, maintain, and operate a museum and library at U of M. He was honored to serve as Master of his Lodge and as head of various Scottish and York Rite Bodies. He has served professional and Masonic careers. first Chairman of the Strategic Planning Committee, and is a Past open to the general public and dedicated to with their related facilities as President of the Masonic Foundation of Michigan, was the Masonry has provided a priceless Master of the Michigan Lodge of Research. Ill. Brother Seymour dimension to my life. While I continue served as purposes and history of Masonic fraternal organizations throughout the Thrice Potent Master of the Detroit Lodge of Perfec- tion in 1995, and was coronetted an Honorary Member of the to enjoy my participation, my principle theasState the Board of Trustees in 1999 the United States of America and the world...” of Michigan, and 2000. Supreme Council in 1997. Brother Seymour served the Valley of mission now is to help assure there is a legacy in the future for young Detroit President of nswer In its early years the activity consisted largely of the collection of Ill. Brother Greenstone stated: “I have been blessed both in Masons and their families. That is rs and James Fairbairn Smith, noted Michigan Masonic writer. The collection my professional and Masonic careers. Masonry has pro- vided a priceless dimension to my life. While I continue to why I advocate the positions I our assure there is a legacy in the future for young at the Michigan Masonic Home in Alma, also used was housed in space Masons and do. Masonry has a wonderful enjoy my participation, my principle mission now is to help as ahas a wonderful contribution to make to our soci- Foundation’s Board of Trustees. The collection meeting place for the their families. That is why I advocate the positions I do. Masonry contribution to make to was kept intact, provided minimum maintenance, and had items added from ety.” our society.” time-to-time. This was accomplished largely through the efforts of Robert N. Osborne, PGM, 2006 * Valley Voice 3 as Grand Secretary of the Grand Lodge and Secretary of the April who served Foundation Board and Allison D. Bryant, P.M., a professional librarian; Mr. Bryant, who was Past Master of the Michigan Lodge of Research and had a continuing interest in Masonic scholarship, provided the professional support to the collection, including an effort to catalog it. A Revival of Interest It was during the term of Donald J. Van Kirk as Grand Master in 1996 that a vigorous effort was initiated to upgrade the museum and library function as a serious activity of Michigan Masonry. Most Worshipful Brother Van Kirk had been one of the founders of the Michigan Lodge of Research. He provided valuable impetus and support to the work of Seymour D. Greenstone, P.M., and Rodney D. Bedwell, P.M., then president and vice president, respectively, of the Michigan Masonic Foundation, who undertook and led the effort as a “labor of love”. The nucleus of the Library holdings include the James Fairbairn Smith collection from Alma, the Charles P. Sheffield Collection housed at the Grand Rapids Masonic Center, the complete archives and associated materials of The Masonic World (published in Detroit, 1935-1997), obtained in 2000, and various collectibles. Initial Steps The initial campaign for the establishment of the current Museum and Library began in 1996 when, as indicated earlier, the leadership of the Board of Trustees of the Masonic Foundation launched their effort. Not all were supportive and considerable opposition had to be overcome. With the approval of the Foundation Board, Greenstone submitted a Resolution to Grand Lodge on February 24, 1997 for consideration at the 1997 Annual Communication of the Grand Lodge. It was key to launching the effort to establish a significant presence for the Museum and Library. The Resolution called for a sum not to exceed $50,000 to authorize the retention of the services of a professional architectural firm to develop plans for the future Michigan Masonic Library and Museum. It was adopted by the Delegates. THE RISING POINT - WINTER 2010 6
  • 7. Volume 20. Issue 1 • • WINTER 2010 Allison D. Bryant, P.M., a professional librarian, was retained as a consultant to the Foundation Board on November 15, 1997 to follow-up on the Resolution adopted at Grand Lodge. Al performed a yeoman task in surveying the library situation at the Masonic Home in Alma and Identifying analytical and design expertise. Consequently, Greenstone introduced a Resolution at the Foundation Board, which was adopted on June 29, 1998. The resolution authorized the retention of Fishbeck, Thompson, Carr and Huber, leading library architects in Michigan, to complete a feasibility study “to assess the existing and proposed library collections, operations, and sites at the Masonic Home in Alma and to develop a space program, including an alternative site concept.” The resolution also authorized the appointment of AL Bryant as library director, half-time, replacing his consultancy agreement and provided the necessary funds. The process to take a dramatic turn when the Foundation Board received a proposal dated July 20, 1998 from the Building Manager of the Grand Rapids Masonic Center to relocate the Museum and Library to Grand Rapids. The offer from the Temple Association was to create an attractive home at the Temple adjacent to the Lodge Office. The space available would jump from about 700 square feet in Alma to from 5,000 to 7,000 square feet in Grand Rapids. After exhaustive discussions and campaigning the proposal was adopted by the Foundation at its meeting on August 31, 1998. President Greenstone then addressed a letter on September 3rd to Bernard H. Zaffern, P.M., president of the Masonic Home Board of Trustees, notifying him of the Foundation Board’s decision to transfer the library collection from Alma. The move to Grand Rapids was scheduled for October and Early November 1998. In the meantime an employment agreement had been signed on August 31st with Al Bryant as Museum and Library to commence on November 1, 1998 and expire on December 31, 2006 was signed by Greenstone as President of the Masonic Foundation and executed on October 9, 1998. Subsequent Events and Highlights The Museum and Library was moved to its new location in Grand Rapids at the end of 2000. An employment arrangement for the year 200 was approved for a museum and Library Director and a part-time Museum Specialist. The Foundation Board approved an initial budget request for $130,000 for the fiscal year 2000-2001 at its June 2000 meeting. It was decided that a separate governing group was needed to oversee to oversee the initial operation of the Museum and Library, reporting to the Foundation Board. Such a board was named, consisting of Seymour D. Greenstone P.M., and Charles P. Sheffield, P.M. Larry M Dillon, P.M., George C. Sellars, P.M., and Charles P. Sheffield, P.M. One of the highlights of the Museum and Library’s early existence was the signing of an agreement with the Grand Lodge of the Order of Odd Fellows of Michigan to house its archival materials. One of the objectives of our activity was to serve as a prime collection documenting the American Fraternal Movement (1860-1940). Recent years have witnessed increasing difficulty in providing the needed financial support for the Museum and Library operation. Tough times ensued as a result of the investment downturn in 2001 and afterward. It became more and more difficult for the Masonic Foundation Board to provide the needed support. Contributions by Lodges around the State were uneven and unpredictable. Fund-raising attempts, especially in the Grand Rapids area led by a prominent Mason Walter Russel, were not particularly productive. Library Board chairman Greenstone introduced proposals at both 2000 and 2001 Annual Communications of the Grand Lodge for a $2 annual assessment to be paid by each Michigan Mason as part of his dues. In 2001 Greenstone made a presentation to the assembled Delegates urging approval of the assessment to assure continued operation of an outstanding fraternal and cultural resource in the State of Michigan. While the proposal passed each time with significant affirmative majorities it failed of passage each time due to the two-thirds requirement. Finally, a proposal for a $2 annual assessment with five year duration was approved at the 2002 Annual Communication after a personal plea by then Grand Master David Bedwell, the son of one of the principal founders of the Museum and Library, Rodney Bedwell. The need for a secure financial future continues to be the most urgent priority of the Museum and Library. This Masonic treasure represents a tremendous opportunity for Michigan Masons to sponsor one of the leading Masonic educational resources in North America. So mote it be. Current Situation Currently, there are two pacing events that are a part of considering the future of the Museum and Library. First, THE RISING POINT - WINTER 2010
  • 8. Volume 20. Issue 11•• Volume 20. Issue • WINTER 2010 • WINTER 2010 the dues assessment of $2 per Mason expires two years form this May’s Annual Communication of the Grand Lodge. This assessment is critical to financing the Museum and Library. The other is the space lease at the Grand Rapids Masonic Center that expires this coming December 31st. The Grand Rapids Masonic Temple Association at this point has decided not to vacate the Temple but to seek instead to generate additional revenue. A major complicating factor has been the recent relocation of the Grand Lodge Offices from the Grand Rapids Center to Alma. Grand Master Ruhland expressed a wish that the Museum and Library also relocate to Alma. One proposal was to clear the old hospital section of the Masonic Home adjacent to the Grand Secretary’s office. This would provide 3,100 square feet of space in contrast to almost 6,000 square feet currently utilized in Grand Rapids. An earlier offer from Pathways (the Masonic Home) of a 25-year lease for the Museum and Library was opposed by members of the Masonic Foundation Board of Trustees. The Grand Master asked the Pathways to make another offer. At the last meeting Foundation Board in 2005 the Grand Master asked the Board’s president to appoint a committee to study library and museum operations and develop recommendations for the future. The study committee, chaired by the Junior Grand Warder Michael Jungel and also consisting of Past Master Brandon Valentine and Richard Williams, met before the Board’s February 2006 meeting. It concluded that the decision was too complex to develop in a few months and requested an additional year for a complete study, including consulting outside expertise. A proposal to recommend renewal of the lease at the Grand Rapids Center for two additional years was not considered by the board. The Foundation Board meets again just prior to the Grand Lodge. It may be a critical meeting for the future of the Museum and Library. Another complicating factor is the introduction of legislation to be considered at Grand Lodge that would merge the Foundation Board with the Masonic Home Board of Trustees. A Library and Museum has been principal mission in the charter of the Masonic Foundation of Michigan. How it would fare in a merged Board is an unknown. This may be an opportune time to reassess the entire situation of the Museum and Library since it now has a track record of five to six years. The position of this writer, who obviously is not a neutral in this matter, is that reassessment may be a valuable move, especially in view of all of the complicating factors described above. However, it also needs to be remember that Masonry in Michigan posses a rich treasure in the Museum and Library. To squander it by returning it to an inaccessible location in Alma, Michigan would be a disservice to the Fraternity. Sources: Photo and text about Bro. Seymour Greenstone from Scottish Rite Valley of Detroit,Valley Voice April 2006. The Web Links to: THE MICHIGAN MASONIC MUSEUM AND LIBRARY - Michigan Masonic Charitable Foundation website - Bro. Seymour D. Greenstone, P.M Brother Seymour Greenstone was initiated in Fraternity Lodge in Ann Arbor, Michigan in 1957 at the age of twenty-one while a graduate student at U of M. He was honored to serve as Master of his Lodge and as head of various Scottish and York Rite Bodies. He has served as President of the Masonic Foundation of Michigan, was the first Chairman of the Strategic Planning Committee, and is a Past Master of the Michigan Lodge of Research. Ill. Brother Seymour served as Thrice Potent Master of the Detroit Lodge of Perfection in 1995, and was coronetted an Honorary Member of the Supreme Council in 1997. Brother Seymour served the Valley of Detroit as President of the Board of Trustees in 1999 and 2000. Currently Bro. S. Greenstone is Secretary of Ann Arbor Fraternity Lodge 262. THE RISING POINT - WINTER 2010 8
  • 9. Volume 20. Issue 1 • • WINTER 2010 Roscoe Osmond Bonisteel PM, P.G.M. Bro. Karl W. Grube, MA, Ph.D., 32º Most Worshipful Past Grand Master Roscoe Bonisteel was an advocate for civil rights, a developer of commercial properties, a philanthropist of libraries/museums and 79th Grand Master of Masons in Michigan. He was elected by the Brotherhood of Michigan Freemasons in 1929. Roscoe Osmond Bonisteel was born in Canada at Sidney Crossing Ontario on December 23, 1888. His family moved to Rochester New York in 1891. He graduated from Harrisburg High School in Pennsylvania. He attended Dickenson College at Carlisle Pennsylvania and Law School at University of Michigan. He began the practice of law at Ann Arbor in 1912. Bonisteel’s skilled oratory in the court room quickly earned him a reputation among his colleagues. Businessmen, bankers, and politicians retained his legal services. His law practice flourished and led to the founding of an insurance company, real estate development firm, and seats on boards of directors of local banks. He served with distinction as a Captain in the US Army Air Forces in World War I and gave ample time upon his return to the American Legion. He was District Governor of Rotary and a Board member of the University Musical Society of Ann Arbor. A devoted family man, he married Lillian Coleman Rudolph in 1914 and had four daughters and a son. He became a Regent of the University of Michigan in 1946 serving until 1972, and was instrumental in the purchase of 267 acres and the master planning of North Campus in 1951, he was a staunch friend of libraries and museums, He founded the Friends’ Society of the Michigan Historical Collections, which later led to the Bentley Historical Library** and the expansion of the largest collection of library works at a public university. A great philanthropist, he was generous to Dickenson College, the University of Michigan, and Interlochen Art Academy and National Music Camp. He purchased for the University of Michigan’s Clements Library the prestigious Cass Collection. He secured bank commitments and sufficient monies to THE RISING POINT - WINTER 2010 9
  • 10. Volume 20. Issue 1 • • WINTER 2010 initiate the 10 year Scottish Rite Northern Jurisdiction Museum of Our National Heritage project at Lexington, Massachusetts. In 1951 he and other prominent brothers personally pledged monies necessary to retire the Detroit Masonic Temple mortgage. Detroit Masonic Temple Pic - Detroit Masonic Temple, the largest and most complex of Masonic Temples in the world. The Temple features 1,007 rooms, a 14 story ritual tower, Masonic auditorium., and 10 story Shrine Temple. George D. Mason, architect/engineer of Detroit Cit, Parducci, sculpturer of Venice, and DeLorenzo, interior architect of New York City created a national treasure of Art and Architecture worthy of being recognized on theUSA National Register of Historic Places. Past Grand Master Brother Bonisteel was raised a Master Mason in Golden Rule Lodge No. 159 in 1914, served as Worshipful Master in 1920, and, following regular advancement, became the Grand Master of Michigan Free and Accepted Masons in 1929. He served as the Chairman of the Jurisprudence Committee for 25 consecutive years. He belonged to Washtenaw Chapter No. 6, Royal Arch Masons, Ann Arbor Council No. 86, R. S. M., Ann Arbor Commandery No. 13; and a Director of the Ann Arbor Masonic Temple Corporation. He received the thirty-two Scottish Rite Degrees in the Valley of Detroit in 1926. He became an honorary 33° Degree Mason in 1939, and was crowned a Scottish Rite Active Member at Detroit, September 30, 1964. http:// Brother Bonisteel was a prime “mover and shaker” in securing the funding for the Scottish Rite’s National Heritage Museum of American History. In 1966 Brother Bonisteel and the Grand Masters from Illinois and Massachusetts raised $10,000,000 for the 1976 Bi-Centennial Heritage project. http:// THE RISING POINT - WINTER 2010 10
