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  1. 1. Personal Stress Management• Distinguish between the five categories of stress.• Compare and contrast the biological and non-biological theories of stress.• Define stress and stressors, and describe how the body responds to stress according to the general adaptation syndrome theory.• Discuss how stress can affect the cardiovascular, immune, endocrine, neurological, reproductive, and digestive systems.• Identify stressors that are commonly reported by college students.• Evaluate the stress management techniques discussed in the text to determine which ones would work best for them.• Explain how stressful events can affect psychological health and describe factors contributing to post-traumatic stress disorder. Chapter Learning
  2. 2. Stress And Stressors Nonspecific response of the Stress body to any demand Positive or negative things Stressors that upset or excite you
  3. 3. Five Categories Of Stress 1. Acute, time-limited 2. Brief naturalistic 3. Sequence of stressful events 4. Chronic stressors 5. Past (Distant) stressors
  4. 4. Not all Stressors are Negative Some can be positive but still cause stress, such as births, reunions, and weddings. • Eustress: positive stress in our lives. • Distress: negative effects of stress that can deplete or destroy life energy.• How many stressors can you think of that most college students face?
  5. 5. Theories To Explain Stress Responses Theory Type Example Theories Biological General Adaptation Syndrome Cognitive-Transactional Model Non-Biological Life-Events Model Psychological Diathesis Stress Model
  6. 6. General Adaptation Syndrome
  7. 7. Cognitive Transactional Model Powerful relationship between Summary stress and health exists Stress is an individual response Stress is the relationship between Details demands and ability to deal with demands without unreasonable or destructive costs
  8. 8. Life Events Model Individual level of stress based on Summary life-change units • Scores give ‘potential stress’ of each event Details • Over 300 units/year increases risk of serious health problems
  9. 9. Diathesis Stress Model Stressors have different effects Summary based on individual’s predisposition to psychological problems Stressors that exceed a person’s Details threshold trigger psychological symptoms
  10. 10. Stress Causes Dramatic Health Effects Causes molecular changes in chromosomes Overview Increases susceptibility to illness Slows digestive system Alters endocrine system
  11. 11. Effects Of Stress On The Body
  12. 12. Chronic Exposure To Cortisol Is Dangerous Effects Of Cortisol • Slows time to remove triglycerides from blood stream • Creates excessive central obesity • Increases risk of diabetes and heart disease Risk of heart disease is higher for those who experience anger, anxiety and depression These emotions also cause release of cortisol
  13. 13. Stress Effects On The Heart Significant inherited risk factor for heart disease is family transmission of stress Stress pushes people toward bad habits that cause heart disease: • Overeating, smoking etc. Increased blood pressure from chronic stress
  14. 14. Stress Effects On The Immune System Immune system adaptation to stress becomes harmful as stress becomes chronic Traumatic stress can impair immunity for one year Acute stress decreases number of immune cells Women are at higher risk for autoimmune and allergic disorders
  15. 15. Stress Effects On Digestion Stress changes how the body digests and metabolizes food Avoid weight gain Ways to Eat meals regularly minimize stress effects Eat sugar in small amounts Avoid caffeine
  16. 16. Common College Stressors Half of college students report high levels of stress each semester • Financial problems • Test pressure • Problems in friendships and relationships • Frustration • Daily hassles
  17. 17. Common College Stressors Nine in 10 students rate the overall stress they experienced in the previous 12 months as “average,” “more than average,” and “tremendous.” • Underclassmen most vulnerable to negative life events. • Freshmen had highest levels of depression. • Sophomores had most anger and hostility. • Seniors may handle life’s changes better because they have developed better coping mechanisms.
  18. 18. Stress Occurs Throughout Life Other Stressors • Job stress • Illness or disability • Societal stress • Economic trouble
  19. 19. Take Action To Manage Stress Stress has better outcomes when it is approached from a problem-focused perspective: • Plan strategies to deal with stress • Take action when presented with stress Emotion-focused responses are connected to poorer health and more negative feelings
  20. 20. Stress Effects Vary Between Genders Men and women react to and cope with stress in different ways Women MenStress Higher stress level Less stress felt ‘Tend and befriend’ Fight or flightCoping Emotional response Aggression Impulsive action
  21. 21. Stress In Minority Students Racism and acculturation may create stress for minority students Change in an ethnic minority due to Acculturation contact with an ethnic majority Racism Discrimination based on race Increased sensitivity to social climate, experiences of actual or perceived Effects of racism stress Symptoms of depression and suicidal thoughts
  22. 22. Take Action To Manage Stress Stress has better outcomes when it is approached from a problem-focused perspective: • Plan strategies to deal with stress • Take action when presented with stress Emotion-focused responses are connected to poorer health and more negative feelings
  23. 23. Five Specific Ways To Manage Stress 1. Journaling 2. Exercise Relaxation • Progressive relaxation 3. • Visualization • Biofeedback 4. Meditation and Mindfulness 5. Yoga
  24. 24. Time Management Can Also Reduce Stress Everyone can learn time management! Use calendar to plan ahead Allow extra time for the unexpected Identify time robbers Break down big tasks Make study time efficient Keep study area organized
  25. 25. Strategies To Combat Test Stress Plan ahead Be positive Take regular breaks Practice Talk to other students Be satisfied with doing your best
  26. 26. Posttraumatic Stress Disorder Any event that causes trauma: Causes • Captivity • Rape • Accidents • Assault • Child Abuse • Disaster Memory problems Health Effects Increased risk of heart disease and metabolic syndrome Different for every person Treatment Therapy and medication