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Chapter III: The growth of a Nation
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Chapter III: The growth of a Nation

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Chapter III: The growth of a Nation Chapter III: The growth of a Nation Presentation Transcript

  • Chapter III: The Growth of the Nation
  • The Confederation and the Constitution
    • 1781 Articles of Confederation accepted
      • Gave to little power to the central government
    • 1787 Constitutional Convention to revise the Articles
    • Constitution of 1787
      • Congress was to be made up of two houses: House of Representatives and the Senate
      • “Supreme law of the land”-no law may be passed that contradicts its principles
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  • The Bill of Rights
    • 1791
    • Freedom of religion, speech, assembly, and petition
    • Right to bear arms
    • No Quartering
    • Search and Seizure
    • Due process, freedom from self-incrimination, double jeopardy
    • Right to a speedy and public trial
    • Trial by jury
    • Excessive bail, cruel and unusual punishments
    • Other rights of the people
    • Power reserved to the states
  • 1. Washington’s Administration
    • New York was chosen as the capital
    • George Washington-1 st president of the USA
    • Cabinet: Consists of the heads of federal executive departments
      • Advises the president
    • Supreme Court: Highest court of the US
  • 2. Hamilton’s Four Pillars: Funding National Debt
      • Industrialize the United States: Manufacturing and Agriculture
      • Reduce the need for foreign imports
      • Relied on the Gentry (Upper class society) to invest in the nation
  • Assuming State Debt
    • Estimated $25 million of debt owed by the States
    • Most of it held by investors holding government loan certificates
    • Told the investors the loans would be paid at full value which would pay back interest
    • Freed up money to use for other things
  • Imposing Custom and Excise Tax
    • Money needed for the government to spend and get out of debt
    • Others disagreed with taxing the people after experiencing being taxed by Great Britain
  • Establishing the Bank of the US
    • Creating a Central Bank of the US to control the US’s revenue
    • Standardize Currency-Set Value
      • How can people do business or pay taxes?
    • Many were opposed to this because it was not expressed in the Constitution
  • Federalists and Anti-Federalists
    • Federalists- Advocated a strong federal government and supported the US constitution
    • Anti-Federalists (Republicans)- Opposed the new constitution because they felt a strong central government defeated the purpose of the war with Britain. Believed that the Constitution would not protect the power of the States or the freedom of the people
  • 3. John Adams and the Overthrow of the Federalists
    • Sedition Act-designed to silence the Republicans (Anti-federalists), forbade spoken or written criticism of the government
      • Unified the Republican Party
  • 4. The Administration of Thomas Jefferson
    • Believe the federal government should be concerned with foreign affairs
    • 1803 Louisiana Purchase: Purchased from France which doubled the US in size
    • Lewis and Clark Exploration: A project of a Western Expedition, find a land route to the Pacific, gather information about the country
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  • 5. War of 1812
    • Grievances over British Maritime practices during the Napoleonic Wars
    • 1807-Embargo Act: Closed all US ports to imports and restricted imports from Britain
    • Members of Congress called for expulsion of British in Canada to ensure frontier security->Britain refuses
  • War of 1812 (cont)
    • US declares war on June 18, 1812
    • 1814-English occupy the capital and burned public buildings including the White House
    • 1814-The Treaty of Ghent: Restored territories captured by each side
  • 6. The Administration of James Monroe and John Quincy Adams
    • Slavery
      • North opposed, few slaves
      • South relied on slavery, majority of slaves
    • A problem since the formation of the country
      • “All men are created equal”
      • Personal and voting rights
  • Monroe Doctrine Background
    • Holy Alliance: Alliance between European powers to put down South American revolutions
  • Monroe Doctrine
    • 1823
      • European countries should not start any new colonies in the Americas
      • Should not interfere with newly-established South American Republics
      • US should not interfere with European countries affairs
  • Monroe Doctrine (cont)
    • Separated Europe and the Americas
    • Promoted US interests
      • Controlling the Americas
      • Ensuring peace and safety
    • American Expansionism
  • 7. Andrew Jackson’s Administration
    • Spoils System: in U.S. history, the practice of giving appointive offices to loyal members of the party in power
    • Developed the power of veto in making laws
    • Smashed the Southerners attempt to divide the union
  • The U.S.-Mexican War: Causes
    • Immediate cause was the US annexation of Texas
    • US wanted to acquire California, sent a diplomat to Mexico to purchase California and New Mexico
    • Mexico refuses, tension mounts, Mexicans fire upon Americans->US declares war
  • US-Mexican War
    • May 1846-US troops cross the Rio Grand River
    • September 1847-occupy Mexico City
    • February 1848-Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo, Mexico cedes 2/5 and receives $15 million from the US
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    • US Constitution-”Supreme law of the land”
    • Bill of Rights
    • Hamilton’s Four Pillars
    • Federalists/Anti-Federalists (Republicans)
    • Sedition Act
    • Louisiana Purchase
    • Lewis and Clark
    • War of 1812
    • Holy Alliance
    • Spoils System
    • Monroe Doctrine
    • US-Mexican War