Joy of Fitness • Describe the five health-related components of physical fitness and their potential health benefits. • Relate fitness to all the dimensions of health. • Explain how regular physical activity can improve health. • Illustrate how the implementation of the Physical Activity Guidelines for Americans could combat the U.S. inactivity epidemic. • Discuss the importance of the principles of exercise in any physical activity plan. • List the potential health risks of performance-enhancing drugs and supplements. • Identify methods of determining body composition. • List three specific behavior changes that they could incorporate into daily life to achieve or maintain a healthy physical fitness level. Chapter Learning Objectives
What Is Physical Fitness? Definition The ability to respond to routine physical demands, with enough reserve energy to cope with a sudden challenge.
Health-related Components Of Fitness
Health Benefits Of Physical Fitness Cardio-respiratory Effective pumping of blood through body Muscular strength and endurance Prevent back and leg aches, improved posture, enhanced athletic performance Flexibility Maintains range of motion Body Composition Decreased body fat
Athletic or Performance-Related Fitness• The following are not required to be healthy or fit, but will be needed if you desire to play a sport. • Agility • Balance or equilibrium • Coordination • Power • Reaction time • Speed or velocity• They are also added to make your training more fun!
Fitness And The Dimensions Of Health
Physiological DifferencesBetween Men and Women
The Inactivity Epidemic In America 2 in 4 Americans Only 1 in 41 in 4 Americans exercise, Americans reports no but not at meets the levels ofphysical activity recommended physical activity levels recommendedRead Making Change Happen (pg 270) to get yourself moving
Working Out on Campus 15% to 30% of college students meet recommended amount of physical activity for health benefits. As students progress from their 1st to 4th year, they exercise less. With the availability of activities on campus, what keeps students from being active? Refute poor excuses (Read Health in Action on page 237)
Why Exercise? Healthier Heart and Lungs Protection Against Cancer Less Risk of Disease Brighter Mood and Less StressBetter Mental Health and Functioning Better Bones Lower Weight SexualityA More Active and Fulfilling Old Age Longer Life
Physical Activity Guidelines for Americans Department of Health and Human Services: 2008 Guidelines Adults: At least 150 minutes/week of moderate-intensity. 75 minutes/week of vigorous-intensity aerobic physical activity. OR equivalent combination of moderate- and vigorous-intensity aerobic activity. For additional and more extensive health benefits Increase level of moderate intensity aerobic physical activity. 300 minutes/week OR increase level of vigorous intensity aerobic physical activity. 150 minutes/week Adults should also do muscle-strengthening activities that are moderate or high intensity and involve all major muscle groups on two or more days a week.
Physical Activity Guidelines for Americans American College of Sports Medicine (ACSM) and the American Heart Association (AHA) Moderately intense cardiorespiratory exercise 30 minutes a day, 5 days a week. OR Vigorously intense cardiorespiratory exercise 20 minutes a day, 3 days a week. AND 8 to 10 strength-training exercises, with 8 to 12 repetitions of each exercise, twice a week.
Four Dimensions of Progressive Overload Aerobic activity most days F Frequency Strength training 2-3 days per week Need to reach a level above I Intensity ‘normal’ in all types of exercise T Time 30 minutes daily at minimum T Type Vary type of exercise
The Overload Principle The Overload Principle By increasing frequency, intensity, or duration, you will improve your level of fitness. Once your body adapts to (becomes comfortable with) the demands, you can again apply the overload principle to achieve a higher level of fitness.
Aerobic Activities vs Anaerobic Activities Aerobic Exercise Anaerobic Exercise Physical activity in which sufficient or Physical activity in which the body excess oxygen is continually supplied develops an oxygen deficit. Burns to the body. Burns primarily lipids as carbohydrates only to supply the an energy source required energy. Examples Examples Brisk walking, jogging, swimming, Sprinting, weight lifting cycling, water aerobics, and rope skipping. High intensity activities of short Improves cardiorespiratory duration, usually lasting only about endurance. 10 seconds to 2 minutes.
Use It Or Lose It If you stop exercising, you can lose as If you stop exercising, you can lose as much as 50% of your fitness much as 50% of your fitness improvements within 2 months improvements within 2 months If you are too busy to maintain your routine, keep intensity of work-outs constant and decrease the time
Monitor Exercise Intensity With Heart Rate 1. Use middle finger and forefinger 2. Feel pulse in your neck How 3. Count for ten seconds and multiply by six or count for 30 seconds and multiply by 2 Practice while sitting or lying down
Monitor Exercise Intensity With Heart Rate 1. While resting When 2. During exercise 3. Three minutes after heavy exercise Your heart rate should return to resting level quickly after exercise Interpret Maximum HR = 220 — age HR Exercise in your target range: 55-65% of your maximum HR
Monitor Intensity With Exertion Scale
Monitor Intensity With ‘Talk Test’ Try to talk during exercise • If you can’t speak, you’re beyond your aerobic zone Try to sing during exercise • If you can sing ‘Row Row Row Your Boat’, but have to take breath every other word, you are within aerobic zone
Creating An Aerobic Workout Plan Incorporate Three Stages Warm-up, stretching and 1 Warm-up balance exercises 2 Aerobic Activity 30- 60 minutes 3 Cool Down 5-10 minutes Aerobic activities: • Walk or run • Cycle • Aerobic dance • Step training • Swim or Row • Kick-boxing
Minutes of Activity Required to Burn 150 kcalories Do you know how long it would take to consume 150 kcalories?
