It generates huge amounts of wealth for countries and generates jobs at countries of all stages of development. The reliance on tourism as a source of income varies across the globe and can be measured as a percentage of a countries GDP. Most Caribbean countries get at least half of their GDP from tourism and France, Spain, the USA, China, Italy and the UK are the most visited countries. This can be seen above
Lo: To understand what tourism
is and why it has grown.
What is tourism?
• Tourism generally involves activities
that require away from home for at
least 1 night. This includes
holidays,buissness trips. Also some
scientists say that day trips are also
counted as tourism.
Why has tourism grown?
• People like to go on holiday because:
• The weather
• Leisure and recreation
• Cheaper and faster transport
• Food Extension task: explain these
points into more detail
• Tourist: going somewhere different to
do something for a day or overnight.
• Domestic tourist: someone that travels
in the same country.
• International: go to a different country
• Self catering: no food included
• Travel agent: person that books your
holiday for you.
The graph above shows the last 60 years of tourist growth,
from just tens of millions in 1950 to 694 million in 2004. the
other massive trend is the continued dominance of Europe as a
destination, but also the massive growth in numbers to East Asia
and the Americas.
Tourism has grown massively as an industry over the
past century for a variety of reasons:
• Advances in travel technology - There are a wider range of ways to travel as a tourist and
these methods are widely available. You can be a tourist using a car, a boat and most
importantly an airplane. Motorways have linked places together, whilst Budget airlines such
as Easy jet and Ryan air have brought prices down and increased traffic volumes.
Holiday entitlement in many rich nations has increased over the past century. This means
that people can take more holidays during the year and swells the number of tourists.
People have more disposable income now - this is income that people have to send on
themselves. This is partly because of salary rises and partly because the price for essential
goods such as food and clothing has fallen. Many families now have 2 income earners rather
than one, they have fewer kids and often have a car. All of these factors increase the
likelihood of people becoming tourists.
The availability and type of holiday has increased - mass tourism and package holidays have
opened up markets to huge numbers of people. Extreme and ecological tourism are also
becoming popular, further swelling the choice.
The Media - Extensive coverage of holiday types has increased the demand to travel. Most
newspapers have a "holiday" section, whilst TV shows can show people the enormous choice on
offer - shows such as Ray Mears and 71 degrees north can promote extreme tourism for
example, whilst "Benidorm" promotes (???!) mass tourism. Gap years have also been pushed
by the media and are popular.
Expansion of choice
Social and economic factors
Better transport routes
make it faster to travel to
far away places.
People are wealthier
and have a greater
disposable income so
they can afford more
LO: To understand and explain in detail what
attracts tourists to some destinations.
What attracts tourists
to some destinations?
Great wall of china/
Alton towers- man
Describe the attractions of tourist environments. (4 marks- 8
Model answer: Many people go on holiday in different locations. For
example some people go to Antarctica to go skiing or snowboarding.
People go to the coast Greece to relax. Also people like to go to some of
the wonders of the world for example the Great Wall of China. Also
cities attract tourists because its a man made attraction and it has
interested the tourists.
Produce a compound line graph using the data
Fully label your graph
Describe the patterns on your graph
Explain those patterns
Exploration - a small number of tourists visit the area. The area is unspoilt and few tourist
Involvement - local people start to provide some facilities for tourists. There starts to become
a recognised tourist season.
Development - the host country starts to develop and advertise the area. The area becomes
recognised as a tourist destination.
Consolidation - the area continues to attract tourists. The growth in tourist numbers may not
be a fast as before. Some tensions develop between the host and the tourists.
Stagnation - the facilities for the tourists may decline as they become old and run down. The
numbers of tourists may decline too.
Rejuvenation - investment and modernisation may occur which leads to improvements and visitor
numbers may increase again.
Decline - if the resort is not rejuvenated (stage 6) then it will go into decline. People lose their
jobs related to tourism. The image of the area suffers.
The Butler model is a generalisation, and so not all resorts will follow this process.
The economic importance of tourism varies from place to place but can be
seen to make a significant contribution to many countries wealth. MEDCs
benefit massively from tourism in terms of total wealth generated, even if
the % of GDP that tourism generates is small. LEDCs are variable in their
involvement in tourism but most see tourism as an extremely important way
of getting money into their countries. Some LEDCs are reliant on tourism,
and it can create more than 50% of GDP, more than exporting primary
goods such as food stuffs or manufactured goods such as clothing. This
can be problematic, as war, terrorism, or natural disasters could put
people off visiting which would strip away a huge chunk of a countries
National parks in the UK
To understand what national parks are and
how important they are.
What is a national park?
• National parks have been created to protect Britain’s most
spectacular scenery by limiting the amount and type of
development that can take place. In addition, National Parks are
there to offer the British people access to the countryside for
• There are 15 National Parks in the British Isles and they came
into existence in 1951 following an act of Parliament (The 1949
National Parks and Access to the Countryside Act). The first
park created under this act was the Peak District National Park,
which is surrounded by large towns and cities such as Liverpool
Why are national parks so
• Primarily National Parks are created to conserve the biodiversity found in natural areas, and provide
habitats for permanent and migrating animals in the area. They are recognised nationally and internationally
as being the most effective method of improving the conservation and biodiversity values of reserves.
