The British Change Strategies
• After three years of fighting in the
north, the British change their
strategy to focus on ...
Because…….
1. The British were winning battles in the
north and capturing cities, but they could
not control the rural are...
And…….
2. The British believe that there are more
loyalists in the south and that the loyalists
will assist them in contro...
And also….
3. The British also wanted to be closer to
other colonies in the West Indies, including
Jamaica, so they could ...
Oh, and because…..
4. The British also believed that African
American slaves would join their side
because they promised f...
Sorry, One More
5. The southern states
produce around 60% of
America’s wealth by
exporting cotton, tobacco,
and sugar.
In ...
Will The British Strategy Be
Successful?
• In December of 1778 British forces
capture the city of Savannah,
Georgia, an im...
The American Response
• Congress sends General Horatio Gates and
Baron de Kalb, south to confront the British
at Camden, S...
American Strategy
• Gates sends a local militia,
led by Francis Marion (The
Swamp Fox), to destroy
British boats on the Sa...
The Swamp Fox
(Francis Marion)
• Francis Marion, The
Swamp Fox, is the leader
of a patriot Militia in
South Carolina.
• Ma...
The Swamp Fox
• Marion’s militia successfully
uses guerilla warfare
against the British.
• His forces attack the British
q...
Battle of Camden
• Horatio Gates and his army are easily
overtaken by General Cornwallis’ forces.
• Gates is forced to ret...
British Dominate the South
• By 1780 the British have seized control
of all major southern cities and sea
ports. (Savannah...
After Camden
• After the retreat of Horatio
Gates and the American
loss at Camden, South
Carolina, George
Washington place...
Nathanael Greene
• Nathanael Greene was a
Quaker, a Christian religious
sect of pacifists (people that
do not believe in v...
Greene’s Strategy
• Greene knew that the
Americans couldn’t fight
the British face-to-face, so
he encouraged guerilla
warf...
War Becoming Unpopular In Britain
• By 1781 the war had become unpopular in Britain
because of the huge cost in money, res...
Cornwallis is on the Move
• British General Cornwallis moves his army
north to Virginia. He establishes a base near
Yorkto...
Think Like George Washington
• If you were General Washington, facing
General Clinton in New York, how would
you respond t...
French Support
• Washington is joined in New York by French
General Jean Rochambeau and his army of
6000 French and 1000 H...
Washington’s Move
• When George Washington hears of
Cornwallis’ base in Yorktown, he and
Rochambeau move their armies sout...
The Siege of Yorktown
• Washington and Rochambeau use superior
artillery to attack Cornwallis’ army at Yorktown.
• French ...
Cornwallis Surrenders
• After days of
bombardment, British
General Cornwallis
surrenders at Yorktown
on October 19, 1781.
...
After Cornwallis’ Surrender
• British Prime Minister Lord North is forced
to resign his position back in England.
• Small ...
How did America win the war?
• Foreign Aid: Thanks France and Spain.
• Knowledge of the land (Home Court
Advantage)
• Moti...
1783 Treaty of Paris
• What did the 1783 Treaty of Paris do for America?
QuickTime™ and a
decompressor
are needed to see t...
The Treaty of Paris
In 1783 Britain and America sign a peace
treaty in Paris, France.
1. United States granted independenc...
The Signing of the Treaty of Paris
QuickTime™ and a
decompressor
are needed to see this picture.
American diplomats who si...
War, Then Peace
• In November 1783, two years after the
American victory at Yorktown, the last
British soldiers left New Y...
The Cost of the American
Revolution
• 26,000 Americans died, 10,000 British
• 8000 Americans seriously wounded
• America’s...
Republicanism, an American Value.
• Republicanism is the belief that
government should represent the people,
not a monarch...
American Values Tested
After the War
• In 1780 the state of Massachusetts passed a
new state constitution with ideas simil...
What are America’s Values?
We hold these truths to be self-evident, that all
men are created equal, that they are endowed
...
Elizabeth Freeman
• Elizabeth Freeman was a
slave to a Massachusetts
lawyer and his family.
• After hearing the new
Massac...
Elizabeth Freeman
• In August of 1781, Freeman was
granted her freedom by a jury.
• She was the first case of a slave usin...
How are America’s Values
Changing?
We hold these truths to be self-evident, that all men are
created equal, that they are ...
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Unit 4 war, then peace

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  • How were slaves and black Americans viewed during the American Revolution?
  • How did different states respond to Elizabeth Freeman’s actions?
  • Unit 4 war, then peace

    1. 1. The British Change Strategies • After three years of fighting in the north, the British change their strategy to focus on the southern states. • Why do you think the British change strategies? QuickTime™ and a decompressor are needed to see this picture.
    2. 2. Because……. 1. The British were winning battles in the north and capturing cities, but they could not control the rural areas and did not have enough troops to control large areas. QuickTime™ and a decompressor are needed to see this picture. The British head south
    3. 3. And……. 2. The British believe that there are more loyalists in the south and that the loyalists will assist them in controlling large areas. QuickTime™ and a decompressor are needed to see this picture. Loyalists seeking help from the British.
