Colonization of America


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Colonization of America

  1. 2. Part 2 Chapter 1 Colonization of North America
  2. 3. Indians <ul><li>Indians living in American originated from Asia about 25,000 years ago </li></ul><ul><li>Crossed the Bering land bridge </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Later becoming the Bering Strait </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Named by Christopher Columbus </li></ul><ul><li>Clan-Tribe-Tribe Confederacy </li></ul><ul><li>Agriculture & Hunting and Fishing </li></ul><ul><li>Maize </li></ul>
  3. 4. The Discovery of America <ul><li>Renaissance: time of the great revival of art, literature, and learning in Europe beginning in the 14th century and extending to the 17th century, marking the transition from the medieval to the modern world </li></ul><ul><li>The “Old World” and the “New World” </li></ul>
  4. 5. Reasons for the Age of Exploration(14 th -17 th centuries) <ul><li>Sea route to the spices in Asia </li></ul><ul><li>Gold, silver, precious stones </li></ul><ul><li>Expand their knowledge of the world </li></ul><ul><li>Control a larger empire </li></ul><ul><li>Expand Christianity </li></ul><ul><li>Find animal furs </li></ul>
  5. 6. Discovery of America: Christopher Columbus <ul><li>Born in 1451 in Genoa, Italy </li></ul><ul><li>Believed that the Earth was round </li></ul><ul><li>Plan to sail west to India and China </li></ul><ul><li>Funded by the Spanish Crown </li></ul><ul><ul><li>“Piñata”, “Nina”, and the “Santa Maria” </li></ul></ul>
  6. 7. <ul><li>October 12 th , 1492 Columbus </li></ul><ul><li>reaches the Bahamas </li></ul><ul><li>Made three more voyages </li></ul><ul><li>between 1493-1504 </li></ul><ul><li>“ The Great Admiral” </li></ul>
  7. 8. Discovery of America: Amerigo Vespucci <ul><li>Also Italian and funded by Spain </li></ul><ul><li>1 st voyage in 1499 and 2 nd in 1500 </li></ul><ul><li>Regarded as the discoverer of America </li></ul><ul><li>1507-the New World is named America </li></ul>
  8. 9. Discovery of America <ul><li>Promoted the development </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Commerce </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Sea navigation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Industry </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Early capitalism </li></ul></ul>
  9. 10. Colonization of North America: Early Explorations <ul><li>Balboa(Spain)-1 st to cross the Isthmus of Panama </li></ul><ul><li>Magellan(Spain)-Sailed to South America, then Southwest along the coast, enters the Strait of Magellan into the Pacific(Peaceful Ocean), reaches and is killed in the Philippines, his captain continues home </li></ul><ul><ul><li>1 st man to sail around the world </li></ul></ul>
  10. 12. <ul><li>John Cabot(England)-in1497 reaches the coast of Labrador </li></ul><ul><li>Sir Francis Drake(England) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>1st Englishman to circumnavigate the world </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Helped to defeat the Spanish Armada in 1588 </li></ul></ul>
  11. 13. <ul><li>Cartier(France)-Between 1534-1542 explores the Gulf of the St. Lawrence River </li></ul><ul><li>1603-Champlain sails up the St. Lawrence and begins fur trade </li></ul><ul><ul><li>1607-founds Quebec, the first French Colony </li></ul></ul>
  12. 14. Results of Early Exploration <ul><li>2 more continents were discovered </li></ul><ul><li>Contributions to Navigation </li></ul><ul><li>Nations claim land in the “New World” </li></ul><ul><li>England controls the sea </li></ul>
  13. 15. The Founding of the Thirteen Colonies
  14. 16. Mayflower <ul><li>English Puritans broke away from the Church of England, to avoid religious persecution they move to Holland, then to America </li></ul><ul><li>Received patents authorized them to settle in the London Company’s territory </li></ul><ul><li>1620-120 people voyage to America </li></ul><ul><li>Mayflower compact:Mayflower Compact: a signed document which established their own government yet still under the rule of the Great Britian </li></ul>
  15. 17. Colonial Life in General: New England <ul><li>Colder and rockier than the other colonies </li></ul><ul><li>Narrower coastal plain </li></ul><ul><li>Farming was not as prosperous as fishing </li></ul><ul><li>Supported fishing, shipbuilding, commerce, and industry </li></ul>
  16. 18. Colonial Life in General: the Middle Colonies <ul><li>Mild Climate, warmer than the Northeast but not as hot as the South </li></ul><ul><li>First settled by the Dutch and German </li></ul><ul><li>Religious pluralism=Religious diversity </li></ul><ul><li>Known as the “Bread Basket” Colonies because of their large grain export </li></ul><ul><li>Supported medium sized farms which produced cash crops of grain </li></ul>
  17. 19. Colonial Life in General: the South <ul><li>Warm climate, soil suited for warm weather crops </li></ul><ul><li>Cash Crops: tobacco, rice, indigo </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Crop grown for export, not for local consumption </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Support Plantations (large farms) producing cash crops </li></ul>
  18. 20. Colonial Life in General: Social Classes <ul><li>Three Classes: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Aristocracy-owned estates called manors </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Middle Class-merchants and small farmers </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Slaves </li></ul></ul>
  19. 21. Daily Life <ul><li>Over 90% of the population lived in rural areas </li></ul><ul><li>Men’s Duties: “Outdoor duties” </li></ul><ul><li>Women’s Duties: “Indoor duties” </li></ul><ul><li>Transportation </li></ul>
  20. 22. Part 2 Chapter 1 Terms: <ul><li>1)Columbus </li></ul><ul><li>2)The “New World” </li></ul><ul><li>3) The “Old World” </li></ul><ul><li>4)Mayflower </li></ul><ul><li>5)Magellan </li></ul><ul><li>Amerigo Vespucci </li></ul><ul><li>Renaissance </li></ul><ul><li>Reasons for exploration </li></ul><ul><li>Social Structure </li></ul><ul><li>Cash Crops </li></ul>