Upcoming SlideShare
Loading in...5







Total Views
Views on SlideShare
Embed Views



0 Embeds 0

No embeds



Upload Details

Uploaded via as Microsoft PowerPoint

Usage Rights

© All Rights Reserved

Report content

Flagged as inappropriate Flag as inappropriate
Flag as inappropriate

Select your reason for flagging this presentation as inappropriate.

  • Full Name Full Name Comment goes here.
    Are you sure you want to
    Your message goes here
Post Comment
Edit your comment

Britishhistory2 Britishhistory2 Presentation Transcript

  • Foreign Trade and Colonial Plunder
    • Foreign trade limited by transportation
      • Only land route
      • Constantinople captured by the Turks, the land route to Asia was cut off
    • “ Age of Exploration”
      • Find a route to India around Russia or America
      • Trade with colonies of other powers
      • Find land to plan colonies
    • Pope had given the whole unexplored world to Spain and Portugal
  • The strengthening of the Centralized Monarch
    • Henry VIII
      • Established a new dynasty
      • Strengthened the judicial system
      • Strengthened the treasury
      • Put down revolts and rivals to the throne
    • Left a stable and wealthy monarchy for his son
  • The Reformation
    • Strength of the church hindered the social and political process of England
    • External pretext for the reformation was Henry VIII’s divorce case
      • Henry VIII married Catherine but had no sons
      • Applied to the pope to divorce and marry again
      • But Rome was occupied by Spain
      • Foreign influence through the church
    • 1533 Divorce through Parliament
    • 1534 “Act of Supremacy” ->head of the English Church, independent from Rome
    • Roman Catholic Church-international
    • English (Anglican) Church-national
    • Protestant: A branch of Christianity which broke off from the Roman Catholic Church at the time of the reformation
  • The Counter-Reformation
    • Mary re-established Catholicism and burnt 300 protestants->”Bloody Mary”
    • After Mary’s death in 1558, Elizabeth becomes queen and restores the Anglican Church
  • The English Renaissance
    • Renaissance=rebirth
    • Italians believed that they were merely discovering lost knowledge, English were influenced by the Italians and rediscovered the Classics through them
    • Mostly literary
  • Bourgeois Revolution
    • Capitalist mode of production needs two basic conditions
      • Large number of employed workers and expansion of domestic market
      • Large amount of capital
    • Tension between the Bourgeoisie (middle class) and the Crown
    • Early 17 th century refusal of Parliament to grand taxes and over the efforts of the Kings to secure their consent
  • Absolutist Rule of the Stuarts
    • James VI, King of Scotland, 1603 also becomes the King of England after Elizabeth dies
    • Divine Right of Kings-the right to rule is from God and also King is only responsible to God
    • 1611 dissolved Parliament
    • 1614 “Addled Parliament”-ineffective
    • Set the scene for Civil War under his son and successor, Charles I
  • English Civil War
    • West and North supported Charles: feudal nobles and their followers, Anglican Clergy, Peasantry in the NW
    • Parliament: Bourgeoisie, plebeians, peasants
      • Royalist vs. Roundheads
    • Cromwell’s “New Model Army”
    • 1649 Charles was deposed as “tyrant, traitor, murderer, and a public implacable enemy of the Commonwealth of England”
      • January 1649-beheaded
  • Commonwealth and Protectorate
    • August 1649- Cromwell confiscates the land of the “rebels”
      • Karl Marx “The English Revolution ship wrecked in Ireland”
    • Cromwell then defeats the Scottish forces, Scotland under English Rule
    • 1651-Navigation Act: No goods should be imported from abroad except in English ships or from ships of the colonies
    • 1653: Parliament dissolved and Cromwell was made Lord Protector for life
      • Commonwealth became the Protectorate
      • 1657 office of Lord Protector was made hereditary
    • Cromwell dies in 1658, his son Richard declared Lord Protector but retires in 1659
    • May 1660-Charles II, son of Charles the I, proclaimed King Charles II of England
  • Restoration and the Coup D’Etat
    • First political parties
      • Cavaliers/Loyalists: Tories
      • Roundheads:Whigs
    • June 1688: Leaders of Parliament invite William of Holland to take the throne
    • ” The Glorious Revolution”
      • 1689 Bill of Rights: limits powers of the Crown
      • Mutiny Act: army only possible through Parliament’s consent
      • Triennial Act of 1694 ensured frequent Parliament sessions
        • Prevented Kings from ruling without Parliament
    • Concluded the medieval period and marked the beginning of the modern period