  • 11. Volume 20. Issue 1 • • WINTER 2010 Brother Roscoe Bonisteel was a leader in Michigan Civil Rights during the turbulent decade of the 1960’s He was a strong advocate for recognition of Prince Hall Masonry* with all of the rights and privileges of the Grand Lodge of Freemasons in Michigan through a series of Grand Lodge Resolutions at the annual meeting. His efforts were not immediately successful but raised the consciousness of the brotherhood with recognition finally coming to Prince Hall Masonry during the 1990’s. To Most Worshipful Brother Bonisteel goes the credit for the creation of the masterpiece in oil which was placed on canvas by the renowned artist Robert Thom. It preserve forever the historic September 15, 1817, meeting of Zion Lodge No. 1, Judge Augustus Woodward, Father Gabriel Richard, and Reverend John Monteith establishing the money for The University of Michigan. The original curriculum was based upon the University of France established by Napoleon Bonaparte. Trowel George Washington’s Trowel displayed at the Scottish Rite’s Northern Jurisdiction Museum of Our National Heritage, Lexington Massachusetts Trowel was used to lay the cornerstone of our Nationals Capitol. Photo By Anson Russell, In 2002 Karl W. Grube, Ph.D.*** and other prominent Ann Arbor Freemasons founded the Bonisteel Masonic Library, a non-profit educational corporation housed in the Ann Arbor Masonic Temple at 2875 W. Liberty Road Ann Arbor Michigan USA. The one hundred year old assets of the Ann Arbor Masonic Temple Library were acquired to form the initial collections for the library. The Library is organized to acquire and maintain books, documents, artifacts and other forms of information related to Freemasonry; make those materials and information to the general public; and use those materials and information to develop educational program related to Freemasonry. Upon his passing in 1972, he received full a Masonic Ritual Funeral Service at the Ann Arbor Masonic Temple, located at 327 4th Avenue Ann Arbor. In 1924 Rousseau/McConkey, Professors of Architecture Art designed the Temple. A church funeral service was also held at the Presbyterian Church. His earthly remains are entombed in a mausoleum crypt at the Washtenong Memorial Park, Ann Arbor Michigan USA. * Prince Hall Masonry was organized in Boston as African Lodge No. 429 under a Charter granted by the Grand Lodge of England in 1784. Prince Hall was a freeman and a leathersmith who was assigned to General Gage’s Regiment of the British Military in North America. He was first “Made a Mason” in General Gage’s Boston Military Masonic Lodge. ** This paper was adapted from the Roscoe O. Bonisteel personal papers of the Bentley Historical Library, Michigan Historical Collections, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor Michigan, 1974. Further research was conducted in the official records of the Ann Arbor Masonic Temple Corporation, Grand Lodge of Free Accepted Masons of the State of Michigan, Golden Rule Lodge No. 159 and the Bonisteel Masonic Library. Karl W. Grube, Ph.D. is a former professor of Education, Architecture Urban Planning at the University of Michigan. He is President of the Bonisteel Masonic Library, Trustee of the Detroit Masonic Temple Library, a 40+ year member of Ann Arbor Fraternity Lodge No 262, Member of Union Lodge of Strict Observance No. 3, Michigan Mason of the Year, a 25+ year Scottish Rite Mason, Member of the Michigan Lodge of Research Information No. 1 and a Member of the scholarly Masonic Society. THE RISING POINT - WINTER 2010 11
  • 12. Volume 20. Issue 1 • • WINTER 2010 Bro. Justin F. Krasnoff, P.M. THE RISING POINT - WINTER 2010 1
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  • 19. Volume 20. Issue 1 • • WINTER 2010 Bro. Justin F. Krasnoff, P.M. was raised in Ann Arbor Fraternity Lodge # 262 in 1986 and he served as Worshipful Master in 1992, 2000, and 2001 Bro. Krasnoff also is a member of Olive Lodge #156, Chelsea. In 1987 he joined the Scottish Rite of Freemasonry Valley of Detroit and he is currently the Commander- in-Chief of Detroit Consistory Bro. Krasnoff also belong to the Chapter, Council, and the Shrine. Advertisement NORTH BROTHERS 734-421-1300 OPEN MONDAY - SATURDAY MIKE ZIMNICKI New Pre-Owned Vehicle Sales Leasing Consultant SPECIAL OFFER FROM MIKE ZIMNICKI FREE OIL CHANGE Bring in this ad and receive a free oil change when you purchase any new vehicle from me. THE RISING POINT - WINTER 2010 19
  • 20. Volume 20. Issue 1 • • WINTER 2010 THE TOP 10 INTERNET MASONIC RUMORS Michigan Lodge of Research Information #1 • Presented February, 2007 Bro. Sean Dykhouse, P.M. RUMOR #1. RUMOR #7. That there is a Global Conspiracy, That Free Accepted Masons often called the Illuminati, ruled Guard Their Secrets Until Death, by Freemasons, which exerts and Murder Anyone Attempting to control over the Planet Earth its Reveal The Secret Rituals. Politics. RUMOR #8. RUMOR #2. The Streets of Washington DC That there is a Political Conspiracy, That Freemasons designed run by Free Accepted Masons, the street map of America’s controlling the American Political capital city to include occult and Structure through Masonic extraterrestrial symbols. Presidents. RUMOR #9. RUMOR #3. Mind control air raid sirens That That Free Accepted Masons Masonic buildings incorporate the use Worship the Devil, or, alternately, are of mind control devices or broadcast Anti-Christian. interference designed to disrupt natural human thought. RUMOR #4. RUMOR #10. That Free Accepted Masons are Bedoper That Freemasons are part of an Anti-Catholic. inter-galactic conspiracy brought about by reptilian extraterrestrial beings. RUMOR #5. More on page 21 That Freemasonry is a front for White Supremacy Organizations like the Ku Klux Klan or American Nazi Party. RUMOR #6. That Freemasons flagrantly wave their world domination in front of citizens by hidden messages on the United States One Dollar Bill. THE RISING POINT - WINTER 2010 0
  • 21. Volume 20. Issue 1 • • WINTER 2010 RUMOR #1. That there is a Global Conspiracy, often called the Illuminati, ruled by Freemasons, which exerts control over the Planet Earth its Politics. One of the most common question outsiders ask about our fraternity when conspiracies come into conversation is “Does the Trilateral Commission control the Freemasons?” or “Do the Freemasons control the Trilateral Commission?” You may insert the name of your favorite political club or society here as well, The Club of Rome, The John Birch Society, PeTA, or any other organization. There are more than 500 influential “think tanks” around the world; the Trilateral Commission is one of them. Most of these groups are open to public membership, many are by invitation only, and all of them have their own particular agendas and issues. To date, not one of these organizations, while politically- or societally-driven, are directly run or controlled by Masonic groups. Most of them are controlled by Political Action Campaign money, or through private funding. RUMOR #2. That there is a Political Conspiracy, run by Free Accepted Masons, controlling the American Political Structure through Masonic Presidents. GEORGE WASHINGTON (1732-1799) First President (1789-1797) JAMES MONROE (1758-1831) Fifth President (1817-1825) ANDREW JACKSON (1767-1845) Seventh President (1829-1837) JAMES K. POLK (1795-1849) Eleventh President (1845-1849) JAMES BUCHANAN (1791-1868) Fifteenth President (1857-1861) ANDREW JOHNSON (1808-1875) Seventeenth President (1865-1869) JAMES A. GARFIELD (1831-1881) Twentieth President (1881) WILLIAM McKINLEY (1843-1901) Twenty-fifth President (1897-1901) THEODORE ROOSEVELT (1858-1919) Twenty-sixth President (1901-1909) WILLIAM H. TAFT (1857-1930) Twenty-seventh President (1909-1913) WARREN G. HARDING (1865-1923) Twenty-ninth President (1921-1923) FRANKLIN D. ROOSEVELT (1882-1945) Thirty-second President (1933-1945) HARRY S. TRUMAN (1884-1972) Thirty-third President (1945-1952) GERALD R. FORD(1913-2006) Thirty-eighth President (1974-1977) RUMOR #3. That Free Accepted Masons Worship the Devil, or, alternately, are Anti-Christian. Albert Pike is the favorite “whipping boy” of modern anti-Masons, and today’s Internet is no exception. Pike is usually first portrayed as the central, guiding force behind Freemasonry, and then he is vilified. Pike’s Victorian writing style was better suited for a century ago. In one place in Morals and Dogma, Pike refers to Jesus as “the mysterious founder of the Christian Church.” This one phrase alone is the source of many criticisms online but the majority of religious claims do not involve goat riding or human sacrifice, the main of them boil down to the monotheistic claim that while, to quote scripture, “No servant can serve two masters: for either he will hate the one, and love the other; or else he will hold to the one, and despise the other. Ye cannot serve God and mammon.” That’s Gospel of Luke 16:13… There’s two common threads here – that Freemasonry violates the doctrine of monotheistic belief in God the Father, much the same way that watching the NFL on Sunday TV is having football for a false god and violating one of the ten commandments, or that Freemasonry is part of the Priory Du Scion (infamous of late courtesy of the Da Vinci Code and Eyes Wide Shut). The Priory Du Scion is linked in many conspiracy theories online with a continuation of the Merovingian Dynasty and protecting the holy bloodline of Jesus. The Merovingians were a dynasty of Frankish kings who ruled frequently fluctuating areas, within the region largely corresponding to ancient Gaul, from the fifth to the eighth THE RISING POINT - WINTER 2010 1
  • 22. Volume 20. Issue 1 • • WINTER 2010 century. To the south, once they had absorbed the kingdoms of Burgundy and of Arles or Provence, their borderlands with the Lombards in Italy and with Septimania remained fairly stable. The baseless accusation of Satan worship goes back to the earliest days of recorded Freemasonry when—in the words of Dr. George Oliver—freemasons were: ‘...charged with the practice of forbidden arts; as for instance “raising the devil in a circle;” a common witchcraft claim. An anti-masonic letter, reproduced on page 9 of James Anderson’s Constitutions of 1738, claims: “the Freemasons in their lodges, raised the devil in a circle, and when they had done with him, laid him again with a noise or a hush, as they pleased.” RUMOR #4 That Free Accepted Mason are Anti-Catholic The 1998 publication of a document called the Alta Vendita by John Vennari, a writer for the Catholic Family News, is a collection of papers — reputedly from 1820s Alta Vendita correspondence — published by authority of Pope Pius IX. This was because in the 1800s the Catholic church condemned republicanism, and liberalism as “modernism”. A splinter Catholic group called the Carbonari, with a leadership council titled the Alta Vendita was divided into two classes: apprentices and masters. No apprentice could rise to the grade of a master before the end of six months. The members made themselves known to one another by secret signs in shaking hands. These signs for masters and apprentices were unlike. One of the underlying principles of the society, it is true, was that the “good brotherhood” rested on religion and virtue; but by this was understood a purely natural conception of religion, and the mention of religion was absolutely forbidden. In reality the association was opposed to the Church, either for it’s political or social power and requirements. Even though this group died out in the 1840s, interest in the Alta Vendita has been kept alive by such discredited conspiracy theorists. There is nothing in Vennari’s publication, or any other writings on the Alta Venditi, that proves that the group was associated in any fashion with regular Freemasonry, that it had any influence on Freemasonry, that it grew out of the Bavarian Illuminati, as some websites have claimed, or that it continues to exist in any form. RUMOR #5. That Freemasonry is a front for White Supremacy Organizations like the Ku Klux Klan or American Nazi Party. Claims have been made that Albert Pike was a high ranking member of the Ku Klux Klan. This is a claim that is impossible to either substantiate or disprove. Research into primary source material will reveal that there isn’t any primary source material. The only writings that come close to qualifying as a primary source is a booklet written by one of the Klan founders, Captain John C. Lester, in 1884, comprising his reminiscences fifteen years after the fact. The only name noted in Lester’s book is one reference to “Gen. Forrest”. This booklet was republished in 1905 with a list of names of key Klansmen included in a preface. In 1924, Ms. Susan L. Davis published her Authentic History, in which she contradicts a number of points made by Lester, denigrates Fleming for his superficial knowledge of the Klan and condemns Lester’s co-author, David L. Wilson, for suggesting the Klan had failed. Any other material promoting Albert Pike’s association with the Klan will either cite Fleming or Davis, cite other authors who cite Fleming or Davis. Both Fleming and Davis accepted, unquestioningly, the fifty year old reminiscences of several of the founding members of the Klan. There is no source documentation, corroborating evidence or other testimony to implicate Albert Pike with the Klan. Pike had been dead fourteen years when Fleming first published, and was in no position to address the issue. There are several separate claims. First, that Albert Pike was the founder of the Ku Klux Klan; second, that he was a member, or leader, of the Klan; third, that he was a racist; and fourth, that Freemasonry is the current reincarnation of the Klan. Numerous sources both online and in print demonstrate that his leadership role or membership is strictly hearsay, that his racism, while nothing to be proud of, was mild by his contemporaries’ standards and that any accusation that Freemasonry is a Klan front, or vice versa is completely unsubstantiated and unfounded. THE RISING POINT - WINTER 2010
  • 23. Volume 20. Issue 1 • • WINTER 2010 RUMOR #6. That Freemasons flagrantly wave their world domination in front of citizens by hidden messages on the United States One Dollar Bill. First, the pyramid was not a part of the proposals for the Great Seal until the third committee. It was not suggested by Jefferson, Franklin, and Adams. As to the lighting on the East or West of the pyramid, no official explanation exists. The unfinished state of the pyramid was intentional. Charles Thompson, member of the final committee (there were three before it was proposed in its current form), in his remarks to congress about the symbolism on the Great Seal, said the pyramid represented “Strength and Duration.” The all-seeing eye, and ancient symbol for divinity was Franklin’s belief that one man couldn’t do it alone, but a group of men, with the help of God, could do anything. Although Franklin’s committee did not suggest a pyramid, it did originate the suggestion of the eye. The term “the all-seeing eye” is never used in describing it. The Franklin committee wanted the seal to include a reflection of divine providence and discussed a variety of themes including the Children of Israel in the Wilderness. Some have suggested that the pyramid and the eye are the result of Masonic influence, but the only member of the original committee who was a Mason was Franklin and this committee’s design was rejected by congress. None of the final designers of the seal was a Mason. The eye as representing “the eye of providence” has a long history. It’s more likely that both the designers of the Great Seal and the Masons both drew from that history. The use of “the all seeing eye” as uniquely Masonic first appeared in 1797, nearly 15 years after the adoption of the symbolism by Congress. RUMOR #7. That Free Accepted Masons Guard Their Secrets Until Death, and Murder Anyone Attempting to Reveal The Secret Rituals. While the obligations, penalties and signs by which a Freemason may know another from the rest of the population are secret, many critics exist online, claiming members of the fraternity will stop at nothing to keep the secret. The fictions: that from the disappearance of William Morgan affair in 1820s to the fatal shooting in New York in 2004, that members, ex-members, cowans and eavesdroppers are being silenced with brute force and threats, real and imagined, of terrible violence. The facts: that most public libraries have, or have access, to books containing the words, grips, and rituals of the Freemasons. A number of anti-masonic religious groups have taken it upon themselves to publish recent ritual books online, and one website even exists where, for $25, a visitor can purchase ritual books featuring “the secrets of masonry” online. RUMOR #8. The Streets of Washington DC That Freemasons designed the street map of America’s capital city to include occult and extraterrestrial symbol. This long-enduring myth has been gathering acceptance, no thanks to recent books (see MLRI review of David Ovason) and websites. This is similar to numerology in that if you go looking for a result, you will find it. Below is the most recent incarnation, where the earlier claims of pentagram, square and compasses have now been enlarged to include a horned alien head at the tip of the compasses. RUMOR #9. Mind control air raid sirens That Masonic buildings incorporate the use of mind control devices or broadcast interference designed to disrupt natural human thought. This is reported on several message boards and weblogs (“blogs”) as a rumor that the yellow horns or “air raid” sirens on top of the Masonic “Temple”, are emitting a sub-sonic mind controlling frequency which is imprinting command words like a hypnotists, in our sub-conscious minds and programming us to behave and operate for the benefit of the New World Order. The rumor was initially reported in THE RISING POINT - WINTER 2010 3