Building Muscular Fitness Best way to reduce body fat: Add muscle-strengthening exercise to workouts Muscles develop when they are overloaded, so be sure to work your muscles to fatigue
Building Muscular Fitness Muscular Fitness Muscular Strength Muscular EnduranceThe maximal force that a muscle The capacity to sustain repeatedor group of muscles can generate muscle actions. for one movement.
Test Your Knowledge - Myth or Fact? • No pain, no gain • Women who work with weights become bulky • You need a gym membership to keep fit • All you need is aerobics • Crunches/Sit-ups can flatten your abs • Once you start working out, you can eat as much as you want
Test Your Knowledge - Myth or Fact? All are Myths!
Benefits of StrengthTraining the Body
Creating A Muscular Fitness Plan Components Repetitions Single performance of exercise Sets Number of reps of the same exercise Recovery 48 to 96 hours between sessions Resistance To Enhance Muscle Size: 8-20 repetitions to near fatigue For Maximum Strength: 5 repetitions to fatigue For Health and Fitness: 10 repetitions to fatigue
Creating A Muscular Fitness Plan Components Resistance and frequency are more Duration important for muscle training than how long (duration) a workout lasts Progressive Overloading Gradually increasing physical challenges once the body adapts to the stress placed upon it to produce maximum benefits.
Muscles At Work: Isometric ContractionDefinition Muscles increase their tension without shortening in length.Example Pushing against an immovable object, like a wall, or tightening an abdominal muscle while sitting.
Muscles At Work: Isotonic ContractionDefinition Having the same tension or tone; exercise requiring the repetition of an action that creates tension, such as weight lifting or calisthenics.Example Weight lifting or calisthenics
Muscles at Work: Isokinetic Contraction Definition Having the same force; exercise with specialized equipment that provides resistance equal to the force applied by the user throughout the entire range of motion. Example Use of special machines that provide resistance to overload muscles throughout the entire range of motion.
Core Strength Conditioning Core Strength: • The ability of the muscles to support your spine and keep your body stable and balanced. Benefits: • Improvements in posture, breathing, appearance, and performance in sports, while reducing your risk of muscle strain. Major Muscles of the Core: • Transverse abdominus; external and internal obliques; rectus abdominus.
Primary Muscle Groups
Primary Muscle Groups
Muscle Dysmorphia Primarily affects male body builders Rigid maintenance of workout and diet regimen Avoiding situations that involve bodily exposure Features Preoccupation with body that interferes with daily life Continued use of diet and substances despite potential for harm
Warnings About Performance-Enhancers • Controlled Substance – Illegal • Doesn’t build muscle or increase testosterone May cause dehydration, heat-related illness, electrolyte imbalances, reduced blood volume • Unapproved drug • Associated with death, becoming comatose and unconscious
Warnings About Performance-Enhancers • Caffeine—may cause jitteriness • Baking Soda—explosive diarrhea, abdominal cramps, bloating, nausea • Glycerol—hyperhydration Increases lean body mass, but does not affect aerobic endurance or exercise capacity
Flexibility Training The characteristic of body tissues that determines the range of Define motion achievable without injury at a joint or group of joints. Static Types Dynamic
Flexibility Training The ability to assume and maintain an extended position at one end Static point in a joint’s range of motion •Usually held for 10 – 30 sec Gravity, partner or weight acts as Passive resistance through stretch •Greater risk for injury than static The ability to move a joint quickly Dynamic and fluidly through its entire range of motion with little resistance
Flexibility Training • Prevention of injury • Relief of muscle strain Benefits • Relaxation • Relief of exercise soreness • Improved posture Risky Active Types Ballistic
Flexibility Training Stretching by contracting the Active opposing muscle Rapid bouncing movements Ballistic Danger in stretching too far, tearing ligaments and tendons Dynamic stretching is beneficial for stop-and-go activities Warm-up Complete aerobic activity to benefit static stretching
Mind-Body Approaches To FitnessHelps reduce stress, enhance health and wellnessand improve physical fitness, including balance T’ai Chi Improve flexibility Gently work muscles Improve ‘qi’ flow Concentration Improve mental health
Methods For Determining Body Composition Overweight = 25 or higher Body-Mass Index Obese = 30 or higher Central obesity = Waist Woman: waist 35+ inches Circumference Man: waist 40+ inches
How to Protect Your Back When Standing: • Shift your weight from one foot to the other or place your foot 4 to 6 inches off the ground. • Hold in your stomach. • Tilt your pelvis toward your back. • Tuck in your buttocks. When Sitting: • Sit in a straight chair with a firm back. • Avoid slouching. When Driving: • Keep your seat so your knees are raised to hip level. • Do not fully extend your right leg. • A small pillow or towel can help support your lower back.
