Importance of vaccination
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Importance of vaccination

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Importance of vaccination Importance of vaccination Presentation Transcript

  • The Importance of Immunization By: Misty Moser ADNS and Cynthia Hill ADNS
  • What is a Vaccine? A substance used to stimulate the production of antibodies and provide immunity against one or several diseases (Merriam-Webster)
  • Basically, a vaccine is a substance used to prevent the spread of disease, usually using a killed or weakened form of the disease.
  • How Do Vaccines Work?
    • First, a little about the immune system:
        • Antigens
          • These are foreign invaders, such as bacteria, that enter the body
        • Antibodies
          • When the immune system detects the antigens, it begins to produce protein substances called antibodies to fight the antigens.
        • Memory Cells
          • Are produced and help the immune system to activate much faster.
          • These cells have a long life span and the ability to remember intruders.
          • These are stockpiled so they are available to fight off the disease should you be exposed again.
  • How Do Vaccines Work?
    • So...
        • The vaccine introduces a weakened or dead form of the antigen, or foreign invader.
        • The antigen isn't strong enough to produce symptoms, but is strong enough for the immune system to produce antibodies.
        • The immune system then stock piles these antibodies for future defense.
        • Now it's armed and ready should it be exposed to the disease.
  • Credit: http://www.cdc.gov/vaccines/vac-gen/images/photo_howdoimwork.jpg
  • Spreading the Disease!!!
    • You can be contagious BEFORE you have any signs or symptoms of the disease!
    • Some diseases, such as tetanus, are not spread from person to person, but are found in the dirt!
  • Safety of Vaccination Risk vs Benefit
    • Risk
      • Side Effects
        • Pain at injection site, muscle aches, rash, fever are normal and should not cause alarm.
          • “ Nearly 90% of adverse events following vaccinations are categorized as non-serious.” (CDC)
        • Rare serious side effects
          • Most are allergic reactions to ingredients and not reactions to the antigen
    • Benefits
      • Prevention of deadly and debilitating diseases.
      • Keeps child from suffering through a preventable illness.
      • Saves money
        • Less doctor visits
        • No hospitalization
        • Less time off work
      • Herd Immunity
        • Those who are vaccinated keep it from spreading.
  • Herd Immunity “ When a critical portion of a community is immunized against a contagious disease, most members of the community are protected against that disease because there is little opportunity for an outbreak.” - NIAID
  • Credit: NIAID http://www.niaid.nih.gov/SiteCollectionImages/topics/communityImmunityGeneric.gif
  • Testing and Monitoring
    • Before vaccines are licensed, the FDA requires testing to ensure safety.
    • Once a vaccine is in use, the FDA and CDC monitor it's adverse events
      • Vaccine Adverse Event Reporting System or VAERS
        • If an adverse reaction is experienced, it can be reported to VAERS, any hint of a problem with the vaccine prompts further investigation by the CDC and FDA
          • Research will be performed to investigate the vaccine and see what action needs to be taken
  • Controversy It is true vaccines are not 100% effective...
  • Mumps out break in NY and NJ in 2009 77% of those who contracted it were immunized!!!
  • But wait!
    • Let's look at the math...
      • For example, if we have...
        • Population of 1,000 people
          • According to the World Health Organization 95% of people are vaccinated
            • So...
              • 950 people vaccinated
              • 50 people not vaccinated
          • Out of this 1,000 total population
            • 100 people contract mumps
              • 77 vaccinated contracted it
              • 23 unvaccinated contracted it
  • The Population as a Whole
    • Immunized Population (950 people)
      • Only 77 contracted mumps
        • That's about 8% of those immunized
    • Unimmunized Population (50 people)
      • 23 contracted mumps
        • That 46% of that part of the population!!!!
  • Let's Put it in Perspective
    • Taking that same 1,000 people, imagine it the other way around...
      • 950 unimmunized (95%)
        • 437 people would get the mumps
      • 50 immunized (5%)
        • 4 would get the mumps
  • Vaccines and Autism
    • Two different types of Mercury
      • Methylmercury
        • Found in fish
        • Tends to accumulate in the body
        • Is tied to developmental delays and neurological impairment in babies
      • Ethylmercury
        • Does not accumulate in the body
        • Was used in vaccines as a preservative to prevent bacterial and fungal contamination
          • However, mandated by the FDA to be removed from all vaccines, except the flu vaccine
            • Vaccines must be free of ethylmercury or only contain trace amounts (less that one microgram).
        • Despite removal, autism rates continue to climb.
  • Why Get Vaccinated? The Importance of Immunization
  • Communicable Diseases
    • Measle, Mumps, Rubella - MMR
    • Chicken Pox - Varicella
    • Diptheria, Tetanus, Pertussis (aka Whooping Cough) - DtaP
    • Hepatitis (A and B) – HepA, HepB
    • Polio – IPV
    • Rotavirus – RV
    • Pneumoccocal – PCV
    • Haemophilus influenzae B- Hib
  • http://www.helpfulhealthtips.com/wp-content/uploads/2009/07/Measles.jpg http://www.helpfulhealthtips.com/wp-content/uploads/2009/07/Mumps-1.jpg http://www.helpfulhealthtips.com/wp-content/uploads/2010/06/Rubella.jpg http://www.helpfulhealthtips.com/wp-content/uploads/2010/06/Mumps-Causes.jpg Measles Mumps Rubella (German Measles
  • Chicken Pox Diptheria Tetanus Whooping cough http://www.helpfulhealthtips.com/wp-content/uploads/2009/07/Chickenpox.jpg http://www.vaccineinformation.org/photos/pertiac001b.jpg http://www.vaccineinformation.org/photos/diphcdc003a.jpg http://www.freeinfosociety.com/media/images/1314.jpg
  • http://www.vaccineinformation.org/photos/hepaiac001a.jpg http://www.vaccineinformation.org/photos/hepbiac001a.jpg Hepatitis A Liver cancer caused by Hepatitis B
  • http://www.vaccineinformation.org/photos/poliiac002.jpg http://www.duke.edu/~ema5/Golian/Slides/3/gastrointestinal5_files/Gi230.jpg http://www.vaccineinformation.org/photos/pneuaap001.jpg http://www.aap.org/immunization/illnesses/photos/174.jpg http://www.aap.org/immunization/illnesses/photos/182.jpg Polio Rotavirus Pneumoccocal HiB
  • If Everyone Else is Doing It, Why Should I?
    • Won't herd immunity protect me anyway?
      • Technically, yes it does help the community as a whole
        • But what if everyone thought this way? Then no one would be immunized
        • Risk of exposure to those who also think this way and don't get vaccinated
      • Not everyone can get vaccinated
        • Exposure to those who aren't
  • “ An ounce of prevention...”
    • PREVENTION!!!
      • This is the key to public health
      • Disease is easier to prevent than treat
        • “ An ounce of prevention is worth a pound of cure.” - Ben Franklin
  • More Information http://www.cdc.gov/vaccines/vac-gen/10-shouldknow.htm http://www.immunize.org/vaccines/