    4. 4. And also…. 3. The British also wanted to be closer to other colonies in the West Indies, including Jamaica, so they could move troops and supplies easier. QuickTime™ and a decompressor are needed to see this picture. QuickTime™ and a decompressor are needed to see this picture.
    5. 5. Oh, and because….. 4. The British also believed that African American slaves would join their side because they promised freedom to any slave who joined them. QuickTime™ and a decompressor are needed to see this picture. QuickTime™ and a decompressor are needed to see this picture.
    6. 6. Sorry, One More 5. The southern states produce around 60% of America’s wealth by exporting cotton, tobacco, and sugar. In order to destroy America’s economy, British forces move south to disrupt the export of tobacco, sugar, and cotton. Who grows the export crops of tobacco, sugar and cotton? QuickTime™ and a decompressor are needed to see this picture.
    7. 7. Will The British Strategy Be Successful? • In December of 1778 British forces capture the city of Savannah, Georgia, an important sea port. • One year later, British General Henry Clinton attacks Charles Town (Charleston), South Carolina and forces 5000 American soldiers to surrender. QuickTime™ and a decompressor are needed to see this picture. QuickTime™ and a decompressor are needed to see this picture.
    8. 8. The American Response • Congress sends General Horatio Gates and Baron de Kalb, south to confront the British at Camden, South Carolina. QuickTime™ and a decompressor are needed to see this picture. QuickTime™ and a decompressor are needed to see this picture. Baron de Kalb Horatio Gates
    9. 9. American Strategy • Gates sends a local militia, led by Francis Marion (The Swamp Fox), to destroy British boats on the Santee River outside of Camden so that the British cannot communicate between Camden and Charles Town. QuickTime™ and a decompressor are needed to see this picture. Francis Marion, The Swamp Fox
    10. 10. The Swamp Fox (Francis Marion) • Francis Marion, The Swamp Fox, is the leader of a patriot Militia in South Carolina. • Marion’s militia is made up of men, boys, and some African American slaves and freemen. QuickTime™ and a decompressor are needed to see this picture. Marion’s militia was skilled in Guerilla Warfare tactics
    11. 11. The Swamp Fox • Marion’s militia successfully uses guerilla warfare against the British. • His forces attack the British quickly and then retreat using their local knowledge of the swamps along the coast of South Carolina. QuickTime™ and a decompressor are needed to see this picture. Guerilla Warfare allows small forces to fight larger forces.
    12. 12. Battle of Camden • Horatio Gates and his army are easily overtaken by General Cornwallis’ forces. • Gates is forced to retreat and Baron de Kalb is killed near Camden. • American morale falls to a new low point. QuickTime™ and a decompressor are needed to see this picture. The Death of Baron de KalbQuickTime™ and a decompressor are needed to see this picture.
    13. 13. British Dominate the South • By 1780 the British have seized control of all major southern cities and sea ports. (Savannah, Charles Town, and Camden) QuickTime™ and a decompressor are needed to see this picture.
    14. 14. After Camden • After the retreat of Horatio Gates and the American loss at Camden, South Carolina, George Washington places Nathanael Greene, a Quaker, in command of the southern army. QuickTime™ and a decompressor are needed to see this picture. Nathaniel Greene was a Quaker.
    15. 15. Nathanael Greene • Nathanael Greene was a Quaker, a Christian religious sect of pacifists (people that do not believe in violence). • Greene is excommunicated from his church because he believed in armed fighting against the British. QuickTime™ and a decompressor are needed to see this picture. QuickTime™ and a decompressor are needed to see this picture.
    16. 16. Greene’s Strategy • Greene knew that the Americans couldn’t fight the British face-to-face, so he encouraged guerilla warfare and moved his army frequently so that the British had to chase him. • In 1780 Greene wins two battles at Cowpens and Kings Mountain, South Carolina. QuickTime™ and a decompressor are needed to see this picture. QuickTime™ and a decompressor are needed to see this picture.
    17. 17. War Becoming Unpopular In Britain • By 1781 the war had become unpopular in Britain because of the huge cost in money, resources, and soldiers. • Some members of the British Parliament start to think about giving independence to the American colonies. QuickTime™ and a decompressor are needed to see this picture. The British Parliament
    18. 18. Cornwallis is on the Move • British General Cornwallis moves his army north to Virginia. He establishes a base near Yorktown, on a peninsula in Chesapeake Bay. QuickTime™ and a decompressor are needed to see this picture. Why would Cornwallis establish a base in Yorktown?
    19. 19. Think Like George Washington • If you were General Washington, facing General Clinton in New York, how would you respond to Cornwallis’ move north? QuickTime™ and a decompressor are needed to see this picture. What would you do?
