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Chapter III: The growth of a Nation

Chapter III: The growth of a Nation






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    Chapter III: The growth of a Nation Chapter III: The growth of a Nation Presentation Transcript

    • Chapter III: The Growth of the Nation
    • The Confederation and the Constitution
      • 1781 Articles of Confederation accepted
        • Gave to little power to the central government
      • 1787 Constitutional Convention to revise the Articles
      • Constitution of 1787
        • Congress was to be made up of two houses: House of Representatives and the Senate
        • “Supreme law of the land”-no law may be passed that contradicts its principles
    • The Bill of Rights
      • 1791
      • Freedom of religion, speech, assembly, and petition
      • Right to bear arms
      • No Quartering
      • Search and Seizure
      • Due process, freedom from self-incrimination, double jeopardy
      • Right to a speedy and public trial
      • Trial by jury
      • Excessive bail, cruel and unusual punishments
      • Other rights of the people
      • Power reserved to the states
    • 1. Washington’s Administration
      • New York was chosen as the capital
      • George Washington-1 st president of the USA
      • Cabinet: Consists of the heads of federal executive departments
        • Advises the president
      • Supreme Court: Highest court of the US
    • 2. Hamilton’s Four Pillars: Funding National Debt
        • Industrialize the United States: Manufacturing and Agriculture
        • Reduce the need for foreign imports
        • Relied on the Gentry (Upper class society) to invest in the nation
    • Assuming State Debt
      • Estimated $25 million of debt owed by the States
      • Most of it held by investors holding government loan certificates
      • Told the investors the loans would be paid at full value which would pay back interest
      • Freed up money to use for other things
    • Imposing Custom and Excise Tax
      • Money needed for the government to spend and get out of debt
      • Others disagreed with taxing the people after experiencing being taxed by Great Britain
    • Establishing the Bank of the US
      • Creating a Central Bank of the US to control the US’s revenue
      • Standardize Currency-Set Value
        • How can people do business or pay taxes?
      • Many were opposed to this because it was not expressed in the Constitution
    • Federalists and Anti-Federalists
      • Federalists- Advocated a strong federal government and supported the US constitution
      • Anti-Federalists (Republicans)- Opposed the new constitution because they felt a strong central government defeated the purpose of the war with Britain. Believed that the Constitution would not protect the power of the States or the freedom of the people
    • 3. John Adams and the Overthrow of the Federalists
      • Sedition Act-designed to silence the Republicans (Anti-federalists), forbade spoken or written criticism of the government
        • Unified the Republican Party
    • 4. The Administration of Thomas Jefferson
      • Believe the federal government should be concerned with foreign affairs
      • 1803 Louisiana Purchase: Purchased from France which doubled the US in size
      • Lewis and Clark Exploration: A project of a Western Expedition, find a land route to the Pacific, gather information about the country
    • 5. War of 1812
      • Grievances over British Maritime practices during the Napoleonic Wars
      • 1807-Embargo Act: Closed all US ports to imports and restricted imports from Britain
      • Members of Congress called for expulsion of British in Canada to ensure frontier security->Britain refuses
    • War of 1812 (cont)
      • US declares war on June 18, 1812
      • 1814-English occupy the capital and burned public buildings including the White House
      • 1814-The Treaty of Ghent: Restored territories captured by each side
    • 6. The Administration of James Monroe and John Quincy Adams
      • Slavery
        • North opposed, few slaves
        • South relied on slavery, majority of slaves
      • A problem since the formation of the country
        • “All men are created equal”
        • Personal and voting rights
    • Monroe Doctrine Background
      • Holy Alliance: Alliance between European powers to put down South American revolutions
    • Monroe Doctrine
      • 1823
        • European countries should not start any new colonies in the Americas
        • Should not interfere with newly-established South American Republics
        • US should not interfere with European countries affairs
    • Monroe Doctrine (cont)
      • Separated Europe and the Americas
      • Promoted US interests
        • Controlling the Americas
        • Ensuring peace and safety
      • American Expansionism
    • 7. Andrew Jackson’s Administration
      • Spoils System: in U.S. history, the practice of giving appointive offices to loyal members of the party in power
      • Developed the power of veto in making laws
      • Smashed the Southerners attempt to divide the union
    • The U.S.-Mexican War: Causes
      • Immediate cause was the US annexation of Texas
      • US wanted to acquire California, sent a diplomat to Mexico to purchase California and New Mexico
      • Mexico refuses, tension mounts, Mexicans fire upon Americans->US declares war
    • US-Mexican War
      • May 1846-US troops cross the Rio Grand River
      • September 1847-occupy Mexico City
      • February 1848-Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo, Mexico cedes 2/5 and receives $15 million from the US
      • US Constitution-”Supreme law of the land”
      • Bill of Rights
      • Hamilton’s Four Pillars
      • Federalists/Anti-Federalists (Republicans)
      • Sedition Act
      • Louisiana Purchase
      • Lewis and Clark
      • War of 1812
      • Holy Alliance
      • Spoils System
      • Monroe Doctrine
      • US-Mexican War