Origins of Political Parties <ul><li>Traced back to ratification of Constitution
Federalist Party – Alexander Hamilton = worked for a stronger National Government.
Anti-federalist – Thomas Jefferson = Limited role for National Government. Later they became the Jeffersonian Republicans or Democratic-Republicans.
After Washington, John Adams (Federalist) defeated Jefferson. Jefferson defeated incumbent in next election (incumbent is the current officeholder.) </li></ul>
Minor Parties <ul><li>ideological parties – those based on a particular set of beliefs – a comprehensive view of social, economic, and political matters.
Example – Socialist, Socialist Labor, Communist, Libertarian </li></ul>
Minor Parties <ul><li>Single issue parties – focus on only one public-policy matter.
Example – Free Soil Party – opposed the spread of slavery.
Example – American Party (also called the “Know Nothings” opposed Irish-Catholic immigration in the 1850's.
Example – Right to Life party opposes abortion. </li></ul>
Minor Parties <ul><li>Economic protest parties – have been rooted in periods of economic discontent. They have focused their anger on such real or imagined enemies as the monetary system, “Wall Street Bankers”, the railroads, or foreign imports.
Example: the Greenback Party – tried to take advantage of agrarian discontent from 1876 through 1884.
Example: the Populist Party – demanded public ownership of railroads, telephone and telegraph companies, lower tariffs, and the adoption of the initiative and referendum. </li></ul>
Minor Parties <ul><li>Splinter parties – those that have split away from one of the major parties.
Example: From the Republicans - Theodore Roosevelt's “Bull-Moose Party” Progressive Party of 1912, Robert La Follette's Progressive Party of 1924.
Example: From the Democrats – Henry Wallace's Progressive Party and the States' Rights (Dixiecrat) Party of 1948 and George Wallace's American Independent Party of 1968. </li></ul>
Why Minor Parties are Important <ul><li>Minor parties first used a national convention to nominate a presidential candidate.
“spoiler role” - can pull votes from one of the major parties.
1912 election – Republican split – Theodore Roosevelt split votes with William H. Taft ending up with Woodrow Wilson becoming President. </li></ul>
National Convention <ul><li>Meets in the summer of every presidential election year to pick the party's presidential and vice-presidential candidates. </li></ul>
National Committee/National Chairperson/Congressional Campaign Committees <ul><li>Party's affairs are handled by a national committee and national chairperson.
National chairperson is the leader of the national committee.
Each party has a campaign committee in each house of Congress. </li></ul>
State Organization <ul><li>State central committee with a State chairperson. </li></ul>
Local organization <ul><li>ward – is a unit into which cities are often divided for the election of city council members.
precinct – is the smallest unit of election administration. You vote in your precinct. </li></ul>