The Web of Things:            The Web as the Universal Platform for the Physical World…            Dominique Guinard, Ph.D...
Motivation   [flickr.com/photos/moragcasey]© Evrythng Limited | Dominique Guinard | GiTi 2012                             ...
A Fast Increasing Number of Smart Things…                                                     A very large ecosystem of sm...
Need for a common Internet of Things application architecture            Hypothesis: The Web (application archi. of the In...
Web of Things Application Architecture        [flickr.com/photos/docman]            Simplifying Application Development in...
Web of Things Application Architecture© Evrythng Limited | Dominique Guinard | GiTi 2012             evrythng.com
Device Accessibility Layer      • How do we make smart things accessible on the Web?      • Generic design process[Gui2010...
Resource Oriented Architecture      Resource                         Representation   Interface           Implementation  ...
More About REST?                                                     [Ric2007] Richardson, L., & Ruby, S.                 ...
30 Billion Devices, 5% are Networked!      Resource                         Representations   Interface   Implementation  ...
Findability Layer      • Once smart things are accessible on the Web, how do we        enable users to find the right serv...
Sharing Layer      • Once smart things are accessible and findable on the        Web, how do we share them?      • Social ...
Social Access Controller (SAC)        • Existing systems:                – Require dedicated access                  contr...
Social Access Controller (SAC)© Evrythng Limited | Dominique Guinard | GiTi 2012     evrythng.com
Sharing in Friends and Things                                                     http://vswot.inf.ethz.ch:8091           ...
Composition Layer: Physical Mashups      • Once smart things are accessible, findable, shareable        on the Web, how do...
Energie Visible: An Energy-Aware Mashup                                                     • Developers:                 ...
Adapting a Mashup Editor                                                                                   $.ajax({       ...
WoT Meets RFID: EPCIS REST-adapter                                                     http://.../epcis/rest/1.0/epc/     ...
Electronic Article Surveillance as a Physical Mashup                                                                      ...
Web of Things @ EVRYTHNG?                  Think of a Facebook for things − individual things with unique                 ...
Conclusions                                                                   [flickr.com/photos/brapke]            What d...
Learnings        • WoT Application          Architecture:                – The Web can be leveraged                  and a...
Thanks a lot for your attention                                                     • Dominique Guinard                   ...
© Evrythng Limited | Dominique Guinard | GiTi 2012   © Evrythng Limited | 2012   evrythng.com
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A Universal Application Platform for Sensors, RFID, NFC and Embedded Devices

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A Universal Application Platform for Sensors, RFID, NFC and Embedded Devices talk at GiTi in Switerland hosted by EPFL.

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  • Currentdevelopments in embeddedsystems in domainssuch as home appliances, sensor net, or simple everydayobjectbeingtaggedwith RFID:Show thatthey are gettingincreasinglysmarter and connectedwhichlead to a very large ecosystem of smart thingsLet us think of an electronic article surveillance system in a store thatwouldleveragethiseco-system: tag objectswith RFID trigger the RFID readerswith a proximitysensor trigger the security camera if somethingwasstolenbroadcast the information to the staff on their mobile phones
  • This leads to a problemresearched by many, showing:ToomuchprotocolsheterogeneityExpensive and time-consumingexpertknowledgeRequirements for application layer for the IoT
  • Four layers but: Not OSI:layers are flexible, eacheases a little more building applications: from Embedded Syst. Dev to End-UsersContribution: LayersBuilding blocks: each block is a Web APIApplications testingthese blocks
  • Resource Tree:functionality of the sun spot identified by resolvableURIsNot bound to one representation. We use HTML for browsability, JSON for mashups, HTTP has a content-negotiationmechanism for selecting the right representation.GET on temperature => retrieves the representation of the tempsensorPUT on LED => changes the state of the LED (on/off)
  • One of ourcore contributionsFor smart thingsthat do not speak Internet or Web protocolswe propose a lightweight software frameworkthatcanbedeployed on computers at the edge of the network (e.g., NAS, wifi routers, etc.):Device Drivers: encapsulate the proprietary or low-levelprotocolsCore Services: are used by drivers to maptheirfunctionality to a Web APIPluggable Services: services implementing cross-cuttingconcerns (seenextlayers)Maybeaddstuff about Web Sockets
  • Withthis layer wewant to achievetwothings:MakethingsfindableusingsearchenginesAllow the semi-automaticintegrationintomashuptoolsGuinard, D., Trifa, V., Mattern, F., & Wilde, E. (2011). From the Internet of Things to the Web of Things: Resource-oriented Architecture and Best Practices. In D. Uckelmann, M. Harrison, & F. Michahelles (Eds.), Architecting the Internet of Things (pp. 97-129). Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer Berlin Heidelberg. Retrieved from http://www.springerlink.com/content/p314x13322qnw276
  • SAC: Manages Access to Smart ThingsThrough Social NetworksAnd offers an API for clients or client applicationsRequirements (details):Security: prevent attackers from gaining accessEase of use: significantly influences adoption [Ion2010]Reflecting existing trust modelsInteroperable: Web protocols, prevent user lock-inIntegrated Advertisement
  • Smart things are securedbased on HTTP Basic AccessAuthentication or HTTP DigestAuthenticationAuthenticationthroughOauthUsing the social network API (OpenSocial if supported, otherwise social network proprietary API)
  • List of resources (i.e., services) thatcanbesharedisautomaticallygenerated by crawling (see sharing layer)
  • Manualmashupdev:Wetake a device on whichappscanbedeveloped by domainspecialists and, using the otherlayers, bringit to Web developers
  • ClickScript [Naef2009]: Language created to teach programming to children.Client-side Web technologies (JavaScript + CSS + HTML).Smart Things building-block within a few lines of JavaScript.Added push support (tPusher).