  • 24. Volume 20. Issue 1 • • WINTER 2010 Richmond, Vermont, but has spread. RUMOR #10. Bedoper That Freemasons are part of an inter- galactic conspiracy brought about by reptilian extraterrestrial beings. It’s a vast collection of personal ramblings from what looks like someone’s personal schizophrenia set. There’s no direct evidence, but it is highly ranked in the online search engines when “Masonic Conspiracy” or “Freemason Secrets” are your search words. There is no longer a manifesto, although some prior archives of the website do show one. The curator appears to have a theory that international politics are driven by an agenda of reptilian aliens who hide themselves. This is classic 1950’s Science Fiction, and it’s best described in the movies “They Live” and “V” in the 1980s. Bro. Sean Dykhouse, P.M. is member of Ann Arbor Fraternity Lodge No. 262, Past Master of the Michigan Lodge of Research Information No. 1, and a 32° Scottish Rite Mason, Valley of Detroit. MASONIc cENTRAL Masonic central - the pod cast for Freemasons by Freemasons. This show is a weekly talk show on the wide world of all things Masonic, from movies and books to academia and notables. The goal of the program is to create a heightened awareness of the venerable institution. If your looking to learn more about Freemasonry, then Masonic central is the right place to be. THE RISING POINT - WINTER 2010 4
  • 25. Volume 20. Issue 1 • • WINTER 2010 FREEMASONRY IN TAIWAN Bro. Shih-Ho (Simon) Chao, Ph.D. Freemasonry in Taiwan originated from Mainland China. The first lodge appeared in China in 1767 in Canton (Home State of Dr. Sun Yat Sen), the No. 407 Yi Lodge which belonged to the Grand Lodge of England. All the Masonic membership in that Lodge were foreigners without Masonic descent. It was not until March 18, 1949, that the Grand Lodge of China was established in Shanghai, under the sponsorship of the Grand Lodge of Philippines. However, all Masonic activities were suspended in 1951 due to civil war between Communist Government (the current Chinese Government) and KMT Government (The Government in Taiwan before 2000). The Grand Lodge was reactivated in Taipei in 1954 after the KMT Government retreated to Taiwan. Under the excellent leadership of all the Grand Masters, including many from the United States and General Chiang, son of Chiang Kai-Shek, the Lodges grew stronger. Currently, there are 13 Lodges in Taiwan, with thousands of brothers. It is worth mentioning that the No. 7 Liberty Lodge is composed of Brothers all of whom are from other countries. Some of them were already Masons in their “Mother Countries” but needed to keep their light in Masonry growing and glowing. In addition to all the Lodges, the other Masonic bodies in Taiwan include: 1) The Ali Shan Oasis Shrine Club of Taipei, working on the care and foundation of Crippled and Burned Children); 2) YangMingShan Chapter No. 5, O.E.S. The Order of the Eastern Star is not an auxiliary of the Masonic Order but is an independent organization of its own. Its members are the wives, daughters, widows, mothers and sisters of Master Masons. 3) The Ancient Accepted Scottish Rite of Freemasonry of the Southern Jurisdiction, U.S.A. Valley of Taipei, Orient of Taiwan. There are now 816 members in total and 32 Brethren have been coroneted with the Thirty-third degree (33° ). At this time, due to the business activities between China and Taiwan, a host of Brethren have stayed in China, mostly in Shanghai. The former Worshipful Master of No. 9 Tang Lodge, the author’s Blue Lodge, just went to Shanghai on Nov. 1st, 2004, and serves as the manger of a Company. It has been proposed by some brother in Shanghai that a regular Masonic meeting be begun so that they can continue the Masonic activities. Hopefully, Masonic bodies can return to Mainland China in the near future. Bro. Shih-Ho (Simon) Chao is member of No. 9 Tang Lodge, the Grand Lodge of China, member of Ann Arbor Fraternity Lodge No. 262, and a 32° Scottish Rite Mason, Valley of Detroit. Bro. Simon Chao’s Joint Installation of the Grand Lodge of China, Taiwan. Summer , 2002 Photos by Bro. Simon THE RISING POINT - WINTER 2010 5
  • 26. Volume 20. Issue 1 • • WINTER 2010 JUDGE AUGUSTUS WOODWARD A Freemason and Founder of the First Complete Public Education System in America Bro. Richard H. Sands, 33o, P.G.M. Emeritus Professor of Physics, University of Michigan Abstract The Fraternity of Free and Accepted Masons is the oldest existing fraternity in the world. Freemasons historically have made important and essential contributions to the War for Independence and the fabric of this country. Among the Freemasons responsible for the first public school system (elementary and intermediate with a university at its apex) in America*, including the beginnings of the University of Michigan, was Judge Augustus Woodward, the first of three federally appointed judges in the Territory of Michigan. His life, education, and contributions are traced in this paper. He made a name for himself when he represented Oliver Pollack before Congress in his case for restitution of funds expended in support of the expedition of George Rogers Clark to recapture the Northwest Territories from the British. Woodward became a close friend of Thomas Jefferson. Arriving shortly after the fire that leveled Detroit, he left his imprint on the layout of the streets of Detroit. Woodward was the only one of the civil officers to remain in Detroit during the War of 1812. He was widely read and developed a system of scientific classification and nomenclature that rivaled the best of the time. He championed the needy during and after the war of 1812 and drafted the act of 1817 that established the University of Michigania and began the first truly public school system in America*. In 1824, he lost his judgeship to “dirty” politics, but was able to clear his name and received an appointment as a judge in the new Territory of Florida, where he later died on June 12, 1827, at the age of fifty-two. His grave is unknown. The Fraternity of Free and Accepted Masons is the oldest extant fraternity in the world. Members of the Fraternity (hereinafter referred to as Freemasons or Masons) and its teachings played major roles in the War for Independence and the beginnings and evolution of this country. Among these were men such as George Washington, Benjamin Franklin, Paul Revere, Baron Von* There is one other contender for this honor - the Georgia legislature that in 1801 gave supervisory power over the public schools to the President of the University of Georgia1. To date, I have been unable to learn when and how he exercised that power or if the University of Georgia was truly public in its admissions at that time. Woodward, p.2 Steuben, Marquis de Lafayette, George Rogers Clark, John Hancock, and many others. They pledged their lives, their fortunes and their sacred honor that they and we might enjoy freedom from oppression. We are here to discuss Freemasonry in Washtenaw County. It is most appropriate that this should be done on the University of Michigan campus, because Freemasons played a significant part in the beginning of this University, albeit that the latter took place in Detroit in 1817 before it evolved to a true university in Ann Arbor in 1837. Among the Freemasons responsible for that beginning, one man stands out; namely, Augustus Woodward, the first of three federally appointed judges for the new Territory of Michigan. The origins of the Fraternity of Free and Accepted Masons are lost in antiquity. Our oral history tells us that we grew out of those operative lodges of Freemasons that built the great cathedrals of the Middle Ages; however, we have no written proof of that. We can trace it in great detail only to the meeting of four lodges in London, England, in 1717; but these were already social lodges of Freemasons. Members of the Fraternity make no pretext of learning the skills of operative Freemasonry; we simply use the tools of the operative craft to teach fundamental truths of human behavior or “morality,” if you like. THE RISING POINT - WINTER 2010 6
  • 27. Volume 20. Issue 1 • • WINTER 2010 The Society of Free and Accepted Masons (some 3 Million strong, worldwide) is a fraternity that has built within it a system of moral instruction that is taught in the most palatable manner possible; namely, by symbols and by allegory. Every Freemason must be of mature age and profess a belief in Diety. If anyone wishes to be a member, he must ask - no Mason can invite him. The purpose of the organization is to take good men and help them to become better men by offering them these moral lessons and opportunities to practice charity in an atmosphere of brotherly love. You will hear later in this program of the history of some of these lodges of Freemasons in Washtenaw County. Because bettering oneself is a major part of Freemasonry, Freemasons have always stressed the importance of education. The first full public school systems in America and in Europe were started by Masons, and Masons were instrumental in starting many of the major colleges and universities in this country; examples are the University of Pennsylvania, the University of Michigan and the University of North Carolina. In discussing the beginnings of the University of Michigan, we need to review the life and Woodward, p. 3 works of the principal player in those beginnings; namely, Judge Augustus Woodward and the circumstances that brought him here 2. In order to keep the Northwest Territories Congress needed to populate the area. To facilitate the latter, they needed a system of laws and governance; and The Northwest Ordinance3 was the first effort in that direction. It is of note that this ordinance was adopted by the Continental Congress in 1787 before our Constitution was written. It outlawed slavery, promoted education, and provided for a governor, a secretary and three judges appointed by Congress. But the territories were vast, and the inhabitants were forced to travel inordinate distances to seek justice. As the numbers of settlers increased, new territories were broken out from the original. Finally, the Territory of Michigan was established with its own governor, secretary and three federally appointed judges of whom Augustus Woodward was one. He was born in New York in 1774 and, on November 6 in a Reformed Dutch Church, was baptized Elias Brevoort Woodward, after his maternal uncle. Elias Brevoort was one of pre-Revolutionary Manhattan’s leading citizens with a substantial estate. Woodward enrolled in Columbia College at the age of fifteen and received his A.B. degree. He read widely, was well grounded in Greek and Latin and became fluent in French. Elias Woodward later changed his name from Elias to Augustus, thinking that it better suited his personality. It was his habit to keep a small notebook in which he jotted down whatever interested him. After graduation in 1793, he took a job in Philadelphia where he was employed as a clerk in the Treasury Department. The uncle left him an inheritance of 150 English pounds. With this inheritance, he set out for the new city of Washington on the Potomac, where he invested in real estate. While in Rockbridge County in 1795, he was received in Monticello and admitted to Thomas Jefferson’s intimate circle. This was the beginning of a lasting friendship. Augustus moved to Georgetown in the District of Columbia. He became acquainted with Charles L’Enfant and his plan for Washington. On the inside cover of his notebook he pasted a copy of L’Enfant’s plan for Washington with the location of his ten properties marked. On March 23, 1801, he presented himself at the opening of the first session of the new court of the District of Columbia and was admitted to practice before it. He Woodward, p. 4 was tall, six foot three or four and was stooped with a large crop of dark hair, a narrow face and a large nose. He claimed no formal religious association, but he was never irreligious. He was on good terms with the clergy of many denominations, including Father Gabriel Richard of the Catholic faith and Reverend John Monteith of the Protestant faith. He never displayed impiety or looseness of character and was never known to use profanity. Prior to 1801, Jefferson was only the Vice-President, whose duties were minimal. Many a day, he and Woodward would sit before a warm fire discussing their theories of government and sharing books that they had read - both were voracious readers. Woodward spent a lot of time on a committee for the poor. The Washington bar of 1802 consisted of only eleven members. There was business for all; and Woodward had his share. One case, in particular, earned him distinction: his representation of Oliver THE RISING POINT - WINTER 2010
  • 28. Volume 20. Issue 1 • • WINTER 2010 Pollock before a committee of Congress to pursue a long-standing claim for reimbursement of funds advanced to the patriotic cause during the Revolution. Pollock’s financial assistance surpassed that of any other person. That the Northwest was won and that it became a part of the United States was the result, largely, of the efforts of Oliver Pollock. He was a native of Ireland, emigrating to Pennsylvania in 1761 at the age of 24. He had a natural talent for business - whatever enterprise he attempted, it prospered. After beginning operations out of Philadelphia with West Indies ports and with New Orleans, he established his headquarters in New Orleans in 1768. The Spanish took possession of Louisiana in the following year, and he began supplying the Spanish army. He was wise enough to charge reasonable prices and not the usual profiteering. This won him the respect of the Spanish authorities who gave him free trade throughout Louisiana. Rapidly Pollock acquired considerable wealth with large land holdings near New Orleans where he established plantations with slaves to work on them, and his mercantile interests were wide spread. After the start of the Revolution, agents from Virginia appeared in New Orleans seeking supplies for the patriotic cause. Through Pollock’s intervention and influence with Spanish officials, he was able to arrange for ten thousand pounds of powder to be shipped to the colonies.Woodward, p. 5 From Detroit, the British unleashed their Indian allies in a wave of terror. In order to stop this Indian menace, George Rogers Clark proposed a plan to mount an expedition against the Illinois country, which was not strongly held, and then to move against Detroit.. It took a steady flow of supplies to enable Clark to execute his plan. From New Orleans, Pollock sent boatload after boatload of food, powder, blankets and clothing up the Mississippi, using his own funds. As the demands increased, he mortgaged his lands and slaves, and advanced more than $300,000, much of it pledged against his personal credit. Clark’s victory was an expensive one for Pollock, and he became a ruined man. Payment was demanded by his Spanish creditors and they imprisoned him in a debtor’s jail in Havana. Repeatedly, he appealed to Virginia and Congress for relief. He became concerned when some individuals claimed that the obligation contracted by Virginia was not binding on the Federal government. He retained Woodward to secure recognition of his rights to payment. Woodward’s arguments and the justice of Pollock’s cause prevailed. Pollock eventually received all but some $9,000 of his claim. Just as importantly, Woodward’s involvement in this case peaked his interest in the Northwest Territories and, undoubtedly, was a factor in his acceptance of public service in that part of the country when he was offered it by Jefferson. In Detroit on Tuesday, June 11, 1805, a driver hitching up his cart to get a fresh supply of flour, knocked out his pipe, and a live coal was blown into the hay. In less than two hours, the whole town was in flames and all that remained of the town were charred chimneys. Fortunately, no lives were lost and only two were injured: an elderly woman and a young child. The destruction was total; only the old Block House survived. Woodward knew nothing of this when he arrived in Detroit on June 30. Woodward’s fame had preceded him; the citizens made it clear that Woodward represented a community hope. Detroit needed a figure of authority. Since the fire, the citizens had bickered among themselves about when and how they should start to rebuild. The new governor, William Hull, accompanied by his secretary, Stanley Griswold, arrived from Albany later the next day. The following morning, as his first official act, Hull administered the oaths of office to Secretary Griswold and Justices Woodward and Bates, the former assuming the office of chief justice by virtue of an earlier commission. Hull had been sworn in enroute by the Vice-President, George Clinton. Woodward, p. 6 Hull, Woodward and Bates formed themselves into a land board to plan a layout for the new city. They asked the populace to wait patiently. Woodward was chosen as a committee of one to layout the new Detroit. It was a year and a half before Woodward’s plan was completed, and you can see L’Enfant’s imprint. The plan consisted of an equilateral triangle with 4,000 foot sides, divided into six sections by a perpendicular line from every angle bisecting the opposite side, with squares, circuses and other open spaces where six avenues and where twelve avenues intersect, large circular plazas one thousand feet in diameter, were connected and intersected by north-south and east-west grand avenues, each two hundred feet wide. From each of the hub-like plazas or circuses, eight other avenues would radiate like spokes of a wheel. These were one hundred THE RISING POINT - WINTER 2010 8