National Parks also protect cultural sites such as shell middens, scar trees and cave paintings from being
damaged by human activities, and involve indigenous peoples by including their lands in indigenous protected
areas (Figgis, Australia’s National Parks: Future Directions, 1999).
That is not to say that the general community cannot continue to use and enjoy National Parks in the same
way they enjoyed reserves. Many recreational activities are allowed in National Parks such as walking,
camping, boating and canoeing, fishing and swimming. It is this recreational aspect of National Parks that
make them particularly viable for tourism.
National Parks receive 'top billing' in many tourist guides as places to visit and as such boost the economy
of local areas. For example, the Grampians National Park contributed over $150 million to the regional
economy. The increased popularity of National Parks also allows for more employment opportunities.
It is not only the income generated by visitation that makes National Parks important to the economy but
also a variety of potential ecosystem services. Ecosystem services benefits include catchment protection,
water production, protection of soil stability, climatic controls, carbon sinks, genetic resources, pollination
of economic species, habitat for economically important species such as insectivorous birds and the
protection of hatcheries of commercial aquatic species (Beattie, Commercial Exploration of Biodiversity,
Overall, National Parks are an important and valuable resource for scientists, educators and the community
due to the variety of aesthetic, recreational and economic uses they offer.
What can you do in a national
• Jet skiing
• Rock climbing
• horse riding
• You need to create a leaflet to try and
attract more visitor to the lake district.
• You can create a news script on the new
national park that has just opened.
• (remember to add pictures, facts and websites)
Skills: proportional symbols
LO: During this lesson I will understand how to
calculate the radius of each of your
- I will be able to list the problems in the lake
• A visitor day is one visitor visiting a national park for
• Therefore if one person went on holiday to the lake
district for a week this would be 7 visitor days.
(1 x7 = 7)
Your task for today:
• During this lesson you will be creating a
map to display information using
different sized shapes. The area of
each shape will represent (be
proportional to) the number of visitor
days in each national park each year.
Alternative ways of presenting the same data:
Methods used to present
Proportional symbols map •The information is
presented on a base map
so you can see if there is a
•Some symbols can be very
large and cover parts of the
map making it more
difficult to understand.
Bar chart (graph)
Traffic problems: Honey pot sites:
Pressure on property: Environmental issues:
Over 89% of visitors come by car, often
just for one day. Many roads are narrow
and winding. Queues are a common problem
, especially towards the end of the day
when day trippers are heading home.
Congestion and parking are also a serious
The lake district has both
physical and cultural honey
pot sites. Beauty spots,
small shopping centres, and
historic houses attract
hundreds of visitors per
Almost 20% of property in the lake
district is either second hand or
holiday let accommodation
Water sports are not allowed on some
lakes, but Windermere, the largest lake,
has ferries and allows power boating ,
wind surfing and other faster and more
damaging activities. The main issue is the
wash from faster vehicles eroding the
shore, fuel spills are not common,
You will be given a role card about someone who is
experiencing problems in the lake district because
of the increasing amount of visitors or tourists.
You need to write a formal letter to the lake
district national park authority to explain the
problems they are experiencing (remember to
stay in character)
Hint: use the guidance on the back of the sheet.
Person A Person B
Erosion by boats
•Is tourism in the lake
district a good thing?
As the number of each national park increases it is clear that there
are different opinions about the effects of visitors (either posotive
Task: write one positive and one negative speech bubble:
is it good or bad?
Lo:To be able to evaluate the consequences
of mass tourism destinations
Definiton of mass tourism:
• Mass tourism refers to a large number
of visitors, often on package holidays
with accommodation and travel included.
You need to watch these two videos and
complete the questions on your sheet.
You need to read through this
diary entry and underline or
highlight the problems that Janis
Using the cards create a table the looks like this and fill it in :
Problems with mass tourism in Kenya-
•Hot air balloons cast shadows over the land which
scare the animals and therefore they don't mate.
•Safari busses go off track to get closes to the
animals for the tourists which can scare the animals.
•The reef on the coast- people are touching the coral
and anchors break the coral and the petrol will create
a area were the coral cant survive.
•Safari busses are kept to well defined tracks and are not allowed
to go within 25 meters of animals. This is patrolled by wardens. The
drivers are fined if caught breaking these rules.
•The reef has now become a protection area. This has been put into
place to prevent over fishing and damage to the coral base
•There are a number of licensed operators that can enter the park
for the purpose of educating tourists.
•Three quarters of wildlife in Kenya can be found outside of
national parks. A large amount of land outside of Kenya's park is
owned by the masi tribe. They pay the masai tribe for the use of
•Tourists are asked to go on boats that have paddles and to not
touch the reef has become a rule.
What are the down sides to these rules?