Ap history and types psych ppt

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Ap history and types psych ppt

  1. 1. Intro to Psychology What is psychology? The history of psychology Types of psychologists Special thanks to Sunset Schools for use of slides.
  2. 2. What is psychology? <ul><li>Psychology is the scientific study of how we think, feel and behave. </li></ul><ul><li>The APA, the American Psychological Association is the largest organization devoted to the advancement </li></ul><ul><li>of psychology. </li></ul>
  3. 3. What are different types of psychologists? (8 types) <ul><li>Clinical psychologists – work in clinics or hospitals or private practices treating mental disorders. They have a PhD. </li></ul>
  4. 4. School psychologists <ul><li>Work for school districts to treat students for mild disorders like depression and grief. CNE's is Fred Feltz. They have a PhD. </li></ul>
  5. 5. Counseling psychologists <ul><li>Treat mental disorders with “insight” therapy. They treat mental disorders without medicine. They have a PhD. </li></ul>
  6. 6. Counselors <ul><li>Do not really treat mental disorders. Usually do not have a PhD. Counselors use talk therapy for everyday problems like marital counseling, family counseling, career counseling, mild depression, grief counseling. </li></ul>
  7. 7. Psychiatrists (shrinks) <ul><li>Psychiatrists are MDs (doctors) who specialize in the treatment of mental disorders. They treat disorders with medicine and a little counseling. </li></ul>
  8. 8. Sports/performance psychologists <ul><li>Work for major league sports teams to maximize performance and minimize performance anxiety. </li></ul>
  9. 9. Forensic psychologists <ul><li>They testify in court to determine if a defendant is fit to stand trial. If a defendant is termed “insane” then no. </li></ul><ul><li>“ sanity” is a legal term, not a psychological one. </li></ul><ul><li>They also study criminal </li></ul><ul><li>behavior like serial killers </li></ul>
  10. 10. Industrial/organization psychologists <ul><li>Work for large corporations to maximize employee output and profit. </li></ul><ul><li>Have similar duties to interior designers, architects. </li></ul><ul><li>They might work for human resources. </li></ul>
  11. 11. Review questions: <ul><li>Carlos just moved to Duncanville from a small town and his parents were just divorced. He’s been having a hard time with life. Carlos might see a </li></ul><ul><li>Psychiatrist </li></ul><ul><li>Clinical psychologist </li></ul><ul><li>Counselor </li></ul><ul><li>Moe Sizlak </li></ul>
  12. 12. Mr. Didden was hired by the TLC company to help them retain their employees without lowering the firm’s profits. After TLC removed cubicles and permitted employees to decorate their workroom as recommended by Mr. Didden, the absentee rate declined and no employees left for jobs elsewhere. Mr. Didden is most likely a) a forensic psychologist b) an industrial/organizational psychologist c) a counseling psychologist d) a clinical psychologist
  13. 13. A psychiatrist typically has a a) Doctorate in Psychology b) Medical Degree c) Doctorate in Physiology d) Doctorate in Education
  14. 14. In contrast to a clinical psychologist, a psychiatrist is more likely to a) engage in an eclectic b) use a biomedical treatment c) recognize the importance of group therapy with patients having the same disorder d) treat clients in community mental health centers exclusively
  15. 15. Major Perspectives of Psychology (a preview)
  16. 16. Ancient Roots <ul><li>Archaeologists have found evidence of trephination – Stone Age humans carving holes in the skull to release evil spirits. </li></ul>
  17. 17. Trephening
  18. 18. The Greeks <ul><li>Plato and Democritus theorized about the relationship between thought and behavior. </li></ul>
  19. 19. Phrenology <ul><li>Old quacks used to predict </li></ul><ul><li>personality based on </li></ul><ul><li>the bumps on your head. </li></ul>
  20. 20. However, thinking about psychology is different than scientifically studying it.
  21. 21. Wilhelm Wundt (1832-1920) <ul><li>Founder of Structuralism – studied consciousness using the technique of introspection, studying your own thoughts </li></ul><ul><li>Psychology began in Germany. </li></ul><ul><li>But most is here in USA, today </li></ul><ul><li>First to do psych experiments. </li></ul>
  22. 22. William James (functionalism) <ul><li>This approach says our mind is a product of our environment </li></ul><ul><li>Influenced by Darwin </li></ul><ul><li>Influenced Behaviorists. </li></ul><ul><li>Consciousness cannot be studied. </li></ul>
  23. 23. The History & Scope of Psychology
  24. 24. Psychology’s Perspectives The Big Seven
  25. 25. Neuroscience Perspective <ul><li>Biology explains everything!. </li></ul>If you could not remember the names of your parents and went to a psychologist who adheres to the neuroscience perspective, what might they say?