  • 29. Volume 20. Issue 1 • • WINTER 2010 and twenty feet wide and connected at intervals by sixty-foot wide streets. The grand circuses were intended to be sites for public buildings, churches, schools - all the space to be landscaped, adorned with fountains and statuary, and lined with trees. The base of the first triangular unit paralleled the river for four thousand feet. The apex of the original was at the present Grand Circus Park and the intersection of the avenues which would have bisected its angles can still be seen at the Campus Martius. The first unit was designed for fifty thousand. It could easily be enlarged by adding a second or third triangle by making one side of the original triangle, the base of the new one. This was a city plan beyond the understanding of the frontier citizens who had never seen a European city and could not appreciate an advanced idea of scientific planning. After eleven years, Woodward’s plan was abandoned. If Detroit had followed this, it would be the envy of other cities without the congestion of today. (From the hand-written minutes4 of Zion Lodge, we learn that Augustus B. Woodward was made a Freemason on September 5, 1808, in Zion Lodge #1, chartered under the Grand Lodge of A.F.A.M. of New York. He was proposed by Brother Scott, elected to receive, and received the Entered Apprentice degree the same night. He was passed to the Fellowcraft degree on October 3, 1808; however, he had a series of excused absences from Zion Lodge until September 4, 1809. He was raised to the sublime degree of a Master Mason on October 14, 1809.) By 1808, the intention of the British for war was apparent. The unrest of the Indians was being secretly encouraged by the British. War with Britain was Woodward, p. 7 inevitable. The only question was when? Appeals to the federal government to reinforce the frontier fell on deaf ears until 1811. Hull chose this time to return to Massachusetts for the winter of 1811-12; but before his leave expired, he spent several months in Washington discussing defense arrangements. Governor Hull, now Brigadier General Hull, returned to Michigan Territory in July, 1812, as commander-in-chief of an army of two thousand men consisting of three regiments of Ohio volunteers and one regiment of regulars. War with Great Britain was declared while Hull was marching from Urbana, Ohio. The army’s objective was an immediate invasion of Canada, the capture of Fort Malden, and the occupation of the country as far east as the Thames River. Hull’s subordinates included the three colonels of the Ohio regiments, McArthur, Findlay and Lewis Cass, all of whom urged an immediate invasion of Canada. Hull delayed until he received orders from Washington, and not until July 12 did the army cross the river. Hull showed no inclination to do more, refusing to attack Malden (see Figure 1 below). While Hull was delaying, the British were actively reinforcing. In the North, an enemy expedition took Mackinac by surprise on July 17. Following this, the Indians swarmed to the British side. Hull respected the British, but feared the Indians and on August 8 he ordered his troops back across the river and on the same day his orders reached the small garrison at Fort Dearborn to evacuate. The soldiers and their families marched out of that fort and were ambushed by the savages, many brutally massacred and most taken prisoner. At the same time, Major General Isaac Brock took command of Fort Malden. Playing upon Hull’s fears, he demanded Detroit’s surrender, hinting that he might have trouble restraining the Indians. He planted a battery opposite Detroit and began to bombard the town. On the morning of August 16, Brock dressed a few of his militiamen as British regulars to make his force appear stronger, then transported them across the river and, with Tecumseh’s braves howling around the stockade, marched toward the town. To the disgust of his troops, Hull ran up the white flag, surrendering unconditionally without firing a shot. Brock left two hundred and fifty men under the command of Colonel Henry Proctor, and decreed that American laws should remain in effect. Hull as a prisoner of war was carried off to Montreal. The Ohio volunteers were sent home under parole. Before long Hull was exchanged, tried by court martial, convicted of cowardice and sentenced to death. Woodward was the only one of the original civic officers to remain in Detroit; and since the British decreed that American law would continue to prevail, Proctor (without consulting Woodward) appointed him as Secretary of the Territory (second in command). This placed him in a difficult position (which he declined); however, Woodward became the emissary of the people. He mounted a relief group THE RISING POINT - WINTER 2010 9
  • 30. Volume 20. Issue 1 • • WINTER 2010 to trace the prisoners from Fort Dearborn. (It is of interest to note that Zion Lodge ceased to meet during the British occupation4, despite the ruling that American laws should remain in effect. The lodge minutes do not give a reason, so we are left to speculate. Either they no longer had enough members to open or they did not want to have to welcome British brethren into their lodge. We will never know.). A coarse map of the area Proctor surprised a division of William Henry Harrison’s army under the command of General Winchester at Frenchtown (see Figure 1) on the night of January 21, 1813, and after a fight, forced him to surrender his entire force. Proctor returned to Malden, leaving the wounded American prisoners in Frenchtown. The British assured Winchester that the men would be safe, but despite this, the Indians got out of hand and murdered, scalped or carried away three hundred and ninety-seven Kentuckians while the British officers stood idly by. Woodward’s relief committee was called upon again, raising money for ransom and providing for the prisoners’ general comfort. Woodward ceased amicable relations with Proctor and requested a pass to leave. After some delay, Woodward was granted a pass on February 19. On March 16, he was in Albany where he reported by letter to Secretary of State Monroe. In his letter he pointed out that he had declined commission as Woodward. Secretary of the Territory under Proctor and had accepted no remuneration from the British. Woodward then went to Washington where he gave his papers to Congress, he conferred with Madison and congressional leaders on the situation in the West and the conduct of the war. He learned that his reputation had not suffered at all. While Woodward was relaxing from official duties, the war was turning in the West. In May, the British laid siege to the Fort Meigs on strategic Maumee River, but Gen. Harrison’s forces made a determined stand and repulsed the British forces. A second siege was repulsed in July, and the British needed a victory to assuage their Indian allies, so Proctor attempted to capture Fort Stephenson with a bayonet charge; however, the 160 men under Major George Croghan bloodily repulsed it and Proctor was forced to retreat back to Fort Malden. In September, Oliver Hazard Perry’s fleet sailed out of the harbor at Presque Ile on Lake Erie and decisively defeated the British squadron at Put-in-Bay on South Bass Island. With the Great Lakes under American control, General Harrison retook Detroit and invaded Canada. At the Thames River, he overtook and defeated the fleeing Proctor and smashed the Indian confederation. Once more, the Michigan Territory and the Northwest were under the United States. On October 29, 1813, President Madison appointed Lewis Cass (a Mason) to replace Hull as the new civic governor of Michigan. In the Spring of 1814, he set the 3rd Monday of August for the resumption of governmental operations and notified the judges to be on hand. Cass secured the appointment of his close friend, William Woodbridge, as Secretary. In Michigan in 1814 the settlements at the Rouge and Raisin were in dire straits, and the devastation from war was ubiquitous. Fur trade had been suspended during the war, so no credits were available for food and clothing. In a territory that was not self-sufficient, the lack of imports resulted in serious hardship. Agriculture ceased because with hostile Indians in the woods, the farmers did not dare go into the fields. The livestock had been stolen by the Indians or commandeered by the British. Famine was everywhere. During most of 1814 and the early months of 1815, Governor Cass was absent, winding up his affairs in Ohio. The people turned to Woodward who had never failed them before. Woodward reported to the Secretary of War that “no kind of flour or meal was to be procured and nothing for the subsistence of the cattle. No animals for slaughter. The fencing had been destroyed by the incursion of the enemy for fuel for the military. Their houses were left with no glass. Their clothing plundered by the Indians. ……the inhabitants of the River Raisin had to resort to boiled chopp’d hay for subsistence.” Woodward appealed for supplies, including seeds for spring planting. Father Richard and Cass, upon his return, added their appeals. In reply, Washington sent relief, food for the people and livestock for the farms. The gratitude of the people to all three was boundless, and Woodward was revered by the French. In 1817, President Monroe visited Detroit soon after his inauguration. In that year, too, Detroit’s first regular newspaper. The Gazette, was published. THE RISING POINT - WINTER 2010 30
  • 31. Volume 20. Issue 1 • • WINTER 2010 Furthermore, legislation was introduced to establish the first state or territorial support for a public education system with a university as a key part. The background for this was extensive. Woodward in his youth sought to understand a variety of natural phenomena. He wondered about the sun, electricity, light, heat and magnetism. He performed many experiments. None of the explanations he found in books satisfied him. In 1801, at the age of twenty-seven, he published a booklet entitled Considerations on the Substance of the Sun. From his boyhood days, Woodward was aware of the apparent lack of a sufficient classification of the various branches of knowledge. What was needed was a comprehensive system of classification which could catalog and assign proper place and order to the various branches of knowledge. The relative isolation of his residence in Michigan gave him the opportunity to pursue this undertaking. Jefferson, too, was interested in a system of classification for the practical purpose of cataloguing his library. Woodward developed his ideas during his numerous eastern trips while he was a territorial judge.. He visited libraries in New York, Philadelphia and Princeton. He discussed his plans with many eminent scholars including the President of Princeton and members of the faculty. He read widely and he undoubtedly possessed a knowledge of scientific thought as great as anyone then living in the United States. The heart of his plan was the nomenclature. This had to be universal, which meant that it had to be exact, so he could not use terms then in use - he had to invent them. In devising his own terminology, Woodward drew upon Greek roots. For a general designation that would include all of science he chose “encathol epistemia” or literally, “universal science.”. By 1815, his task was nearly complete and in 1816 upon another journey East, a syndicate of Philadelphia printers published his A System of Universal Science. Woodward was concerned by the lack of any publicly-supported education in the Territory. The well-to- do traders and officers sent their sons East to be educated. Father Richard had dreamed of establishing a seminary and common and vocational schools for the Indians and the whites. He had even attempted to start such schools, but they failed. He had appealed to Congress, the President and the Governor and Judges for financial support, but the French inhabitants, who represented the majority, were not interested. In 1816, the Reverend John Monteith, a native of Pennsylvania and a graduate of Princeton Seminary, where he had prepared for the ministry and for a teaching career, came to Detroit at the call of a committee of citizens to conduct non-denominational Protestant services and hopefully to teach school. Monteith and Father Richard were kindred spirits. Their interest in education formed a strong bond, and they along with Woodward and others formed a single-minded group that was determined. On June 20, 1817, Monteith wrote in his diary that “Judge Woodward invites me to an interview on the subject of a University.” Pressure was applied to the public. Even the French began to show interest, undoubtedly inspired by Father Richard, who posted a notice in the August 8, 1817, Gazette imploring them to educate their children so that the latter could compete for jobs. From mid-August to late September, Governor Cass left Detroit to attend to official business.. Secretary Woodbridge took over as acting governor in his absence. Before Cass’s departure, an understanding was reached and arrangements made for some important legislation to establish a university in Michigan Territory. A call was issued for a meeting of the legislative board on August 26. Woodward was assigned the task of drafting the legislation. His System of Universal Science would provide the basis. He entitled the legislation, “An act to establish the catholepistemiad, or university of Michigania.” Woodward, p. 12 Acting Governor Woodbridge and Judges Woodward and Griffin in signing the university act of August 26, 1817, presented to the pioneer community of Michigan a framework for an educational system which was far ahead of anything then existing in the United States or anywhere. As James B. Angell, president of the University of Michigan pointed out nearly three quarters of a century after the act of 1817 was adopted: “In the development of our strictly university work, we have yet hardly been able to realize the ideal of the eccentric but gifted man who framed the project of the THE RISING POINT - WINTER 2010 31
  • 32. Volume 20. Issue 1 • • WINTER 2010 Catholepistemiad, or University of Michigania.” The act itself described a solid well-conceived structure. It established the form and functional processes of the Catholepistemiad, including the broad instruction that it would offer. Thirteen departments were provided. They were to be known individually as didaxia, which covered just about all of human knowledge. The governing body was to be the didactors, or professors, and the President was to be a didactor. Their authority was extensive; they were an administrative body with power to name faculty members and carry out the executive functions of the university. General taxes were to be increased fifteen percent and four lotteries were to provide immediate funds. An appeal also was made for private contributions, to which the citizens of Detroit generously responded by raising three thousand dollars. Woodward’s act contemplated a complete educational system. The university was to be the nucleus, and subordinate to it were to be colleges, academies, schools, libraries, museums, athenaeums, botanical gardens and “other useful literary and scientific institutions consonant with the laws of the United States and of Michigan.” At the head of these various subdivisions were to be whatever directors, visitors, curators, librarians, instructors and” instuctrixes” the president and didactors might find necessary. Use of the term “instructrixes” implies that Woodward envisioned the institution to be coeducational. See Appendix A for a list of the didaxia. Immediately following the adoption of the act creating the Catholepistemiad, Montieth was appointed president and given seven of the didaxiim; Father Richard was made vice president with six didaxiim. When the act was adopted, an appropriation of $180 was made to acquire a building lot and “in aid of the resources for constructing buildings for use of the University ..” A major stimulant was given to the cause by five contributors. See Appendix B for a list of the initial contributors. On September 24, Woodward presided at ceremonies for laying the cornerstone of a university building. This was to be a two-story structure on Bates Street, around the corner from St. Anne’s Church. See Appendix C for a sketch of the first university building. (Prior to Michigan becoming a state in 1837, an act specifying a system of public education and a university was drafted by General Isaac Edwin Crary and Reverend John D. Pierce, modeled after the first successful system of public education in Europe; namely, in Prussia instituted by Frederick the Great, a Freemason! See the histories in references 5 and 6) There was general agitation for government reform, and particularly for representation in Congress. Cass was able to prevail upon Congress for the election of a representative, who would relieve Cass of the necessity of leaving his post to go to Washington. Woodward, realizing that the present form of government was likely to be changed, announced his candidacy for the office of representative. Cass, however, had his own choice, which was Woodbridge, his Secretary and close friend. Charges were levied against Woodward which were untrue, but injury had been done. The presence of many new Yankees who were unacquainted with Woodward spelled his doom and he lost the election in September,1819. When Woodbridge resigned after one session of Congress, Woodward again sought the office, but was narrowly defeated by similar tactics. He ran again in 1821, and lost again. In 1823, Congress agreed to expand the number of judges by one and give him jurisdiction over the Northern district of the Territory. In August, 1823, there was a mild epidemic of typhus fever in Detroit, and Woodward became ill just before the opening of the court in September. His doctor prescribed draughts of “aether, wine, brandy, spirits, opium and mercury.” Well saturated with these, Woodward started for the Council House in his gig. Too weak to walk, he had to be assisted to the bench and there, publicly, he dosed himself again. This was all his foes needed. Letters, accompanied by affidavits, were speeded to Washington, charging the chief justice with drunkenness in court. On January 20, 1824, President Monroe completed his list of appointments to the Michigan court, and Woodward’s name was among them; however, the charges of intemperance arrived at the White House and Monroe struck Woodward’s name and substituted John Hunt, who had traveled all the way to Washington to present the charges in person. The senate gave swift approval to the revised nominations. When the news Woodward, p. 14 reached Detroit two weeks later, Woodward was flabbergasted. He thought his only hope for future appointments lay in clearing his name. He began to dispose of his property and pack his belongings. Watching his preparations for departure, THE RISING POINT - WINTER 2010 3
