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Government chapter 17 powerpoint Government chapter 17 powerpoint Presentation Transcript

  • Presentation Pro Magruder’s American Government C H A P T E R 17 Foreign Policy and National Defense© 2001 by Prentice Hall, Inc.
  • C H A P T E R 17Foreign Policy and National Defense S SECTION 1 Foreign Affairs and National Security S SECTION 2 Other Foreign and Defense Agencies S SECTION 3American Foreign Policy Overview S SECTION 4Foreign Aid and Defense Alliances Go To Section: 1 2 3 4 Chapter 17
  • SECTION 1Foreign Affairs and National Security• What is foreign policy?• How can we differentiate between isolationism and internationalism?• How does the Department of State function?• How do the Department of Defense and the military departments function? Go To Section: 1 2 3 4 Chapter 17, Section 1
  • Isolationism to Internationalism• For more than 150 • Isolationism, the years, the American purposeful refusal to people were chiefly become generally interested in domestic involved in the affairs of affairs, or what was the rest of the world, was happening at home. American policy during this time.• Foreign affairs, or the nation’s relationships • Since World War II, with other countries, however, U.S. policy has were of little or no featured a broadening of concern. American involvement in global affairs. Go To Section: 1 2 3 4 Chapter 17, Section 1
  • Foreign Policy Defined• A nation’s foreign policy is made up of all the stands and actions that a nation takes in every aspect of its relationships with other countries.• The President, the nation’s chief diplomat and commander in chief of its armed forces, has traditionally carried the major responsibility for both the making and conduct of foreign policy. Go To Section: 1 2 3 4 Chapter 17, Section 1
  • The State Department• The State Department is headed by the secretary of state, who ranks first among the members of the President’s Cabinet.• An ambassador is a personal representative appointed by the President to represent the nation in matters of diplomacy.• The State Department issues passports, certificates issued to citizens who travel or live abroad.• Diplomatic immunity is usually applied to ambassadors and means that they are not subject to the laws of state to which they are accredited. Go To Section: 1 2 3 4 Chapter 17, Section 1
  • The Defense DepartmentThis chart shows the chain of command of the American military services. Go To Section: 1 2 3 4 Chapter 17, Section 1
  • The Military Departments The Department of the Army The Department of the Navy• The army is the largest and the • The navy’s major responsibilities oldest of the armed services. are for sea warfare and defense.• The army consists of standing • The U.S. Marine Corps, a troops, or the Regular Army, and combat-ready land force, are its reserve units—the Army under the auspices of navy National Guard and Army command. Reserve. The Department of the Air Force• The air force is the youngest branch of the armed services.• The air force’s main responsibility is to serve as the nation’s first line of defense. Go To Section: 1 2 3 4 Chapter 17, Section 1
  • Section 1 Review1. United States foreign policy might consist of any of the following EXCEPT (a) intrastate energy disputes. (b) protection of overseas interests. (c) international trade policy. (d) sending diplomats to global conferences.2. Under the principle of civilian control of the military, (a) the military acts as an independent and autonomous body. (b) military generals have unrestricted control of the armed forces. (c) mandatory service is used as a means of recruitment. (d) an officer of the people has ultimate control of the armed forces.Want to connect to the Magruder’s link for this section? Click Here! Go To Section: 1 2 3 4 Chapter 17, Section 1
  • SECTION 2Other Foreign and Defense Agencies• What agencies are involved in foreign and defense policy?• How do the CIA, NASA, and the Selective Service System contribute to the nation’s security?• How does the INS affect our relations with other nations and their citizens? Go To Section: 1 2 3 4 Chapter 17, Section 2
  • The CIA and the INS The CIA The INS• The Central Intelligence • The Immigration and Agency (CIA) is a key part Naturalization Service (INS) of the foreign policy deals with persons who come establishment. to the United States from abroad to live and work, and• The CIA is responsible for who may become naturalized collecting, analyzing, and citizens. reporting information for the President and the NSC. • The INS enforces immigration laws and requirements and• A full range of espionage, or administers benefits to spying, activities are immigrants. undertaken by the CIA. Go To Section: 1 2 3 4 Chapter 17, Section 2
  • NASA and the Selective Service NASA• The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) is the independent agency which deals with the nation’s space policy. The Selective Service• The Selective Service System handles, when necessary, the conscription—or draft —of citizens for service in the armed forces. Go To Section: 1 2 3 4 Chapter 17, Section 2
  • Section 2 Review1. Information gathering in foreign nations, or espionage, falls under the auspices of (a) the INS. (b) the CIA. (c) NASA. (d) the EPA.2. The Selective Service System handles matters involved with (a) conscription. (b) customer relations. (c) staffing federal agencies. (d) none of the aboveWant to connect to the Magruder’s link for this section? Click Here! Go To Section: 1 2 3 4 Chapter 17, Section 2
  • SECTION 3American Foreign Policy Overview• What were the themes in American foreign policy through World War I?• How did the two World Wars affect America’s traditional policy of isolationism?• What are the principles of collective security and deterrence?• How did the United States resist Soviet aggression during the cold war?• How can we describe American foreign policy since the end of the cold war? Go To Section: 1 2 3 4 Chapter 17, Section 3
  • Foreign Policy From Independence Through World War I• As stated in George Washington’s Farewell Address, for the next 150 years the United States practiced a policy of isolationism.• The Monroe Doctrine (1823) warned Europe to stay out of the affairs of North and South America and established the United States as the hegemonic power of the Western Hemisphere.• Throughout the nineteenth century, the United States expanded across the North American continent through both land purchases and acquisitions through war.• As the United States expanded commercially in the late nineteenth century, so did the reach of its foreign policy, as seen in the Good Neighbor policy in effect in Latin America during the early 1900s, and the Open Door Policy for China during the same time. Go To Section: 1 2 3 4 Chapter 17, Section 3