How to Protect Your Back When Sleeping: • Sleep on a flat, firm mattress. • Sleep on your side with both knees bent at right angles to your torso. • Keep your head on your pillow in such a manner that it is in line with your body. When Lifting: • Bend at the knees, not from the waist. • Get close to the load. • Tighten your stomach muscles and don’t hold your breath. • Let your leg muscles do the work. Don’t Smoke!
Body Composition Body Mass Index (BMI) • A mathematical formula that correlates with body fat; the ratio of weight to height squared. • Healthy: 18.5 to 24.9 • Overweight: BMI > 25.0-29.9 • Associated with an increased risk of diseases such as Hypertension, cardiovascular disease, adult- onset diabetes (type 2), and sleep. • Obesity: BMI >30.0-39.9 • Associated with an increased risk of death. • Morbid Obesity: >40.0
Methods For Determining Body Composition Waist circumference = WHR Hip circumference Waist-to-Hip Ratio Woman 0.80+ = at risk Man 0.90+ = at risk Body-fat Ideal Range Measurements Woman: 16 to 35 percent Man: 7 to 25 percent
Pear-Shaped versus Apple-Shaped Bodies
Measuring Body Fat Skinfold Measurements Use of calipers to measure folds of subcutaneous tissue at specific sites on the body Relatively simple, low cost and fairly accurate Home Body Fat Analyzers Hand held or stand on devices that use low level current (BIA) to measure body fat Some are pricey and not very accurate. Hydrostatic (Underwater) Weighing Measures the body’s weight under water and compares it to dry land weight One of the most accurate methods when conducted properly Dual-Energy X-Ray Absorptiometry (DXA) Use of x-rays to measure different densities of the body. Expensive, but very accurate The Bod Pod Uses pressures changes in a small chamber to measure air displacement and therefore body density Also expensive and doesn’t work for all population groups
Evaluating Fitness Products and Programs Exercise Equipment Beware of any promise that sounds too good to be true! Athletic Shoes (see next slide) Low-Cost Fitness Aids (Read Health on a Budget pg 263) Fitness Centers Look for community resources first (track, fitness path, school gym)
How to Buy Athletic Shoes
Did You Know? Athletes generally do not need more protein Most active people need the same basic nutrients as everyone else
Guidelines For Nutrition And Exercise • Complex carbohydrates are important Diet • Fat is needed to replenish intramuscular fat stores • Drink water before, during and after exercise Fluids • Drink fluid with carbohydrates and electrolytes for exercise lasting 1 hour or more
Dietary Aids for Exercise • Sports Drinks • Not needed unless for ultra endurance activity • Fat free milk has been shown to be a better recovery drink than other “sugary” drinks • Many sports drinks are counterproductive if the goal is to lose weight. • Dietary Supplements • Up for much debate, bottom line is you can get all required vitamins and minerals from a well balanced diet. • Energy Bars • Better than not eating before a workout, but beware of the high sugar in many of them
Temperature Effects During Exercise Heat Due to loss of electrolytes during Cramps sweating Heavy sweating Dizziness Paleness Nausea Heat Muscle cramps Vomiting Exhaustion Tiredness Fast, shallow Weakness breathing
Temperature Effects During Exercise Heat Medical Emergency Body temperature rises to 106° F in 10-15 minutes Symptoms Heat Stroke • Red, hot, dry skin • Rapid, strong pulse • Throbbing headache • Dizziness, nausea • Confusion or unconsciousness
Temperature Effects During Exercise Cold Seek medical treatment Frostbite Keep area warm and dry – tissues are frozen Medical emergency - Temperature below 95° F Hypothermia Keep person warm and dry, administer warm liquids if conscious
Avoiding Exercise Injury Get proper instruction. Make sure you have good equipment. Always warm up before and cool down. Stay active throughout the week. Use reasonable protective measures. For some sports, recruit a buddy. Take each outing seriously. Never combine alcohol or drugs with any sport.
Learn It, Live It - Shaping Up • Evaluate your readiness for change. • Consider your fitness goals. • Think through your personal preferences. • Schedule exercise into your daily routine. • Assemble your gear. • Start slowly. • Progress gradually. • Take stock.