  • 33. Volume 20. Issue 1 • • WINTER 2010 Detroit suddenly had an attack of conscience. They threw a lavish party where Woodward’s past exploits were lauded, and his detractors apologized profusely for their actions. Woodward replied quietly and with dignity. A few days later he announced his intention of going to Washington and met with his debtors. Upon his arrival in Washington, he discovered that the President was not hostile to him, and if he could clear his name of charges of intemperance, the President would give him another appointment. This was done via letters from Cass and other affidavits, and President Monroe on August 26, 1824, appointed him to a judgeship in the new Territory of Florida.Woodward was welcomed and served nearly three years, and he died on June 12, 1827, at the age of fifty-two. His grave is unknown. If the Masons of Michigan are looking for someone to emulate, they need look no further than Augustus Woodward. He continually gave of himself to the betterment of others, he applied himself to the attainment of useful knowledge and he applied that knowledge to his duties to God, his neighbor and himself, never sitting down contented when there were others in need. He was an idealist, who gave to all of us the best that he had. APPENDIX A. The didaxia for the Catheloepistemiad or the University of Michigania Thirteen didaxiim were specified. Today these would be colleges or departments. At the head of the list was a chair of catholepistemia, or universal science. The special concern of its didactor would be “the interrelation and correlated development of all departments of learning.” This man was to be President of the University. Of the twelve remaining didaxiim, Woodward provided designations drawn from his Universal Science. The didaxiim other than catholepistemia were: 1. Anthropoglossica, or literature, including all subjects relating to speech, composition and grammar. 2. Mathematica, or mathematics in all its branches 3. Physiognostica, or natural history and science. 4. Physiosophica, or natural philosophy 5. Astronomia or astronomy 6. Chymia, or chemistry 7. Iatrica, or medicine and its related sciences 8. Oeconomica, which included agriculture, manual and fine arts, education and political economy 9. Ethica, or philosophy, law and political science 10. Polemitactia, or military science 11. Diegetica, or historical sciences 12. Ennoeica, or intellectual sciences “relative to the minds of animals, to the human mind, to spiritual existences, to the Diety and to Religion.” The occupant of this chair was to be the University’s vice- president. APPENDIX B. A list of the initial contributors7 to the Catheloepistemiad On September 19, the newly established Detroit Gazette listed the first five contributors, stating: “We congratulate our fellow citizens on the rapid and liberal manner in which the Subscriptions List for the University has filled. We are informed that considerably upward of a thousand dollars was obtained the first day. The buildings have already commenced, and the first hall is expected to be completed the present autumn. Subsciption List in Aid of the University of Michigania: No. 1 William Woodbridge, Secretary of Michigan with the authority of Governor, in behalf of said Territory …………………$180.00 No. 2 Sylvester Day, Worshipful Master of Zion Lodge, No. 62, in behalf of the Lodge and by order of the same ……………………..$250.00 No. 3 William Woodbridge, for himself fifty dollars per ann. for four years …….$200.00 No. 4 James Conner, sixty dollars per ann. for three years… $180.00 No. 5 James Abbott, twenty-five dollars per ann. for ten years ………..$250.00. Total ………… $1,060.00” Of the first five contributors, three, including the two largest were Masonic; THE RISING POINT - WINTER 2010 33
  • 34. Volume 20. Issue 1 • • WINTER 2010 namely, Zion Lodge, James Abbott, PM, and James Connor. On October 10, the Detroit Gazette published the names and contributions of another thirty subscribers. The amount on this occasion totaled $1,941. One other subscription was from Judge Woodward for $200. Of the original thirty-five subscriptions totaling $3001.00, some $2100.00 (over two-thirds) came from Zion Lodge and its members. The minutes of the Lodge show that an emergency meeting was held September 15, 1817 “… to take into consideration the propriety of subscribing, as a Lodge, in aid of the University of Michigan….” The minutes then state: “On motion, RESOLVED, that the Worshipful Master be authorized to subscribe, in behalf of the lodge $250, in aid of the University of Michigan, payable in the sum of $50 per annum. FURTHER RESOLVED, that the said sum of $250 be subscribed as above, to be paid out of the sum appropriated by the lodge for refreshments, and that refreshments be dispensed with until the same is fully paid.” The motion passed by unanimous vote of the lodge. Zion’s records4 show that Brother Woodward was present that evening. (It is of interest to note that Zion Lodge4 contracted to lease the top floor of the new university building if it would be completed in two years.) A comparison of the list of additional individual subscribers with the records of Zion Lodge shows that the following individual subscribers were members of Zion Lodge: James Conner (Connor) James Abbott Abraham Edwards Benjamin Stead Philip Lecuyer Samuael T. Davenport Conrad Ten Eyck Abraham Wendell John Anderson Thomas Rowland Solomon Sibley George McDougall Oliver Willisams Benjamin Woodworth John P. Sheldon Augustus B. Woodward Thom’s Painting8 Depicting the Meeting of Zion Lodge on Sept. 15, 1817 In addition, Oliver W. Miller, subscriber of $100, was a member of United Brothers Lodge of New York and had visited Zion in December, 1807. Of the 36 known contributors, at least half of the subscribers, including the subscription by the lodge, were from Masonic sources. APPENDIX C. Sketch of the first building for public education in Michigan A Sketch of the University Building on Bates Street from W. B. Shaw5 Late in 1818, the University building was still incomplete because many of the pledges were late, so that it was unprepared for cold weather or to attempt school and library functions. In “The First Annual Report of the University of Michigan,” prepared on November 19, 1818 by Register John THE RISING POINT - WINTER 2010 34
  • 35. Volume 20. Issue 1 • • WINTER 2010 L.Whiting, Past Master of Zion Lodge, a founder of the Grand Lodge and its first Grand Secretary, Montieth reported on the institution’s progress during the first year. Particular attention was paid to financial matters related to the buildings construction. He emphasized that the faculty had especially sought to provide the framework for elementary schools in Detroit, Monroe and Michimilimackinac, in addition to Academy (High School) and College facilities. Unfortunately, there were no qualified university students, so attention had first to be directed toward elementary and high school facilities. In “ A Statistical Abstract of Detroit” published on January 29, 1819, we learn that residing in Detroit were some 1110 persons, 1,040 white and 70 “free people of color”, 142 dwelling houses and 131 stores, mechanics shops, public buildings, etc. Among the public buildings listed was “The Academy - built of Brick, two stories in height, 50 feet in length and 24 in breadth.” The building was the first building of the new University of Michigan and housed the Classical Academy and Primary School, the first instructional units of a proposed territory-wide educational system. The building remained in use as a school building until 1858, when it was torn down. References: 1. Ten Brook, Andrew, American State Universities, Their Origin and Progress, Robert Clarke and Co., Cincinnati 1875. 2. Woodford, Frank B., Mr. Jefferson’s Disciple: A Life of Justice Woodward, Michigan State College Press, East Lansing, MI 1953 3. Barrett, Jay A., Evolution of the Ordinance of 1787 with an Account of the Earlier Plans for the Government of the Northwest Territory, G. P. Putnam’s Sons, The Knickerbocker Press, New York 1891; Taylor, Robert M. Jr., ed., The Northwest Ordinance 1787, A Bicentennial Handbook, Indiana Historical Society, Indianapolis, IN 1987 4. These dates and information were obtained by the author from the bound minute book of Zion Lodge #1 by courtesy of the current Secretary of Zion Lodge, Arshag Daiyan, PM. 5. Shaw, Wilfred, The University of Michigan, Harcourt, Brace and Howe, New York 1920. For the sketch, see Sagendorph, Kent, Michigan, The Story of the University, E.P. Dutton Co., Inc., New York 1948, page 41. 6. Hinsdale, Burke A., History of the University of Michigan, The University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI, 1906 7. Smith, J. Fairbairn, and Fey, Charles, History of Freemasonry in Michigan, The Most Worshipful Grand Lodge Free and Accepted Masons of Michigan, Fort Worth, TX 1963 8. The original of this painting (in color) by Robert Thom (commissioned in 1967) is at the Bentley Historical Library, 1150 Beal Ave., North Campus, University of Michigan. The three men standing in front of the Worshipful Master of Zion Lodge (Sylvester Day, with the hat) are from left to right: Father Gabriel Richard, Rev. John Monteith, and Judge Augustus Woodward. (For the benefit of the Masons present, you will note that the lodge has not yet opened: the square and compasses are separated, the tapers are not lit, and the tyler’s door is open.) Bro. Richard H. Sands, 33o, P.G.M. - More information and BIO at BML website at: THE RISING POINT - WINTER 2010 35
  • 36. Volume 20. Issue 1 • • WINTER 2010 History of Union Lodge of Strict Observance No. 3 Free and Accepted Masons of the State of Michigan Part One Bro. William B. Krebaum, P.M. Greek Ionic Lodge Room -- Home to Union Lodge of Strict Observance Fifth Floor, Detroit Masonic Temple. - The Altar - Looking East - Photo Source, Many persons, upon encountering the name of “Union Lodge of Strict Observance” for the first time, are curious as to the origin of the name. Some have read about the “Rite of Strict Observance” and wonder if the founders of Union Lodge of S.O. were adherents or admirers of that rite, or whether the lodge embodies or exemplifies any of its teachings or philosophy. It may be recalled that the Rite of Strict Observance was founded by the German nobleman, the Baron Karl Gottlieb von Hund, in 1754. Mackey states that “the Rite of Strict Observance was a modification of Masonry, based on the Order of Knights Templar…” Mackey’s entry on this subject continues: “According to the system of the founder of this Rite, upon the death of Jacques de Molay, the Grand Master of the Templars, Pierre d’Aumont, the Provincial Grand Master of Auvergne, with two Commanders and five Knights, retired for purposes of safety into Scotland, which place they reached disguised as Operative Masons, and there finding the Grand Commander, George Harris, and several Knights, they determined to continue the Order. Aumont was nominated Grand Master, at a Chapter held on St. John’s Day, 1313. To avoid persecution, the Knights became Freemasons.” The German nobleman is said to have received his mandate for the creation of this Masonic rite from a masked man identified as the “Prince of the Red Feather,” an associate of Charles Edward Stuart, “Bonnie Prince Charlie,” pretender to the British throne, while THE RISING POINT - WINTER 2010 36
  • 37. Volume 20. Issue 1 • • WINTER 2010 visiting his court-in-exile in France, around 1742. This was six years after Andrew Ramsay (who had been a tutor to the prince) delivered his famous “Oration,” wherein he claimed a connection between the Knights Templar and Freemasonry. Michael Baigent and Richard Leigh, in The Temple and the Lodge, write: The form of Freemasonry to which Hund had been introduced was subsequently to become known under the name of “Strict Observance.” Its name derived from the oath it demanded—an oath of unswerving and unquestioning obedience — to the mysterious “unknown superiors.” The basic tenet of the Strict Observance was that it had descended directly from the Knights Templar. Members of the Strict Observance felt they were legitimately entitled to refer to themselves as “Knights of the Temple.” [p. 195] Von Hund was perplexed at receiving no further direction from his “unknown superiors,” over the ensuing years, as he worked to build the rite throughout Germany and much of Europe. The baron’s credibility finally eroded and many formed the opinion that he was either deluded or a fraud, or both. But Baigent and Leigh point out that it should not be surprising that the “unknown superiors,” presumably Scottish Masons from the circle of supporters of Charles Stuart, might fail to maintain contact with von Hund. Charles Stuart’s ill-fated bid to gain the English throne by force of arms in 1745, culminating in the slaughter at Culloden in the following year, resulted in the death, imprisonment or exile of so many of the “Young Pretender’s” loyalists, among whom would be numbered those who comprised those “unknown superiors.” So perhaps Baron von Hund was not deserving of the derision that eventually came his way, as the years and decades passed, never able to establish a pedigree for his Rite. The Rite of Strict Observance lost its momentum and was largely defunct by the 1780s, and German Freemasonry was reformed, by Schroeder, along much more conventional lines, from the viewpoint of English Masonry. Elements of the Strict Observance are said to survive in various Masonic Rites, most notably, perhaps, in the Rectified Rite. The most salient feature of the Rite of Strict Observance — that Freemasonry is connected to the Knights Templar—is, of course preserved to this day, particularly in what we now know as the Knights Templar, of the York Rite of Freemasonry. While we are unable to discern any particular connection between Detroit’s third lodge and the Rite of Strict Observance, it is interesting to note a strong affinity, on the part of many of Union Lodge’s founders and early members, for the Masonic Knights Templar. Member number one on the lodge register, E. Smith Lee, Past Grand Master and founding Worshipful Master of Union Lodge of S.O. was the first Eminent Commander of Detroit Commandery No. 1. Member number two on the rolls of Union Lodge, John B. Grayson, was the second Eminent Commander of that same Templar body. Early Union Lodge members playing an active part in Detroit Commandery include Horace S. Roberts, George B. Ensworth and Allyn Weston, among others. The Masonic Templar movement enjoyed strong growth during this period (1840s and 1850s) and it may be that, for many Masons, the memory of the Rite of Strict Observance held an element of nostalgic appeal, if only for the fact that it promoted the Templar connection to Freemasonry. We note that several lodges featuring the appellation of “Strict Observance” were founded around this time, e.g., Strict Observance Lodge No. 73, Charleston, S.C. (1849); Lodge of Strict Observance No. 27, Hamilton, Ontario, Canada (1847); Lodge of Strict Observance No. 94, New York, N.Y. (1843). And in Michigan, “S.O.” lodges were chartered in Lansing and Kalamazoo (Capital Lodge of Strict Observance No. 66 and Anchor Lodge of Strict Observance No. 87) not long after the founding of Union Lodge of S.O. No. 3. Interestingly (if only coincidentally), brothers of unusual Masonic ability seem to be associated with the creation and early working of the S.O. lodges. E. Smith Lee, Michigan’s past Grand Master, was master of Union Lodge of S.O., U.D., George Washington Peck would be elected Grand Master while serving as the first Worshipful Master of Capital Lodge of S.O., and J. Adams Allen became Grand Master two years after serving as Anchor Lodge of Strict Observance’s first master. In South Carolina, the esteemed Brother Mackey, Grand Lecturer, presided at the installation of Strict Observance Lodge No. 73’s first officers. It’s reported that Dr. Mackey stated that the lodge was named after the Rite of Strict Observance. THE RISING POINT - WINTER 2010 3