  • World War I and World War II World War I• The United States entered World War I after continued disruptions of American commerce due to German submarine warfare.• After the defeat of Germany and the Central Powers, the nation retreated to a policy of isolationism. World War II• The bombing of Pearl Harbor on December 7, 1941 signaled the United States entry in World War II, joining the Allies (Russia, Great Britain, and China) fighting against the Axis Powers (Italy, Japan, and Germany).• World War II led to a historic shift away from isolationism to an increased role in global affairs by the United States. Go To Section: 1 2 3 4 Chapter 17, Section 3
  • Two New Principles Collective Security• Collective security, approached by the United States following World War II, involves a world community in which most nations would agree to act together against any nation that threatened the peace. Deterrence• Deterrence is the policy of making America and its allies so militarily strong that their very strength will deter—discourage, or even prevent—any attack. Go To Section: 1 2 3 4 Chapter 17, Section 3
  • Resisting Soviet AggressionThe cold war was a period of more than 40 years during which relations between the United States and the Soviet Union were tense, but did not result in direct military action between the two. The Truman Doctrine The Truman Doctrine established the policy of containment, an effort to “contain” the spread of communism throughout the nations of the world. The Berlin Blockade The Cuban Missile Crisis In 1948, the Soviet Union cut off all In 1962, it was discovered that the land transit to West Berlin. The Soviet Union was building missiles United States responded with an on the island of Cuba. A heated airlift of goods to the city. stand-off between the Soviet Union and America ensued. The Korean War The War in Vietnam The Korean War was fought under The United States dedicated the auspices of the United Nations thousands of troops in an effort to after the forces of communist North resist aggression by communist Korea invaded South Korea. forces in Vietnam. Go To Section: 1 2 3 4 Chapter 17, Section 3
  • Détente Through the Present• Following the U.S. • The cold war came to an withdrawal from Vietnam, end with the dissolution of the Nixon administration the Soviet Union in 1991. embarked on a policy of détente. • January 1991 brought the Persian Gulf War, with• Détente is a French term American forces spear- meaning “relaxation of heading a multinational tensions. force to drive Iraqi forces out of Kuwait.• Nixon would become the first U.S. President to visit mainland China in 1972. He also visited Moscow during his administration. Go To Section: 1 2 3 4 Chapter 17, Section 3
  • Section 3 Review1. For much of the United States first 150 years, its foreign policy was one of (a) internationalism. (b) isolationism. (c) imperialism. (d) commercialism.2. Collective security refers to (a) the goal of most of the nations of the world to act together to maintain the peace. (b) a free market ideal aimed at creating new markets for American goods. (c) a policy of tariffs and duties to protect American industries. (d) the goal of the United States to expand its borders.Want to connect to the Magruder’s link for this section? Click Here! Go To Section: 1 2 3 4 Chapter 17, Section 3
  • SECTION 4Foreign Aid and Defense Alliances• What are the two types of foreign aid?• How can we describe United States foreign aid policy?• What are the major security alliances to which the United States belongs?• What is United States policy in the Middle East?• What role does the United Nations play, and what problems does it face? Go To Section: 1 2 3 4 Chapter 17, Section 4
  • Foreign Aid• Foreign aid—economic and military aid to other countries—has been a basic feature of American foreign policy for more than 50 years.• Most aid has been sent to those nations regarded as the most critical to the realization of this country’s foreign policy objectives.• Most foreign aid money must be used to buy American goods and products. Go To Section: 1 2 3 4 Chapter 17, Section 4
  • Security Alliances NATO Other Alliances• The North Atlantic Treaty • The United States is also part Organization (NATO) was of the Rio Pact with Canada formed to promote the and Latin America, the ANZUS pact with Australia collective defense of Western and New Zealand, as well as Europe. other pacts in the Pacific region.• Today, NATO’s purpose has changed. With the collapse of • The United States has also the Soviet Union, NATO’s taken an active interest in the goals have broadened to actions that unfold in the include peacekeeping roles, Middle East, although such as in the Balkans, and America is not part of any establishing a continued formal alliance in the region. relationship with Russia. Go To Section: 1 2 3 4 Chapter 17, Section 4
  • The United Nations• The United Nations was formed following World War II to promote peace and security across the globe.• The General Assembly acts as “the town meeting of the world.”• Oversight and maintenance of international peace is delegated to the UN Security Council, of which the United States is a permanent member.• Peacekeeping missions, international aid to children and women, and investigations and aid for world health services are all examples of current United Nations functions. Go To Section: 1 2 3 4 Chapter 17, Section 4
  • Section 4 Review1. All of the following are examples of foreign aid EXCEPT (a) the United States sending supplies to a region struck by an earthquake. (b) the use of the military in overseas peacekeeping missions. (c) block grants to States for immigration reform. (d) monetary aid to rebuild the economies of Europe.2. The United Nations has all of the following functions EXCEPT (a) providing aid to children in emergency situations. (b) intervention in the activities of sovereign nations. (c) raising concerns over the global environment. (d) attempting to guarantee basic human rights worldwide.Want to connect to the Magruder’s link for this section? Click Here! Go To Section: 1 2 3 4 Chapter 17, Section 4