  26. 26. Evolutionary Perspective <ul><li>Focuses on Darwinism. </li></ul><ul><li>We behave the way we do because we inherited those behaviors. </li></ul><ul><li>Thus, those behaviors must have helped ensure our ancestors’ survival. </li></ul>How could this behavior ensured Homer’s ancestors survival?
  27. 27. Psychodynamic Perspective <ul><li>Fathered by Sigmund Freud. </li></ul><ul><li>Our behavior comes from unconscious drives . </li></ul><ul><li>Usually stemming from our childhood. </li></ul>What might a psychoanalyst say is the reason someone always needs to be chewing gum?
  28. 28. Behavioral Perspective <ul><li>Focuses on our OBSERVABLE behaviors. </li></ul><ul><li>Focus on rewards and punishments. </li></ul>If you bit your fingernails when you were nervous, a behaviorist would not focus on calming you down, but rather focus on how to stop you from biting your nails.
  29. 29. Cognitive Perspective <ul><li>Focuses on how we think (or encode information) </li></ul><ul><li>How do we see the world? </li></ul><ul><li>How did we learn to act to sad or happy events? </li></ul><ul><li>Cognitive Therapist attempt to change the way you think . </li></ul>Meet girl Get Rejected by girl Did you learn to be depressed Or get back on the horse
  30. 30. Social-Cultural Perspective <ul><li>Focus on how your culture affects your behavior. </li></ul>Even in the same high school, behaviors can change in accordance to the various subcultures.
  31. 31. Humanistic Perspective <ul><li>Focuses on positive growth </li></ul><ul><li>Attempt to seek self-actualization (be all you can be) </li></ul><ul><li>(think hippies) </li></ul>Mr. Rogers would have made a great Humanistic Therapist!!!
  32. 32. Psychology came from <ul><li>Neurology and philosophy </li></ul>
  33. 33. The question “Is intelligence more influenced by heredity or experience?” deals with a big issue in psychology known as a) stability vs. change b) mind-body dualism c) rationality vs. irrationality d) nature vs. nurture
  34. 34. If Aristotle and Locke, who both believed that what we know is acquired from experience, were alive today, they would best agree with the a) behavioral approach b) psychoanalytic approach c) humanistic approach d) psychodynamic approach
  35. 35. The world’s largest organization devoted to the advancement of psychology is the a. World Psychology Organization b. American Psychological Society c. American Psychological Association d. Psychologists of North America
  36. 36. According to Wilhelm Wundt, the focus of psychology was on the scientific study of a. observable behavior b. conscious experience c. unconscious motivation d. the functions of behavior e. self concepts
  37. 37. Which of the following statements gives the best explanation of the birth of psychology? A. a man by the name of Wilhelm Wundt established the first research laboratory in the late 1800’s B. A man by the name of Wilhelm Wundt began to perform hypnosis on individuals in the late 1800’s C. A man by the name of Sigmund Freud established the first research laboratory in the late 1800’s D. A man by the name of Sigmund Freud began to perform hypnosis on individuals in the late 1800’s
  38. 38. Which psychological approach is most concerned with the importance of encoding, storage, and retrieving information a) information technology b) behavioral approach c) biological approach d) cognitive approach
  39. 39. Dr. Didden was hired by the TLC company to help them retain their employees without lowering the firm’s profits. After TLC removed cubicles and permitted employees to decorate their workroom as recommended by Dr. Didden, the absentee rate declined and no employees left for jobs elsewhere. Dr. Didden is most likely a) a forensic psychologist b) an industrial/organizational psychologist c) a counseling psychologist d) a clinical psychologist
  40. 40. A good definition of psychology is: a. the understanding of unconscious processes b. the study of the human mind c. the scientific study of human behaviors d. the exploration of personality traits e. the scientific study of behavior and mental processes.
  41. 41. Functionalism is the historical school of psychology that focused its attention on a. unconscious processes and their effect on behavior b. cognitive associations and how those impact learned actions c. the effect of relationships between parents and children on behavior d. the belief that mental processes could best be understood in terms of their adaptive purpose and function e. the individual structures that make up the mind and how each affects and determines behavior
  42. 42. Wundt’s technique of reporting one’s conscious mental experiences is known as a. introspection b. structuralism c. functionalism d. psychodynamism e. humanism
  43. 43. According to behaviorists, behavior is governed primarily by a) heredity b) personal motives c) the environment d) unconscious desires
  44. 44. A psychiatrist typically has a a) Doctorate in Psychology b) Medical Degree c) Doctorate in Physiology d) Doctorate in Education

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