  • 38. Volume 20. Issue 1 • • WINTER 2010 Regarding the founding of Lodge of Strict Observance No. 94, we read, in the 1905 Proceedings of the Grand Lodge of New York, the following: The petitioners set forth in their petition that they intend to conduct their Lodge with “a Strict Observance of the old Masonic Constitution, a Strict Observance of the Constitution and Regulations of the Grand Lodge, A Strict Observance of Discipline and Order in all things relating to the duties of Masons and Masonry; to carry out in practice every recommendation of the Grand Lodge, especially those relating to the selection of proper candidates for the Order, the diffusion of Masonic knowledge by the use of the ritual approved by the Grand Lodge, and the occupation of every meeting some useful Work, by providing for the sick and unfortunate of our own members, and by the constant devotion of our powers to the completion of the great design of erecting a Masonic Temple in this City, and ultimately providing an Asylum for the aged and the orphans of the Fraternity of this State.” While it may be possible that the lodge’s founders had the Rite of Strict Observance in mind when seeking a charter from the grand lodge, it appears that they employed the concept of “strict observance” in another connection when submitting their petition. The distinguished Brother James Herring, who served as Grand Secretary in New York for many years, was the lodge’s first master, and held that office for the first three years of the lodge’s existence. At this time, Brother Herring, in his capacity as Grand Secretary of the Grand Lodge of New York, played a signal role in the saga of the revival of the Grand Lodge of Michigan; first by withholding recognition of the Michigan brethren’s efforts to revive the dormant (or, as Brother Herring might have termed it, the defunct) Grand Lodge of Michigan, founded in 1826; and then—having stymied that undertaking—by facilitating the re-chartering of Zion, Detroit and Oakland Lodges, under the auspices of the Grand Lodge of New York, to enable those lodges to organize a new Grand Lodge of Michigan. The present writer has discovered no contemporary documentation relative to the intentions of the founders Union Lodge of S.O., in choosing the lodge’s name. An allusion to Baron von Hund’s old rite may have figured in their deliberations, but oral tradition in Detroit Masonic circles suggests a different intention, more along the lines of the reasons stated by the founders of the New York “strict observance” lodge. As a visitor at a communication of Detroit Lodge No. 2, in 2005, I chanced to overhear a snippet of conversation between two brethren on the sideline. One brother said to the other: “The story goes that, many years ago, some Masons were unhappy with the way the ritual was being worked in Zion and Detroit Lodge, so they started Union Lodge of Strict Observance, to do it right.” Apparently, the question of the origin of the name of Detroit’s third lodge had arisen. The lodge was formed in the days before the advent of dual or plural lodge memberships. To join another existing lodge, or to form a new lodge, it was necessary for a Mason to demit from his current lodge—a “demit” being a withdrawal from one lodge for the purpose of enabling one to join another. To leave one lodge to join another one in the same locality, is not an act we would expect any Mason to undertake lightly. And yet, several Masons from Detroit’s existing lodges, Zion No. 1 and Detroit No. 2, did just that. We can only assume that they had good and sufficient reasons for doing so. The opening of the Erie Canal in 1825, which linked the Hudson River and the port of New York to Lake Erie, inaugurated a dramatic emigration from east to west. Detroit was a major recipient of this human influx—its population increased from about 2,500 in 1830, to 9,000 in 1840, to more than 25,000 by 1852, when Union Lodge was chartered. The Masonic Order, too, enjoyed remarkable growth in Michigan over the brief span of years since the abatement of the anti-Masonic excitement of the late 1820s and 1830s. After the reestablishment of a Grand Lodge in Michigan in 1844, the number of its constituent lodges increased from nine to forty-six. Its favorable location upon the water navigation route from the lower to the upper Great Lakes made it a choice port of debarkation for immigrants streaming in from Ireland, Germany, England, various other parts of Europe—and from the older settlements of the New England states, New York, and Canada. Each of these areas would contribute material for the growth of Masonry in Detroit and for the growth of Union Lodge of S.O. So we can well imagine that one motive for establishing a new lodge in Detroit may have simply been the perception that the two older lodges were getting a little “crowded” and it was time for another lodge to help in the work of refining the abundance THE RISING POINT - WINTER 2010 38
  • 39. Volume 20. Issue 1 • • WINTER 2010 of good material streaming into the city. Growth was so great, that within another five years, two more lodges were chartered in the City of the Straits: Ashlar Lodge No. 91 and Charity Lodge No. 94. Simple increase in numbers, in and of itself, could very plausibly account for the impulse to create a new lodge, but a consideration of the men involved in Union’s founding, gives some credence to the notion that a qualitatively different lodge was desired—a lodge that would “do it right.” Throughout the United States, in the years before Union Lodge’s founding, sentiment grew for the concept of standardizing the Masonic Work across the various jurisdictions of the American Grand Lodges. The famous “Baltimore Convention” was held in that city in 1843, comprised of delegates from a number of Grand Lodges, to further the aim of greater uniformity in the work. Michigan Masons, struggling as they were to reinstitute their own Grand Lodge (without immediate success) were not represented in the convention, but followed the developments with interest and, for the most part, approval. The most significant and lasting achievement of this convention was its adoption and recommendation of a version of the Webb- Preston ritual as the standard to be worked throughout the U.S. It is beyond the scope of this paper to delve into detail on this topic, especially since it has been well-elucidated by other writers (see the Lou B. Winsor Lecture by Richard H. Sands, P.G.M., entitled The Michigan Ritual, John Barney, a Broken Column and You, published by Michigan Lodge of Research and Information). Suffice it to say that the convention’s recommendations were generally well received—certainly in Michigan, where the Grand Lodge adopted the Webb Preston ritual as exemplified by John Barney, that peripatetic teacher of the esoteric work. It is the same ritual; with only very minor changes (we are assured) that we use in Michigan to this day. Indications of Brother Lee’s commitment to the effort to bring uniformity to the Masonic work may be found in the Transactions of the Grand Lodge of Michigan during the time that he served as Grand Secretary. At the Grand Lodge session of June 1845, as chairman of the Committee on Foreign Correspondence, Brother Lee states: “It was the design of your committee to have prepared a synopsis of such of the doings of the various Grand Lodges as were of a general and specially important character, but time will not permit.” [Emphasis added.] Although there was not sufficient time to read or even to summarize doings in other Masonic jurisdictions, the Grand Secretary did find time to read a letter from R.W. Brother George K. Teulon, representative of the Grand Lodge of Texas near the Grand Lodge of Bengal, in India. In the letter, Brother Teulon begins “Allow me to congratulate your Grand Lodge on its new organization, and thereby emerging from its Masonic difficulties, and restoration to your proper Masonic standing…” Brother Teulon continues in this vein, with all good wishes for the prosperity of the craft in Michigan and then comes to what was probably the salient point of the letter, from E. Smith Lee’s perspective: “I can assure you, that, as an American Mason, it will at all times afford me much pleasure to promote the cause of mutual interchange of Grand Lodge communications; but dear as that is to me, a far dearer object I should like to see achieved in the introduction of a uniform system of work and lectures throughout the whole world, wherever the Anglo-Saxon tongue is spoken. America, by the Baltimore Convention, has, I am proud to say, taken the initiative step in this measure, and it is my fervent prayer that she may persevere until success crowns her efforts. “ At the Grand Lodge Communication of January, 1846, much of the Committee on Foreign Correspondence’s report is devoted to the current developments in the effort toward the creation of a “General Grand Lodge” of the United States. After concluding the Committee’s report, the Grand Secretary immediately moved that “this Grand Lodge now proceed to the election of a delegate to represent this Grand Lodge in the National Convention of Grand Lodges…” to be held in Winchester, Virginia, and “…on counting the ballots, it was found that W. Bro. E. Smith Lee was unanimously elected such delegate.” Adopting a standard ritual and implementing the consistent practice of that ritual, it may be observed, are two different things. As late as 1860, Grand Master J. Adams Allen, in his address to Grand Lodge, expressed the concern that, despite the Grand Lodge’s adoption of the Webb-Preston work as taught by John Barney in Michigan more than a decade previously, there was still a lack of uniformity in the work of the various lodges in Michigan. And if the Grand Master in 1860 was dissatisfied with the inconsistency THE RISING POINT - WINTER 2010 39
  • 40. Volume 20. Issue 1 • • WINTER 2010 he observed, it may be supposed that Past Grand Master E. Smith Lee was even less satisfied with the state of affairs he perceived in 1850. Dissatisfied, perhaps, to a degree that would impel him to start a new lodge, one unencumbered by the past practice and ingrained habit of its members. A new lodge might offer the best possibility for making a fresh start, for enthusiastically embracing the officially endorsed ritual, and performing it without deviation. In other words, to “do it right.” Again, it should be noted that we have discovered no documentation revealing Brother Lee’s intentions in founding Union Lodge of Strict Observance, but it does not seem unreasonable, in observing his actions, and considering the caliber of the Masons he enlisted in the foundation of the lodge, to suppose that he had some definite purpose in mind—that of raising the standard of Masonic practice, which after all, was a field in which he constantly labored during his residence in Detroit. E. Smith Lee was an exemplar of excellence, it seems, in all his laudable undertakings: distinguished lawyer, judge (Master in Chancery in Detroit, later a federal magistrate), U.S. Commissioner, businessman (treasurer of the Detroit and Birmingham Plank Road), master of Detroit Lodge No. 2, Grand Secretary and later Grand Master of Masons of the State of Michigan, founding Eminent Commander of Detroit Commandery No. 1, founding Grand High Priest of the Grand Chapter of Michigan, and founding Worshipful Master of Union Lodge of S.O. No. 3. Of the men who founded the lodge with him, and of those who followed them in close order through the western portal of the lodge, much the same qualities might be observed. A cursory examination of the historical record reveals that, of the first four dozen members of the lodge, no less than four would be elected mayors of city of Detroit: John H. Harmon, Oliver M. Hyde, Merrill I. Mills and William C. Duncan. Of the ten charter members of the lodge, beside E. Smith Lee, we note that Col. John B. Grayson, a graduate of West Point, enjoyed a distinguished career in the U.S. Army, and was a Major General in the Confederate Army when he slipped his mortal bonds; George B. Ensworth, a successful attorney, after serving as master of the lodge, demitted to become the founding Worshipful Master of Ashlar Lodge No. 91; Henry Metz, a building contractor, erected many of the growing community’s structures, including public buildings, and participated in Grand Lodge committees, appendant Masonic bodies, and was “operatively” engaged in at least one Masonic cornerstone-laying ceremony; Benjamin F. Hyde, who served one term as lodge treasurer, was a prosperous attorney; Orville B. Dibble served in several lodge offices, including Secretary and Treasurer, was an active participant in Grand Lodge communications, and was the proprietor of the Biddle House, a landmark Detroit hotel; S. Dow Elwood was a principal in a large retail and wholesale book-selling, paper supply and book-binding business; Charles W. Jackson, past master of Detroit Lodge, was a builder and city alderman; James Fenton, an accountant with Hawley Co., was the lodge’s second master, and served as Grand Secretary for many years. Other members from the first three years of the lodge included Lt. Col. Horace S. Roberts, Detroit City Clerk, Wayne County Register of Deeds, six-time master of the lodge and Grand Master of Masons of the State of Michigan, who would die a hero’s death leading the 1st Michigan Infantry at the Second Battle of Bull Run; Dr. Peter Klein, an Alsatian-born physician who served as president of the Wayne County Medical Society, and was a member of the Michigan House of Representatives, and founded the German-language newspaper Volksblatt; John L. Barstow, an immigrant from Vermont, was made a Mason in Union Lodge of S.O. before returning to his native state to assist his parents on the farm—he went on to distinguished service in the 8th Vermont Infantry during the Civil War, rising in rank from sergeant to major, and after the war was elected to the state legislature, and was subsequently elected 39th Governor of the State of Vermont; Allyn Weston, Harvard graduate and lawyer, was raised in Union Lodge of S.O. in 1855, was editor of the Daily Advertiser of Detroit, and was then was and editor of The Ashlar, an acclaimed Masonic magazine he demitted from No. 3 to help found Ashlar Lodge No. 91, serving as that lodge’s senior warden, and afterward he moved to Central City, Colorado where he practiced law, served as the first Worshipful Master of Central Lodge No. 6, he was then appointed the first Grand Lecturer and subsequently elected the second Grand Master of Masons of the Territory of Colorado. It appears that several early members of Union Lodge were instrumental in the founding of other lodges. In 1856 we see that George Ensworth was Worshipful Master, William Oven was Junior Warden, and Allyn Weston was Senior Deacon of Union Lodge; not long afterward, these three brothers THE RISING POINT - WINTER 2010 40
  • 41. Volume 20. Issue 1 • • WINTER 2010 would serve as the founding master and wardens of Ashlar Lodge No. 91. James B. Newton was raised in Union Lodge of S.O. in 1855, and was Junior Warden in 1857. This brother moved about frequently in Michigan pursuing his business in the hardware trade. He transferred to Milford Lodge No. 165 in December, 1864 as one of its charter members and became that lodge’s first Worshipful Master. In 1866 he was elected master of Genesee Lodge No. 174. In 1873 he helped to form Joppa Lodge No. 315, being a charter member. He was Eminent Commander of Monroe Commandery No. 19 in the years 1874 through 1877. We can trace a connection between the three Strict Observance lodges of Michigan through relationships among their members. George W. Peck was the founding master of Lansing Lodge No. 33, Brighton Lodge No. 42 and Capital Lodge of Strict Observance No. 66. It is mentioned, in the Transactions of the Grand Lodge, that he assisted E. Smith Lee in the latter’s capacity as Grand Visitor and Lecturer. The Union Lodge minute book indicates he visited No. 3 on several occasions in 1852. At this time, Horace S. Roberts, who had taken the Masonic degrees in Lansing Lodge, was Union’s Senior Warden, having relocated to Detroit shortly before. Brother Peck would then organize the S.O. lodge in Lansing, two years later. A personal connection can also be seen between Dr. J. Adams Allen, founding master of Anchor Lodge of S. O. No. 87 and Dr. Moses Gunn, of Union Lodge. Both were on the faculty of the fledgling medical school of the University of Michigan. It seems that Dr. Allen had expressed opinions viewed by most of his contemporaries in the medical profession as extremely controversial, even heretical. This writer has yet to discover the substance of Dr. Allen’s statements that sparked the controversy, but only the fact that there was a controversy—one that would result in his censure by the Wayne County Medical Society and that would lead to his dismissal from the University’s faculty. His steadfast supporter throughout the contretemps, both before the Medical Society and the Board of Regents was none other than Brother Dr. Gunn. The Regents’ firing of the beloved professor would spark near-riots in Ann Arbor. This early victim of “political correctness” at the U of M would go on to a distinguished career as professor and president of the Rush Medical College, of Chicago (named after the Revolutionary War hero, and Freemason, Dr. Benjamin Rush). Such morsels of information—such as are available to us through a casual investigation—may constitute “the tip of the iceberg” the main body of which was, almost certainly, a network of bright, energetic and highly capable Michigan Masons who dedicated themselves to the promotion of uniformity in the Masonic work and to the highest standards of Freemasonry. And the light which they pursued in their Masonic endeavors illumines their substantial work in so many fields, for the benefit of mankind. Lodge Officers 2007 Front Row, L to R: Earnest Plemons, Chaplain; Lloyd Kuhn, Senior Warden; Joseph Do- brenic, Worshipful Master; Robin Wilton, Junior Warden; Norman Martin, Tiler. Second Row, L to R: William Krebaum, Senior Deacon; William Tolles, Treasurer; Philip Kuspa, Secretary. Bro. William Krebaum P.M. is Worshipful Master of Golden Rule Lodge No. 159 and member of Union Lodge of Strict Observance No. 3; Michigan Lodge of Research No. 1; Monroe Chapter No. 1, RAM; Monroe Council No. 1, RSM; Valley of Detroit, AASR; Zal Gaz Grotto No. 34. THE RISING POINT - WINTER 2010 41