  • We use the RFID network in place (e.g. SAP AII)We bring this network to the Web (REST)Every tagged object in the world gets a URL!The big community of Web developers can develop Widgets for the RFID network.
  • Bringingdevelopment as close as possible to endusersWecreated a frameworkthatallows the creation of dedicatedmashup editorsi.e., Web toolthat let usersbuildmashupssimply by visuallycomposingwidgetsThanks to the otherlayerseachwidgetisreduced to an HTTP call and canevenbeautomaticallygenerated.This is the EAS mashup.
  • Web of Things architecture:Blueprints to bring IoT application development closer to non-specialists thanks to the Web:Performances are acceptable for sub-second use-casesUnveils integration possibilities (browser integration, social networks, Web scripting languages, mashups, etc.)Fosters open, participatory innovation to physicalmashupsEvaluated and prototyped in two domains:Wireless Sensor Networks & RFIDDeliverables: ~20 co-authored publications, 5 frameworks (3 open-source), 10 applications (1 open-source)
  • A Universal Application Platform for Sensors, RFID, NFC and Embedded Devices

    1. 1. The Web of Things: The Web as the Universal Platform for the Physical World… Dominique Guinard, Ph.D. ETH Zurich CTO & co-founder @ EVRYTHNG© Evrythng Limited | Dominique Guinard | GiTi 2012 evrythng.com
    2. 2. Motivation [flickr.com/photos/moragcasey]© Evrythng Limited | Dominique Guinard | GiTi 2012 evrythng.com
    3. 3. A Fast Increasing Number of Smart Things… A very large ecosystem of smart things, complex application development© Evrythng Limited | Dominique Guinard | GiTi 2012 evrythng.com
    4. 4. Need for a common Internet of Things application architecture Hypothesis: The Web (application archi. of the Internet) can be the application architecture of smart things as well. Research Question: «How can the Web be leveraged to ease the development of Internet of Things applications and bring it closer to non-specialists?» [Sch2008] Schmitt, P. Adoption und [Mot2011] Mottola, L., & Picco, G. P. Diffusion neuer Technologien am Programming wireless sensor networks: Beispiel der Radiofrequenz-Identifikation Fundamental concepts and state of the (RFID). PhD Thesis, ETH Zurich. art. ACM Comput. Surv.© Evrythng Limited | Dominique Guinard | GiTi 2012 evrythng.com
    5. 5. Web of Things Application Architecture [flickr.com/photos/docman] Simplifying Application Development in the Internet of Things© Evrythng Limited | Dominique Guinard | GiTi 2012 evrythng.com
    6. 6. Web of Things Application Architecture© Evrythng Limited | Dominique Guinard | GiTi 2012 evrythng.com
    7. 7. Device Accessibility Layer • How do we make smart things accessible on the Web? • Generic design process[Gui2010] for smart things as Web resources: – REST[Fie2000] and Resource Oriented Architectures[Ric2007] [Fie2000] Fielding, R. (2000). [Ric2007] Richardson, L., & Ruby, S. [Gui2010] Guinard, D., Trifa, V., Wilde, E. Architectural styles and the design of RESTful web services, O’Reilly Media. A Resource Oriented Architecture for the network-based software architectures. Web of Things. IoT 2010 PhD Thesis© Evrythng Limited | Dominique Guinard | GiTi 2012 evrythng.com
    8. 8. Resource Oriented Architecture Resource Representation Interface Implementation Design Design Design Strategy http://<DOMAIN>:<PORT>/genericNodes /node1/sensors /temperature GET, DELETE GET GET, PUT http://<DOMAIN>:<PORT>/genericNodes© Evrythng Limited | Dominique Guinard | GiTi 2012 evrythng.com
    9. 9. More About REST? [Ric2007] Richardson, L., & Ruby, S. RESTful web services, O’Reilly Media.© Evrythng Limited | Dominique Guinard | GiTi 2012 evrythng.com
    10. 10. 30 Billion Devices, 5% are Networked! Resource Representations Interface Implementation Design Design Design Strategy© Evrythng Limited | Dominique Guinard | GiTi 2012 evrythng.com
    11. 11. Findability Layer • Once smart things are accessible on the Web, how do we enable users to find the right service for their application? • Enabling Smart Things to be indexed by search engines (lightweight metadata)[Gui2011] • Local lookup and discovery infrastructure [Gui2010a,May2011] [Gui2011] Guinard, D., Trifa, V., Mattern, [Gui2010a] Guinard, D., et al. (2010). [May2011] Mayer, S., Guinard, D. An F., & Wilde, E. From the Internet of Interacting with the SOA-Based Internet Extensible Discovery Service for Smart Things to the Web of Things. Architecting of Things: Discovery, Query, Selection, Things. WoT2011 the Internet of Things (pp. 97-129) and On-Demand Provisioning of Web Services. IEEE Transactions on Services Computing© Evrythng Limited | Dominique Guinard | GiTi 2012 evrythng.com
