Personal Nutrition• Identify macronutrients and micronutrients as well as their sources, chief functions, and signs of deficiency and excess.• Describe the key themes of the USDA MyPlate Food Guidance System.• Name the digestive organs and describe their role in the process of digestion.• Illustrate how consumers can use the nutritional information provided on food labels to make healthy food purchases.• Describe steps that can be taken to reduce foodborne illness.• List three specific dietary changes that they could incorporate into daily life to achieve or maintain a healthy nutritional status. Chapter Learning
In This Chapter, Learn About Nutrition Types of nutrients Understand USDA MyPlate System Anatomy of digestion Protect from food-borne illness Learn Make dietary changes How To Decipher food labels
Some Nutrients Are Essential In Our Diet Carbohydrates Proteins •Simple sugars • Made of amino acids •Starches • 9 amino acids req’d •Dietary fiber Six Categories Fats Minerals • Saturated 15 req’d in diet of Essential • Unsaturated • Fatty Acids Nutrients • Cholesterol Water 11-15 cups/day Vitamins
Two Categories Of Essential Nutrients Carbohydrates Macronutrients Proteins Fats Vitamins Micronutrients Minerals
Digestive Organs And Their Function
Macronutrients Provide Energy Energy Percentage of Macronutrient (cal/gram) caloric intake Carbohydrates 4 45-65% Fat 9 20-35% Protein 4 10-35% To eat well without overeating, choose foods that are “nutrient-dense,” meaning foods that provide the most nutritional value.
How Many Calories Do you Need? Your need depends on gender, age, body-frame, weight, percentage body fat, basal metabolic rate and activity level.
Water Is An Essential Nutrient • Carries nutrients • Maintains temperature Functions • Lubricates joints • Aids digestion • Removes waste You use at least eight to ten Daily Needs 8 ounce glasses of water each day…so replace it!
Proteins Are The Body’s Framework • Growth and repair of cells Functions • Basic framework of muscle, bone, blood, hair and fingernails Combinations of up to 20 amino Composition acids Daily Needs 50 – 65 grams per day
Proteins Are The Body’s Framework Types •Complete proteins • Provide all nine essential AAs • Mostly animal proteins •Incomplete proteins • Grains, dry beans, and nuts may have relatively low levels of 1 or 2 essential amino acids but high levels of others • Combining incomplete proteins to ingest all essential AAs is called “complementary proteins”
Carbohydrates Provide Glucose For Energy Provide glucose to brain and Functions body Simple: Sugar Types Complex: Starch and fiber 130 grams per day at minimum Daily Needs 25-38 grams of fiber
Simple Carbohydrates Natural sugars, such as the lactose in milk and the fructose in fruit Sugars Added sugars that are found in candy, soft drinks, fruit drinks, pastries Glycemic ranking of carbohydrates, gram for gram, based on their immediate effect on blood Index glucose (sugar) levels Glycemic measure of how much a typical serving size of a particular food raises blood Load glucose
Complex Carbohydrates Refined grains are stripped of fiber Starches and nutrients Whole grains are best Slows digestion, aids in weight control Lower risk of heart disease Fiber Helps prevent constipation and diabetes Total fiber = Dietary fiber + Functional fiber
Fats • Carry fat-soluble vitamins • Protect organs from injury Functions • Regulate body temperature • Aid growth and development • Provide 9 calories per gram No more than 20-35% of daily Daily Need calories
Fats Saturated: •Solid at room temperature. •Can increase the risk of heart disease •Should be avoided Types Unsaturated: •Include in diet •Liquid at room temperature Trans Fats •Raises cholesterol level •No safe intake level
Butter or Margarine?
Vitamins • Regulate growth • Maintain tissue Functions • Release energy from foods • Manufacture of blood cells and hormones Fat-soluble: Vitamins A, D, E and K Types Water-soluble: Vitamins B and C Water-soluble vitamins B and C Daily Needs Vitamin D: 600 IU Review Table 6.4 for summary information about the major Vitamins
Minerals (Table 6-5) • Build bones and teeth Functions • Aid in muscle function • Help send nervous system messages 100 milligrams of: Sodium, Potassium, Chloride, Calcium, Phosphorus, Magnesium Daily and Sulfur Needs 10 milligrams of: Iron, Zinc, Selenium, Molybdenum, Iodine, Copper, Manganese, Fluoride, Chromium
AntioxidantsCharacteristics • Substances that prevent the harmful effects caused by oxidation within the body • Vitamins C, E, and beta-carotene (a form of vitamin A). • Phytochemicals such as carotenoids and flavonoids.Dietary Recommendations • Consume a diet high in antioxidant-rich fruits and vegetables every day.