  • 42. Volume 20. Issue 1 • • WINTER 2010 A BRIEF HISTORY OF GOLDEN RULE LODGE NO. 159 Bro. Jerry Preston, P.M. I have learned much about the history of Freemasonry in Ann Arbor in preparing for this presentation. As many of you know, I have resided in this area only a few years and know very little about Freemasonry in Ann Arbor from personal history. However, thanks to several Masonic historians, I have found information compiled from several publications that I have used for the development of this presentation. Our gratitude is to Past Master Harrison H. Caswell, who prepared a historical sketch for the 1965 centennial of Golden Rule Lodge. Also to Past Master Leigh C. Anderson and Brother Gaylord N. Bebout, Jr., who prepared a similar work for Fraternity Lodge in 1970. Finally, I must acknowledge Past Master Robert Sevebeck, who wrote the second addendum to Caswell’s Ann Arbor Masonic Temple history, continuing the collection of information through 1980. As I begin the research, I soon learned that the history of Golden Rule Lodge is entwined with the history of the founding of the city of Ann Arbor, and while Golden Rule Lodge is the fourth lodge formed in the city, for a complete understanding of the beginnings of the Lodge, one must also look at the beginnings of the city and the three lodges preceding Golden Rule Lodge. On February 24, 1824, John Allen, of Virginia, and Elisha Rumsey, of New York, arrived from Detroit in a one-horse sleigh, to the wilderness area now known as Ann Arbor, with the intention of establishing a town and selling land for profit. Allen set up a tent and later built a log blockhouse very near the present northwest corner of Huron and Main Streets. Rumsey, at the same time, built his house near Allen Creek, at what is now the southwest corner of Huron and First Streets. The city is named after the names of the wives of Allen and Rumsey and the arbor like setting where their homes were built. Both wives being named Ann, the area became known as Ann Arbor. Later, Ann Arbor was simply changed to Ann Arbor and is the only city in the world so named. Rumsey and his wife took in travelers, and their place near Allen Creek came to be known as the Washtenaw Coffee House. Allen’s house, which he sold to his brother James, was enlarged and was operated as Allen’s Tavern. It was at Allen’s Tavern that local and transient Masons met and where the first Masonic Lodge, Western Star No. 6, on January 16, 1827, received its dispensation from the Grand Lodge of Michigan. The Grand Lodge of Michigan itself had just been organized the preceding June by five lodges operating under the Grand Lodge of New York. On Tuesday, January 30, 1827, the Grand Lodge, in extraordinary session, met in Ann Arbor at Allen’s Tavern, to consecrate the new lodge and install its officers. Afterwards, a festive ball was held which men whose names today are legend attended. Some who attended were: General Lewis Cass, Governor of the Michigan Territory and Grand Master of Masons in Michigan; Judge Witherell; General Learned; General John Schwartz, operator of the Emily, the largest schooner on the Detroit River; Colonel Pray; and Judge Samuel Dexter. In spite of this auspicious beginning, however, Western Star No. 6 was short lived, as at that very moment, the country was in turmoil over the infamous Morgan Incident. When anti-Masonry fever struck Michigan a few months later, the Grand Lodge of Michigan suspended work in the Territory and passed out of existence in 1829, not to be reestablished until 1844. Here in Washtenaw County, no less Masons than John Allen and Judge Samuel Dexter, who were founders of Western Star No. 6, turned against the Craft and became their enemies. Judge Dexter bought the Western Emigrant, the first newspaper in Ann Arbor, and used it to publish his anti-Masonic views. Judge Dexter also ran for Congress in 1831 on the Anti-Masonry ticket and carried Washtenaw County, although Austin Wing eventually defeated him on the Democratic-Masonic ticket that carried the Territory. Western Star Lodge quickly disintegrated, and its charter and records were lost. THE RISING POINT - WINTER 2010 4
  • 43. Volume 20. Issue 1 • • WINTER 2010 It was not until 1841 that the climate was favorable for a revival of Masonry in Michigan. An attempt was made to revive the first Grand Lodge of Michigan. Martin Davis of Ann Arbor, Worshipful Master of Western Star No. 6, was an active participant. It was not until September 17, 1844, that the present Grand Lodge of Michigan was reorganized under the auspices of the Grand Lodge of New York. A group of Ann Arbor Masons received a charter for Oriental Lodge No. 15 on January 13, 1847, and at the same time, Phoenix Lodge No. 13, in Ypsilanti, was chartered. Oriental Lodge is also interesting to us today, as its name clung to the building at 109 North Main Street, where it occupied the third floor. A tavern on the first floor came to be known as The Orient after Oriental Lodge, and is familiar to University of Michigan alumni the world over, as they sing, I want to go back to Michigan, to dear Ann Arbor town, back to Joes and The Orient, back to some of the money we spent. The short life of Oriental Lodge was ended by gold rush fever and a dissension among the members. Old members and new settlers from the East caused a rift in the lodge. One group got together and voted to settle up the lodge affairs and turn over the property, money and charter to the Grand Lodge. The last Communication was held on August 13, 1856, granting demits to most of the members. The Grand Lodge formally revoked the charter of Oriental Lodge at its meeting in 1858. While one group of brothers was busy disbanding Oriental Lodge No. 15, a group who had previously been granted demits, petitioned the Grand Lodge and formed Ann Arbor Lodge No. 85. This third lodge in Ann Arbor’s Masonic history took over the lease and the furniture of Oriental Lodge and continued work at the Orient for the next thirteen years. Ann Arbor Lodge No. 85 was suspended when it was discovered that its charter had mysteriously disappeared. Several stories have been passed down to explain this mystery. However, the most believable is the fact that the several ranks of Masonry now occupying the overcrowded quarters were bruised from living too close and had differing opinions on providing new quarters or expanding the present ones. Ann Arbor Commandery No. 13 had been organized in June of 1865, and their needs for locker and drill space added to the confusion. Ann Arbor Lodge No. 85, however, apparently was satisfied with their present quarters. It was during this period of confusion that a feeling for a new Blue Lodge was aroused, and this led to the creation of the fourth Blue Lodge in Ann Arbor, to be known as Golden Rule Lodge No. 159. From the spirit prevailing among the brothers of Ann Arbor at that time, it would appear that the name Golden Rule was a natural for the new Blue Lodge. Golden Rule Lodge began operating Under Dispensation on August 17, 1864. The first candidate to petition Golden Rule Lodge was Robert G. Miller, a clerk by occupation, twenty- three years old and a resident of Ann Arbor. He was the first brother to be raised to the sublime degree on October 27, 1864. He was elected our first regular Secretary in January of 1865, reelected in January, 1866, and on May 24, 1866, Golden Rule Lodge issued its first demit to Brother Miller. I found no explanation as to why Brother Miller requested a demit after less than two years as a member of our Lodge. At the first meeting of Golden Rule Lodge Under Dispensation, fees for degrees were set at $18.00, and dues at $2.00. They also resolved that the Regular Communication of Golden Rule Lodge would be on the Thursday on or preceding the full of the moon. The Grand Lodge of Michigan installed the first officers of Golden Rule Lodge. The installation ceremonies took place at the Methodist Church on the west side of State Street, between east Huron and Washington Street. Golden Rule Lodge No. 159 made arrangements with Ann Arbor Lodge No. 85, to use the facilities of Masonic Hall above the Oriental Tavern, at a rental charge of $25 per month. The first year of operation was a busy one, with the report to Grand Lodge listing membership at forty-one, sixteen raised, five rejected and three admitted on demits. In the meeting of our lodge of July 31, 1866 the committee on Lodge Rooms reported that no further consideration be given to proposals for renting Lodge Rooms THE RISING POINT - WINTER 2010 43
  • 44. Volume 20. Issue 1 • • WINTER 2010 and that a committee be appointed to act with other like committees from Ann Arbor Lodge Ann Arbor Commandery and Washtenaw Chapter to look into plans for building a new Masonic Temple. When the committee made its first report, it was indicated that Chapter and Commandery were agreeable to the idea, but that Ann Arbor Lodge No. 85 did not agree with the need for new Lodge Rooms. On January 21, 1869, a communication was received from Ann Arbor Commandery stating that they had made arrangements for new Lodge Rooms in a new building then under construction at 215-217 South Main Street, and the schedule of rentals would cost Golden Rule Lodge $125.00 per year, payable quarterly. A motion was passed that the invitation be accepted and that an appropriation of $350.00 be made to cover the cost of fitting up the new quarters and that loans from surpluses be made to the Chapter and Commandery if they so desired for that purpose. This was the second building to be used by Masons in Ann Arbor. The peace and harmony of Masonry in Ann Arbor ran into difficulty over this action of Ann Arbor Commandery in arranging for the new lodge rooms in the new building on South Main Street. Ann Arbor Lodge was not in favor of making the change, as they held the lease on the old Masonic Hall above the Oriental Tavern, as well as a claim to ownership of the lodge furniture and paraphernalia. It was at this time that the mystery of the lost charter occurred. In 1870, the Grand Master, in is Annual Communication and because of the suspicious nature of the lost charter, revoked the powers of Ann Arbor Lodge and appointed Brother G. H. Rhodes receiver and ordered that the books, real and other property are now in his possession. Rhodes was a member of Golden Rule Lodge, and under his direction, the property and assets of Ann Arbor Lodge No. 85 were disposed of by dividing the ownership between the Masonic bodies occupying the new South Main quarters. Shortly following the demise of Ann Arbor Lodge, a petition for a new lodge, to be known as Fraternity Lodge, was filed with the Grand Lodge of Michigan. Thirteen former members signed the petition and the officers of Ann Arbor Lodge No. 85, who legend has it, knew more about the lost charter than has been revealed. At last, all was well, and for several years, the four Masonic bodies met in harmony in much better facilities than were available in the Oriental Tavern. It also is noted that the lines of jurisdiction were not well defined or not being adhered to by Ypsilanti’s Phoenix Lodge. There are several communications on the subject and one interesting case where Phoenix Lodge conferred all three degrees on a candidate, living in Ann Arbor who had been rejected by Golden Rule Lodge when he had been seen intoxicated on the public streets of the city. In March of 1881, another committee was appointed to act with like committees to once again arrange for new quarters. In 1885, the committee made a report that was enthusiastically received by all Masonic bodies using the now crowded quarters on South Main Street. The proposal was to move to the third floor of a building on the northwest corner of main and Huron Streets. The cost was to be $500.00 per year on a twenty-year lease. The rent was to be divided with Golden Rule and Fraternity Lodges paying $100.00 each, Washtenaw Chapter 5125.00, and Ann Arbor Commandery $175.00. $1,000.00 was appropriated for the preparation of the Hall, and the expense was to be shared equally by the four bodies. It is interesting to note here that Golden Rule Lodge took the following action: That a committee be appointed to purchase two pillars, wardens columns, working tools, candle lights, stewards rods, hour glass, at a cost not to exceed $200.00, the same to be placed in the new hall by our lodge for the use of all Masonic bodies as an expression of our good will and friendship towards the fraternity. Milan Lodge paid $50.00 for the old columns etc. Ann Arbor Masonry was now back on the same corner that it started from some sixty years earlier. The new hall, the third home of Ann Arbor Masonry, was dedicated on September 24, 1885. During this time, it is interesting to note that part of the regular order of business was the policy of making loans to members of Golden Rule Lodge. One of the principal functions of the Finance Committee was making collections for both the principal and interest from these loans. Of interest is the number of brothers who were brought up on charges for failure to live up to obligations. One example That on the 12th of January 1884, S.B.R. did borrow from Golden Rule Lodge the sum of $100.00 upon his solemn THE RISING POINT - WINTER 2010 44
  • 45. Volume 20. Issue 1 • • WINTER 2010 pledge, first that he would abstain from the use of all intoxicating liquors and that he would faithfully pay the same so borrowed when due, both of which he failed to keep. That the said S.B.R. did on the 10th day of August, 1884, in the encampment at Island Lake drink spirituous liquors in violation of his pledge. A11 of which is in violation of his sacred obligation and the undersigned, the Junior Warden, therefore prays that the honor and dignity of Free Masonry be vindicated by the exercise of Masonic discipline upon the aforesaid Brother if the aforesaid charges shall be sustained. On February 1, 1891, the following action was recorded. Fees were raised to $30.00, the purchase of one Bay City Street Railway Bond for $500.00, to investigate new robes for the craft team, and to investigate replacing the gaslights with electric lights. In December 1889, membership was at 210. An invitation was received from Milan Lodge No. 323, to attend the dedication of their new Masonic Temple on October 12, 1892. In June 1894, action was taken by the Masonic bodies to permit the use of the Lodge Room by the O.E.S., they paying only for lights and janitor services. In September 1896, the committee on a trowel to be presented to candidates with Golden Rule insignia engraved on it, made its report and was approved. An order of two hundred was placed at a cost of $101.00. In December of that year, the Finance Committee recommended that no more cigars be furnished the Brothers following lunches. The reason stated was that these members should have the interest of Masonry at heart to attend Lodge without these added inducements. In March 1897, dues were reduced to $1.00 a year. There appears to be some indecision on the amount of dues that should be charged, as in July 6, 1899, two years later, dues were again raised to $2.00. On August 2, 1900, the Baseball Committee reported that Golden Rule won the game with Fraternity Lodge, with an expense of $8.20. At the close of the century, our Lodge was reported to be financially healthy with $2,940.81 in the treasury and a continued interest in charity. Membership was 276. Telephones were provided in the Lodge Room and in the Secretary’s home. There was a continued cooperative spirit between the two Blue Lodges, with joint installation, Past Masters nights and a joint purpose in all things pertaining to the operation of the Temple. On January 3, 1901, action was taken to remit the dues of Brothers over seventy years of age, and on March 7, 1901, we find the first indication of the thinking on the future of a Masonic Temple building that Golden Rule Lodge enter into a hearty cooperation with the action taken by the other Masonic Bodies in the matter of formulating plans looking towards the erection of a Masonic Temple and a committee of three be appointed to confer with like committees from the other Masonic Bodies for that purpose. A communication was received from the Grand secretary referring to the death of Brother William McKinley, President of the United States, and ordering that the memorial be spread upon the records and that the Altar and Lights be draped for a period of sixty days. The first note of honorary memberships conferred by Golden Rule Lodge was on December 5, 1901, when this honor was conferred upon two officers of Fraternity Lodge, John Lindenschmidt and Thomas Corbett. These Brothers were later Masters of Fraternity Lodge in 1902 and 1903. On March 4, 1909, another committee was appointed to investigate the building of a Masonic Temple, and in May 1910, the committee reported that they had located a site on South Fourth Avenue, between Liberty and William Streets, which could be purchased for $17,650.00. An appeal for funds was gratifying, with Golden Rule loaning $3,000.00 to the newly formed Masonic Temple Association and Fraternity Lodge loaning $1,500.00. The committee signed personal notes at the bank for the balance. The Association was incorporated July 19, 1910. Fund raising was slow and came almost to a stop with the event of World War I. On May 6, 1919, the committee hired a fund raising firm to raise $125,000.00. This firm had been successful in raising funds for similar Masonic Temple projects. The first indication of costs of the new temple building was noted May 21, 1921, at $234,000.00. e borrowed from the bank. This would allow the new corporation to carry out their plans. On August 18, 1942, the 327 South Fourth Avenue Corporation was created and prepared to enter the foreclosure sale of the Masonic Temple. The new corporation’s bid of $29,007.55 fortunately THE RISING POINT - WINTER 2010 45