    20. 20. French Support • Washington is joined in New York by French General Jean Rochambeau and his army of 6000 French and 1000 Hessian mercenaries. • A fleet French Navy ships arrive to block Chesapeake Bay and cut British supply lines and prevent Cornwallis from escaping by ship. QuickTime™ and a decompressor are needed to see this picture. QuickTime™ and a decompressor are needed to see this picture. The arrival of Rochambeau French fleet led by Admiral de Grasse
    21. 21. Washington’s Move • When George Washington hears of Cornwallis’ base in Yorktown, he and Rochambeau move their armies south to trap Cornwallis on the peninsula. QuickTime™ and a decompressor are needed to see this picture. QuickTime™ and a decompressor are needed to see this picture. QuickTime™ and a decompressor are needed to see this picture.
    22. 22. The Siege of Yorktown • Washington and Rochambeau use superior artillery to attack Cornwallis’ army at Yorktown. • French ships fight to block British ships from bringing supplies and reinforcements to Yorktown. • The French Navy also bombards Yorktown heavily QuickTime™ and a decompressor are needed to see this picture. QuickTime™ and a decompressor are needed to see this picture.
    23. 23. Cornwallis Surrenders • After days of bombardment, British General Cornwallis surrenders at Yorktown on October 19, 1781. • Cornwallis is so ashamed he sends his assistant to deliver his sword to Washington, Washington refuses and has his assistant accept the sword. QuickTime™ and a decompressor are needed to see this picture. The Surrender of Cornwallis
    24. 24. After Cornwallis’ Surrender • British Prime Minister Lord North is forced to resign his position back in England. • Small battles continue, but the largest British force has surrendered, the war is nearly over. America wins!
    25. 25. How did America win the war? • Foreign Aid: Thanks France and Spain. • Knowledge of the land (Home Court Advantage) • Motivation: soldiers and citizens fighting for their own freedom and independence. • Good Leadership: British leaders were overconfident. American leaders made mistakes and made changes to their strategy.
    26. 26. 1783 Treaty of Paris • What did the 1783 Treaty of Paris do for America? QuickTime™ and a decompressor are needed to see this picture. QuickTime™ and a decompressor are needed to see this picture.
    27. 27. The Treaty of Paris In 1783 Britain and America sign a peace treaty in Paris, France. 1. United States granted independence 2. Borders drawn (See map on page 213) 3. Fishing Rights given to America 4. Each side would repay debts (never happens) 5. Property seized would be returned (also never really happens); slaves, forts, military equipment.
    28. 28. The Signing of the Treaty of Paris QuickTime™ and a decompressor are needed to see this picture. American diplomats who signed the 1783 Treaty of Paris: (From left) John Jay, John Adams, Benjamin Franklin, Henry Laurens, and William Temple Franklin. •Why is Benjamin West’s painting of the Treaty of Paris unfinished?
    29. 29. War, Then Peace • In November 1783, two years after the American victory at Yorktown, the last British soldiers left New York. What is next for the new country? QuickTime™ and a decompressor are needed to see this picture.
    30. 30. The Cost of the American Revolution • 26,000 Americans died, 10,000 British • 8000 Americans seriously wounded • America’s debt reached $27 million • 80,000 Loyalists leave; most go to Canada • Many American soldiers go unpaid
    31. 31. Republicanism, an American Value. • Republicanism is the belief that government should represent the people, not a monarch. QuickTime™ and a decompressor are needed to see this picture. Who was able to participate in American republicanism?
    32. 32. American Values Tested After the War • In 1780 the state of Massachusetts passed a new state constitution with ideas similar to those in the Declaration of Independence. QuickTime™ and a decompressor are needed to see this picture. QuickTime™ and a decompressor are needed to see this picture.
    33. 33. What are America’s Values? We hold these truths to be self-evident, that all men are created equal, that they are endowed with certain unalienable Rights, that among these are Life, Liberty, and the pursuit of Happiness. -Declaration of Independence, 1776
    34. 34. Elizabeth Freeman • Elizabeth Freeman was a slave to a Massachusetts lawyer and his family. • After hearing the new Massachusetts state constitution read publicly she approached a local lawyer for help suing for her freedom. QuickTime™ and a decompressor are needed to see this picture. What is the significance of Elizabeth Freeman’s last name?
    35. 35. Elizabeth Freeman • In August of 1781, Freeman was granted her freedom by a jury. • She was the first case of a slave using a state constitution to sue for freedom. • Her case led Massachusetts to become the first state to outlaw slavery. QuickTime™ and a decompressor are needed to see this picture. A jury is a group of citizens that decide court cases.
    36. 36. How are America’s Values Changing? We hold these truths to be self-evident, that all men are created equal, that they are endowed with certain unalienable Rights, that among these are Life, Liberty, and the pursuit of Happiness. -Declaration of Independence, 1776 Anytime while I was a slave, if one minute’s freedom had been offered to me, and I had been told I must die at the end of that minute, I would have taken it just to stand on God’s earth a freewoman. -Elizabeth Freeman (Former Massachusetts Slave)

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