Calorie Balance You must expend as many calories as you put in to maintain the balance and your weight Calories In Calories Out Calorie Balance
Decrease Amounts Of These Foods Sodium Fats • Trans Fatty Acids • Cholesterol • Saturated Fats Alcohol Refined Grains Added Sugar
Eat More Of These Foods Vegetables and Fruits (5-13 serv/day) Whole Grains (3 oz./day) Milk and Milk Products (3 cups/day) Protein Foods Oils Nutrients of concern • Potassium •Vitamin D, B12 • Fiber • Calcium • Iron • Folate
Themes Of USDA MyPlate Balance • Enjoy your food, but eat less Calories • Avoid oversized portions • Make half of plate fruits and Foods to vegetables Increase • Make half of grains whole grains • Switch to fat-free or low-fat milk •Compare sodium in different foods Foods to and have those with lower numbers Reduce •Drink water instead of sugary drinks
Complementary Proteins For Vegetarian Meals Vegetarian diets have health benefits Consume foods with complementary proteins Sufficient • Beans and rice Protein • Sesame seeds and chickpeas • Soy and rice Iron Other Vitamin B Nutrients Sources: egg, nuts or legumes
Diets from Other Cultures• Mediterraneans have lower rates of diet-linked diseases and a longer life expectancy• Diet features olive oil, whole grains, fruits, vegetables, legumes, fish, red wine, nuts and dairy products in moderation• Although a semi- vegetarian diet, up to 40% of the daily caloric intake comes from fat: mostly monounsaturated fat from olive oil
Vegetarianism• Vegetarian diets can meet the Dietary Guidelines for Americans and the DRIs for nutrients if proper selections are made • Vegans eat no animal products at all. • Ovovegetarians allow eggs in the diet. • Lactovegetarians allow foods from the milk group. • Ovolactovegetarians include egg and milk products in the diet. • Semivegetarians do not eat red meat, but do include fish and poultry in addition to milk products and eggs in the diet
The Way We Eat Gender-Based Dietary Recommendations Women Men Increase iron Less meat Eat more calcium Less fat Take folic acid Take folic acid
Calories from sweetenedbeverages account for halfof the rise in caloric intake by Americans since 1970
You Are What You Drink Water Medical experts’ choice 2/3 of adults consume 300 cal/day in soft drinks Soft Can add 5 pounds a year Drinks Associated with kidney disease, heart disease and metabolic syndrome Energy Dangerous with alcohol Drinks Added ingredients may affect heart
According to nutritionists, “marketplace portions”—the actual amounts served to customers—are two to eighttimes larger than the standard serving sizes defined by the USDA
Read the Consumer Alert on page 178 and Review the Fast-Food NutritionSurvival Guide on page 179
Nutritional Labels • Total calories per serving Calories • Calories from fat per serving • Must calculate percentage Serving • Amount of that food the label Size describes • Total amount of the average adult’s diet Daily Value • Based on 2000 calories per day • Must be adjusted for your diet
Nutritional Labels • Monitor to keep fat calories 20-35% Total Fat of total calories • Made by the body Cholesterol • Not required in our diet Sugars • Have no recommended daily value • Look for foods with at least 2.5 Fiber grams per serving
Nutritional Labels • High = 200 mg or more • Good = 100 mg or more Calcium • ‘More’ means at least 100 mg more than the food would normally have • Easily get what we need Sodium • Avoid excess sodium • Good = 10% of Daily Value Vitamins • High = 20% of Daily Value
Don’t Be Mislead, Read Labels Carefully
Making Healthy Choices - Portions Customers are often served portions two to eight times larger than the serving size for that food. Monitor your portions!
Steps To Reduce Food-Borne Illness 1. Wash hands before handling food Wash fruits and vegetables—discard 2. outer leaves, wash under running water, scrub if possible Do not allow liquids to touch or drip 3. onto other items 4. Clean out refrigerator regularly Sterilize wet kitchen sponges by 5. microwaving for 1-2 minutes