Importance of vaccination


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Importance of vaccination

  1. 1. The Importance of Immunization By: Misty Moser ADNS and Cynthia Hill ADNS
  2. 2. What is a Vaccine? A substance used to stimulate the production of antibodies and provide immunity against one or several diseases (Merriam-Webster)
  3. 3. Basically, a vaccine is a substance used to prevent the spread of disease, usually using a killed or weakened form of the disease.
  4. 4. How Do Vaccines Work? <ul><li>First, a little about the immune system: </li><ul><ul><li>Antigens </li><ul><li>These are foreign invaders, such as bacteria, that enter the body </li></ul><li>Antibodies </li><ul><li>When the immune system detects the antigens, it begins to produce protein substances called antibodies to fight the antigens. </li></ul><li>Memory Cells </li><ul><li>Are produced and help the immune system to activate much faster.
  5. 5. These cells have a long life span and the ability to remember intruders.
  6. 6. These are stockpiled so they are available to fight off the disease should you be exposed again. </li></ul></ul></ul></ul>
  7. 7. How Do Vaccines Work? <ul><li>So... </li><ul><ul><li>The vaccine introduces a weakened or dead form of the antigen, or foreign invader.
  8. 8. The antigen isn't strong enough to produce symptoms, but is strong enough for the immune system to produce antibodies.
  9. 9. The immune system then stock piles these antibodies for future defense.
  10. 10. Now it's armed and ready should it be exposed to the disease. </li></ul></ul></ul>
  11. 11. Credit:
  12. 12. Spreading the Disease!!! <ul><li>You can be contagious BEFORE you have any signs or symptoms of the disease!
  13. 13. Some diseases, such as tetanus, are not spread from person to person, but are found in the dirt! </li></ul>
  14. 14. Safety of Vaccination Risk vs Benefit
  15. 15. <ul><li>Risk </li><ul><li>Side Effects </li><ul><li>Pain at injection site, muscle aches, rash, fever are normal and should not cause alarm. </li><ul><li>“ Nearly 90% of adverse events following vaccinations are categorized as non-serious.” (CDC) </li></ul><li>Rare serious side effects </li><ul><li>Most are allergic reactions to ingredients and not reactions to the antigen </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Benefits </li><ul><li>Prevention of deadly and debilitating diseases.
  16. 16. Keeps child from suffering through a preventable illness.
  17. 17. Saves money </li><ul><li>Less doctor visits
  18. 18. No hospitalization
  19. 19. Less time off work </li></ul><li>Herd Immunity </li><ul><li>Those who are vaccinated keep it from spreading. </li></ul></ul></ul>
  20. 20. Herd Immunity “ When a critical portion of a community is immunized against a contagious disease, most members of the community are protected against that disease because there is little opportunity for an outbreak.” - NIAID
  21. 21. Credit: NIAID
  22. 22. Testing and Monitoring <ul><li>Before vaccines are licensed, the FDA requires testing to ensure safety.
  23. 23. Once a vaccine is in use, the FDA and CDC monitor it's adverse events </li><ul><li>Vaccine Adverse Event Reporting System or VAERS </li><ul><li>If an adverse reaction is experienced, it can be reported to VAERS, any hint of a problem with the vaccine prompts further investigation by the CDC and FDA </li><ul><li>Research will be performed to investigate the vaccine and see what action needs to be taken </li></ul></ul></ul></ul>
  24. 24. Controversy It is true vaccines are not 100% effective...
  25. 25. Mumps out break in NY and NJ in 2009 77% of those who contracted it were immunized!!!
  26. 26. But wait! <ul><li>Let's look at the math... </li><ul><li>For example, if we have... </li><ul><li>Population of 1,000 people </li><ul><li>According to the World Health Organization 95% of people are vaccinated </li><ul><li>So... </li><ul><li>950 people vaccinated
  27. 27. 50 people not vaccinated </li></ul></ul><li>Out of this 1,000 total population </li><ul><li>100 people contract mumps </li><ul><li>77 vaccinated contracted it
  28. 28. 23 unvaccinated contracted it </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul>
  29. 29. The Population as a Whole <ul><li>Immunized Population (950 people) </li><ul><li>Only 77 contracted mumps </li><ul><li>That's about 8% of those immunized </li></ul></ul><li>Unimmunized Population (50 people) </li><ul><li>23 contracted mumps </li><ul><li>That 46% of that part of the population!!!! </li></ul></ul></ul>
  30. 30. Let's Put it in Perspective <ul><li>Taking that same 1,000 people, imagine it the other way around... </li><ul><li>950 unimmunized (95%) </li><ul><li>437 people would get the mumps </li></ul><li>50 immunized (5%) </li><ul><li>4 would get the mumps </li></ul></ul></ul>
  31. 31. Vaccines and Autism <ul><li>Two different types of Mercury </li><ul><li>Methylmercury </li><ul><li>Found in fish
  32. 32. Tends to accumulate in the body
  33. 33. Is tied to developmental delays and neurological impairment in babies </li></ul><li>Ethylmercury </li><ul><li>Does not accumulate in the body
  34. 34. Was used in vaccines as a preservative to prevent bacterial and fungal contamination </li><ul><li>However, mandated by the FDA to be removed from all vaccines, except the flu vaccine </li><ul><li>Vaccines must be free of ethylmercury or only contain trace amounts (less that one microgram). </li></ul></ul><li>Despite removal, autism rates continue to climb. </li></ul></ul></ul>
  35. 35. Why Get Vaccinated? The Importance of Immunization
  36. 36. Communicable Diseases <ul><li>Measle, Mumps, Rubella - MMR
  37. 37. Chicken Pox - Varicella
  38. 38. Diptheria, Tetanus, Pertussis (aka Whooping Cough) - DtaP
  39. 39. Hepatitis (A and B) – HepA, HepB
  40. 40. Polio – IPV
  41. 41. Rotavirus – RV
  42. 42. Pneumoccocal – PCV
  43. 43. Haemophilus influenzae B- Hib </li></ul>
  44. 44. Measles Mumps Rubella (German Measles
  45. 45. Chicken Pox Diptheria Tetanus Whooping cough
  46. 46. Hepatitis A Liver cancer caused by Hepatitis B
  47. 47. Polio Rotavirus Pneumoccocal HiB
  48. 48. If Everyone Else is Doing It, Why Should I? <ul><li>Won't herd immunity protect me anyway? </li><ul><li>Technically, yes it does help the community as a whole </li><ul><li>But what if everyone thought this way? Then no one would be immunized
  49. 49. Risk of exposure to those who also think this way and don't get vaccinated </li></ul><li>Not everyone can get vaccinated </li><ul><li>Exposure to those who aren't </li></ul></ul></ul>
  50. 50. “ An ounce of prevention...” <ul><li>PREVENTION!!! </li><ul><li>This is the key to public health
  51. 51. Disease is easier to prevent than treat </li><ul><li>“ An ounce of prevention is worth a pound of cure.” - Ben Franklin </li></ul></ul></ul>
  52. 52. More Information