  • 46. Volume 20. Issue 1 • • WINTER 2010 was the only bid on the property, and the property was conferred to the new corporation on May 2, 1944. The new corporation at first was very successful managing the property. However, in the In the meantime, on October 20, 1920, Golden Rule Lodge accepted an invitation to be the guests of Jackson Lodge No 50, at the raising by our Worshipful Master of his father, I. F. Bonisteel, of Jackson. Two special cars on the D.J. C. Electric Railway were reserved for the members of Golden Rule and the Ann Arbor Masonic Band. Upon arrival in Jackson, the band marched to the Jackson Masonic Temple where a banquet was served to six hundred Brothers, with Jackson Lodge providing apples and cigars for the return trip to Ann Arbor. To commemorate the occasion, Jackson Lodge presented Golden Rule Lodge with a 10x12 Altar Bible, which was appropriately inscribed as a memento of the visitation. In July, 1921, a committee from Golden Rule acting with a like committee from Fraternity reported favorably and recommended the two lodges give their full support to the forming of a DeMolay chapter in Ann Arbor. The Temple Association advised Golden Rule that the ceremony of the turning of the first sod for the construction of the new Masonic Temple would be held October 10, 1921. Grand Master Clark W. MacKenzie laid the cornerstone for the new Masonic Temple June 28, 1922, with an appropriate number of officers representing Golden Rule Lodge. Golden Rule and Fraternity Lodges jointly held the first Masonic meeting in the new Masonic Temple Friday afternoon, February 27, 1925. Both Lodges were opened in the third degree under special dispensation at 1:30 p.m. The Lodge Room was then thrown open to the invited guests. The Grand Master and other Grand Lodge Officers were welcomed with appropriate Grand Honors. The Masonic Temple, with all its apartments, halls, corridors, furniture and appurtenances, were duly dedicated to Masonic purposes according to ancient form and usage. At 6:00 p.m., the Brethren and their ladies formed in procession and marched to the dining room, where the ladies of the O.E.S. prepared a real banquet for them. On August 20, 1926, the Grand Lodge of Michigan issued a dispensation for a third Blue Lodge in Ann Arbor. Its Charter was issued as of May 24, 1927. The officers and most of the members of Ann Arbor Lodge No. 544 were mostly employees of the University of Michigan. Membership in Golden Rule Lodge hit its peak at 1,036 in 1926. October 1929, of course, was devastating to the nation, although Ann Arbor, with the University, was not as hard hit as other parts of the country. Membership continued to decline throughout the 1930s and hit its low point at that time of 556 in 1941. Because of this decline in membership, the Temple Association was experiencing severe financial difficulties during this period as well. Several attempts to restructure the finances of the Temple Association failed. However, on December 3, 1942, Brothers Fasquelle and Hooper attended the Regular Annual Meeting of Golden Rule Lodge for the purpose of explaining their plan for creating a new corporation to take over the mortgage on the temple property that was nearing foreclosure. Golden Rule Lodge enthusiastically embraced the plan and pledged $8,000.00 from its reserve fund and $9,200.00 to b late 1940s and early 1950s, financial difficulties continued to stalk the Temple Board. All types of fundraisers were held, including the rental of the building for Saturday Night Dances. The building continued to deteriorate with maintenance piling up. The roof needed repairs, the furnace was giving trouble and the walls, ceilings and halls all needed attention. On November 15, 1956, the Temple Board had the good fortune to rent to the Bendix Corporation to take over most of the lower floors, leaving the fourth floor and the director’s room and the library on the third floor for Masonic activities. This lease lasted for eight years and allowed the Temple Board to repair the roof, repair brickwork, install a new gas burning heating plant, a new kitchen, and to blacktop the parking lots. In general, the temple was once again in a good state of repair. By 1972, taxes and other expenses were greater than income, and the temple was put up for sale. The hope was to realize $300,000.00 from its sale and that the Masonic bodies would be in a position to rent the fourth floor for Masonic work. When the Federal Government took interest in the building, it seemed that prayers were answered. Sale of the building would allow for the construction of a smaller more efficient building. However, this was not to be. To quote Brother Sevebeck, The GSA did a complete appraisal on the THE RISING POINT - WINTER 2010 46
  • 47. Volume 20. Issue 1 • • WINTER 2010 property, and made an offer of $121,250.00. Of course, we refused the offer, and after several months, they returned with a last offer of $139,000.00 - take it or leave it. Again, we refused their generosity. The next move by the GSA was a notice that they had taken the property by condemnation and would pay us the $121,000.00. We were served with an order of eviction by the U. S. District Court in Detroit, and we had to vacate by March 1st, 1974. We also received a check for the smaller offer. An attorney, Brother Burt Burgoyne, of Golden Rule Lodge, was engaged on a contingency basis, the end result of days of hearings was an order that the government pay a total of $200,000.00. The various Masonic bodies moved to locations throughout the county, with Golden Rule Lodge renting space at Saline. While not broke or destitute, the Temple Association could in no way replicate the downtown temple building. Land was obtained here on West Liberty in Scio Township, and on September 23, 1978, a Grand Lodge team performed the dedication ceremonies. Past Master of Golden Rule Lodge Robert Sevebeck concludes It may be Brothers that, in the years to come, when now unborn eyes will read this account of the Masonic movement in Ann Arbor, you, our successors, who will carry on the Masonic traditions, will understand and appreciate the countless hours of planning and struggle to keep these traditions alive that have been expended by your predecessors. May we ever continue to promote the Masonic tenets: Brotherly Love, Relief and Truth. So Mote It Be. Again, our thanks to Past Master Harrison H. Caswell, Past Master; Leigh C. Anderson; Brother Gaylord N. Bebout, Jr.; and Past Master Robert Sevebeck, all of whom undoubtedly put in thousands of hours in compiling the information which is the source of this presentation. Bro. Jerry Preston, PM is a Past Master of Golden Rule Lodge No. 159, a member of Zal Gaz Grotto, and a Past Master of the Michigan Lodge of Research Information No. 1. OFFICERS 2009 THE RISING POINT - WINTER 2010 4
  • 48. Volume 20. Issue 1 • • WINTER 2010 THE YORK RITE OF WASHTENAW COUNTY PAUL C. HOWELL, P.M., P.G.H.P. In order for me to describe for you who and what the York Rite of Washtenaw County is it is probably best that I begin at the beginning. The York Rite of Freemasonry consists of four (4) distinct and separate Sovereign Masonic Bodies: 1. The Symbolic Lodge 2. The Chapter of Royal Arch Masons 3. The Council of Royal and Select Masons 4. The Commandery of Knights Templar The Symbolic Lodge teaches us lessons of spiritual and moral morality and growth. It uses symbolism and allegory as a method of stressing the major tenants of Brotherly Love, Relief and Truth. Masonry uses what we call degrees in order for us to convey these lessons. The Symbolic Lodge has three degree or Lessons for teaching us to subdue our passions and improve ourselves as men and Masons. It teaches us to understand and show a greater respect for the importance of Deity and imparts to us many moral lessons through the 4 Cardinal Virtues of Temperance, Fortitude, Prudence and Justice and teaches us to prepare ourselves for the world to come of eternal life. These lessons are taught using the biblical references found in the Bible dealing with King Solomon and the building of his great and magnificent Temple or edifice that caries his name. For reference hereafter we will consider the York Rite Branch of Freemasonry to be consisting of the Chapter, Council and Commandery. The Chapter and Council continue the explanation of the Degrees and lessons taught in the Symbolic Lodge. They are the educational and informational branches of the Masonic Fraternity. Most of the information presented in these degrees was originally a part of the original three (3) degrees of the Symbolic Lodge have been maintained for the spiritual and fundamental growth of the Mason so that he is better prepared to improve himself to benefit and support his family, community and country. The Chapter of Royal Arch Masons have four (4) degrees which they confer. The fourth degree in Masonry, or the first degree of the Chapter is called the Mark Master Degree. It is probably the oldest degree in Masonry. We are taught the lesson of humility. The Past Masters Degree instructs us in all of the implements of the Lodge and the proper use of each. The Most Excellent Master Degree teaches us to be more faithful to our God and to preserve all that is good for future generations. The Royal Arch Degree teaches us that though our travels may be difficult and dangerous, if we stay focused we will prevail and find the right through the light that we shall find therein. The Royal Arch Degree is considered the Capstone of the Masonic Degrees. It brings together and to light most of what had been lost to the craft, for centuries. The Council of Royal and Select Masons consists of three (3) degrees. The Royal Master imparts sublime teaching of a useful labor on earth giving instruction as to the preservation of valuable secrets. In the Select Master Degree we are imparted information to make the Degrees of the Symbolic Lodge and Chapter completely understood. The Super Excellent Masters Degree stresses that a man should do all in his power to improve the life here on earth. He should do all he can to consider his life here to be a part of his immortality and act accordingly. This degree is considered one of the most beautiful of all of the degrees. The Commandery is the only truly Christian Organization in the Masonic Fraternity. It bases its beliefs and teachings on the glorious history of the chivalric Knights of the Templar, the Crusaders who fought so valiantly in the defense of Christianity. In all of the other organizations we use what we refer to as degrees to convey our messages. In the Commandery we use what we refer to as Orders instead of Degrees. The first Order is that of the Red Cross and is founded upon the Lesson of TRUTH - a divine attribute, the foundation of every virtue. The Order of Knights of Malta, originally known as the The Order of the St. Johns of Jerusalem, is known to have been in existence as early as 1099. It is the First organized body whose avowed purpose was the succor and care of the injured on the battlefield. In the Order of the Temple the candidate is Knighted as a Christian Warrior to prompt him to be ever ready to defend the weak, the innocent, the helpless THE RISING POINT - WINTER 2010 48
  • 49. Volume 20. Issue 1 • • WINTER 2010 and the oppressed and to do all that is right in the Brother’s cause. Most believe that there is nothing more solemn, impressive and soul searching than the Order of the Temple. The Masonic Fraternity is not a Philanthropic Society, however, it gives over 3 million dollars a day to Charity and Relief in North America, alone. This does not include the countless hours of volunteer work that they provide. The York Rite has several philanthropic activities that they support. The Chapter sponsors the Royal Arch Research Assistance, which sponsors research in Audio Perception Problems. This research is conducted at Colorado State University at Fort Collins, Colorado. This is a problem which afflicts primarily young men. They have, in their research, made many great discovers and produced many new programs that have been patented in the area. The Council of Royal and Select Masons support the area of Vascular Biology Research which is conducted at Indiana State University. The Commandery has three charities that it sponsors: 1) Holy Land Pilgrimage where they send Christian Ministers to the Holy land to improve their teachings by gaining first hand knowledge of the area of their teachings. This program was started in Michigan and has been expanded to most all of the states in North America. Last year, because of the unrest in the area, they were unable to send any ministers. This year it is the hope in Michigan that they will be able to send 25 ministers to the Holy Land. 2) Knights Templar Eye Foundation which provides surgical procedures for those unable to afford them. 3) Knights Templar Education that provides low cost loans, up to $3,000.00, for students in the last two (2) years of their College Education. The interest on these loans does not begin until they have completed their education. None of the Philanthropic Programs of Masonry the Masonic Fraternity discriminates upon any individual due to race, religion or national origin. The York Rite in Washtenaw County has been active since January 1850 when Washtenaw Chapter No. 6 in Ann Arbor was Chartered. There are currently three (3) Royal Arch Chapters in Washtenaw County. Ann Arbor - Washtenaw Chapter No. 6; Ypsilanti - Excelsior Chapter No. 25 and Milan - York Chapter No. 150. There are 8 state presiding officers that the Chapters have provided for leadership: 4 from Ann Arbor, 2 from Ypsilanti and 1 each from Chelsea and Manchester. The first being Benjamin Watts in 1888 and the last being myself in 1997. Union Council No. 11 was chartered in Ypsilanti in January 1895. They remain active along with Ann Arbor Council No. 86. Together they have provided 5 state presiding officers. The first being John Kingsley in 1903 and the last being Harold Blaess in 1986. Ann Arbor Commandery No. 13 was chartered in June 1895. They remain active along with Ypsilanti Commandery No. 54. They have provided 3 state presiding officers in their tenure. Williams G. Dody presided in 1890 and the last being Arthur Trevithick who presided in 1978. There are two other York Rite Masonic Bodies that reside in Washtenaw County. These are: The Tri-County Royal Arch Association and Southern Michigan York Rite College. The Tri-County Association is comprised of Royal Arch Chapters from the Counties of Lenawee, Monroe and Washtenaw. They work together for mutual support in organizing and planning of activities. They also meet quarterly in friendship and fellowship with a family dinner and meeting to follow, for the above purpose. The Southern Michigan York Rite College is an organization which has as a requirement that all members must be a member of all four (4) York Rite Bodies. They are to support and assist, as needed, any and all York Rite Bodies. The York Rite of Washtenaw County is alive and well. Helping to educate and inform the Masonic Community. Bro. Paul C. Howell P.M. was raised in Ann Arbor Fraternity Lodge # 262 in 1972 and he served as Worshipful Master in 1977. Mason of the Year 1992. Ann Arbor Fraternity Lodge # 262 Secretary of 23 years and elected Secretary Emeritus. MSA, Scottish Rite Valley of Detroit Grand High Priest, RAM of Michigan 1997 Grand Secretary, RAM of Michigan 1999 to present General Grand Chapter Silver Medal Award Recipient. Order of the Purple Cross, York Rite Sovereign College Past Prior, KYCH, Knight York Cross of Honour. Bro. Paul is also the Editor of Ann Arbor Masonic News which archive issues you can find on Bonisteel Masonic Library web site at: THE RISING POINT - WINTER 2010 49
  • 50. ANN ARBOR MASONIC TEMPLE - 1925/1975 Architects - McConkey Rousseau 327 S. 4th Avenue - Ann Arbor, Michigan * 1925 - original construction - $324,000 * 1973 - Replacement costs - $1,496,714 * 1922 - cornerstone Laying - Grand Lodge of Michigan * Lot size - 132 ft. 154 ft. - 22 car parking with 2 municipals structures within one block * Building size - 127 x 255 - 5 stories * Perimeter - 386 ft. * Interior space - 665,502 cubic ft * class B Fraternal Building - prestige building built for impact as well as occupancy. (Marshall Swift Valuation) * Structure: concrete beams and columns, concrete and clay tile walls, poured concrete floors, steel reinforcing. * Exterior Walls: Face brick over masonry. Brick is laid up in stretcher bond but with decorative Masonic emblems. * Interior Walls ceilings: Original partitions are masonry walls and ceilings and are finished in plaster with Masonic decorative gold leaf trim. Ceiling under roof is plaster on suspended metal lath. * Interior Features: Lobby and entry areas have Masonic decorative terrazzo flooring. Wash rooms are fitted with marble fixtures. * Five Floors - 20,000 sq. ft. - designed for Masonic functions Original building had entry Tyler’s quarters. * Lobby - 1st floor - raised Masonic decorative ceilings * Main Lodge - 65 ft. x 44 ft. - 2,860 sq. ft. * Chapter Room - 50 ft. x 35 ft. - 1,750 sq. ft. * 2 * Board Room - 238 sq. ft. * Women’s Lounge - 438 sq. ft. * Boiler Room - 252 sq. ft. * Masonic Brass fittings throughout structure. The Masons had to put After a 3 year Federal “Eminent settlement Domain” Law Suit court battle, money up to the USA Government narrowly demolish their prevailed. The Federal Government former was required to pay $204,000 of Temple. which $80,000 was deducted to raize the Temple on behalf of the US Government. In other words, the Masons had to put settlement money up to demolish their former Temple. Click here and you can back to Bonisteel web site