    12. 12. Sharing Layer • Once smart things are accessible and findable on the Web, how do we share them? • Social Web of Things [Gui2010b] [Gui2010b] Guinard, D., Fischer, M., & Trifa, V. Sharing using social networks in a composable web of things. WoT 2010© Evrythng Limited | Dominique Guinard | GiTi 2012 evrythng.com
    13. 13. Social Access Controller (SAC) • Existing systems: – Require dedicated access control lists (e.g., HTTP Digest or Basic Authentication) • Leverage social graphs of social networks: – Are walled-gardens [Ber2009] – Allow sharing data, not services • Social Access Controller as proxy between clients and smart things [Ber2009] Tim Berners-Lee. Twenty years: Looking forward, looking back. WWW 2009© Evrythng Limited | Dominique Guinard | GiTi 2012 evrythng.com
    14. 14. Social Access Controller (SAC)© Evrythng Limited | Dominique Guinard | GiTi 2012 evrythng.com
    15. 15. Sharing in Friends and Things http://vswot.inf.ethz.ch:8091 /gateways/vswot.inf.ethz.ch:8081 /resources/sunspots/spot1/sensors/temperature© Evrythng Limited | Dominique Guinard | GiTi 2012 evrythng.com
    16. 16. Composition Layer: Physical Mashups • Once smart things are accessible, findable, shareable on the Web, how do we enable their easy composition by non-specialists, into new applications? • Physical Mashups [Gui2010, Gui2010c] [Gui2010] Guinard, D., Trifa, V., Wilde, E. [Guinard2010c] Guinard, D. Mashing up A Resource Oriented Architecture for the your web-enabled home. ICWE 2010 Web of Things. IoT 2010© Evrythng Limited | Dominique Guinard | GiTi 2012 evrythng.com
    17. 17. Energie Visible: An Energy-Aware Mashup • Developers: – Smart Meters as a RESTful Web API: – Mashup with any language supporting HTTP • Users: – Used by several families around the world (Energie Visible)© Evrythng Limited | Dominique Guinard | GiTi 2012 evrythng.com
    18. 18. Adapting a Mashup Editor $.ajax({ url: "http://" + ip + "/sunspots/" + name + "/sensors/temperature", type: "GET", dataType: "json", success: function(result){ var temperature = result.value state.outputs.item(0).setValue(temp) component.finishAsync(); } […]}); [http://www.clickscript.ch] [Naef2009] Naef, L. ClickScript a visual programming language in the browser. Master Thesis, ETH Zurich© Evrythng Limited | Dominique Guinard | GiTi 2012 evrythng.com
    19. 19. WoT Meets RFID: EPCIS REST-adapter http://.../epcis/rest/1.0/epc/ urn:epc:id:sgtin:61800.820712.2001© Evrythng Limited | Dominique Guinard | GiTi 2012 evrythng.com
    20. 20. Electronic Article Surveillance as a Physical Mashup [Gui2010d] Guinard, D., Floerkemeier, C., & Sarma, S. Cloud Computing, REST and Mashups to Simplify RFID Applications, WoT 2011 [Naef2009] Naef, L. ClickScript a visual programming language in the browser. Master Thesis, ETH Zurich© Evrythng Limited | Dominique Guinard | GiTi 2012 evrythng.com
    21. 21. Web of Things @ EVRYTHNG? Think of a Facebook for things − individual things with unique digital profiles, like we have, to update, share and add to… EVRYTHNG wants to organize the world’s objects with an active digital identity on the Web for every thing. We help companies going “Web of Things-enabling” their products.© Evrythng Limited | Dominique Guinard | GiTi 2012 evrythng.com
    22. 22. Conclusions [flickr.com/photos/brapke] What did we contribute? What are the current limitations?© Evrythng Limited | Dominique Guinard | GiTi 2012 evrythng.com
    23. 23. Learnings • WoT Application Architecture: – The Web can be leveraged and adapted as a smart thing application architecture – Eases the development & brings it closer to non- specialists – Unveils integration possibilities: • Browser, search engines, social networks, Web languages, mashups, etc.© Evrythng Limited | Dominique Guinard | GiTi 2012 evrythng.com
    24. 24. Thanks a lot for your attention • Dominique Guinard – Contact details: guinard.org – Research Blog: webofthings.org – Company: evrythng.com© Evrythng Limited | Dominique Guinard | GiTi 2012 evrythng.com
    25. 25. © Evrythng Limited | Dominique Guinard | GiTi 2012 © Evrythng Limited | 2012 evrythng.com
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