Tobacco• Identify factors that are associated with the initiation and continuation of smoking tobacco.• Illustrate racial and gender differences related to smoking tobacco.• Discuss the health effects of tobacco use.• Compare and contrast the usage and risks for cigarettes and other forms of tobacco.• Describe methods for quitting smoking tobacco.• Discuss the health effects of environmental tobacco smoke.• Evaluate their personal exposure to tobacco products (personal use or exposure to environmental tobacco smoke) and identify strategies to decrease risk. Chapter Learning Objectives
According to the Centers for DiseaseControl and Prevention (CDC), some 43 million men and women smoke.
Factors Associated With Starting To Smoke • Limited education. • Underestimation of risk. • Adolescent experimentation and rebellion. • Stress. • Parental role models. • Addiction. • Mental disorders. • Genetics. • Weight control. • Aggressive marketing. • Media messages. • Deceptive labels.
Factors Associated With Continued Smoking Pleasure Mental disorders Dependence (may affect 90% of smokers) Fear of weight gain
Tobacco Use on Campus • One in every four to five students currently smoke. • Social Smoking • “Social smokers” average less than one cigarette a day and smoke mainly in the company of others. • College Tobacco-Control Policies • Many have tobacco free campuses and more have tobacco free residence halls
Gender Differences In Nicotine Effects Women Men •Breast cancer Increases risks of •Osteoporosis •Erectile dysfunction •Early menopause •Rheumatoid arthritis •Lung cancer •Lung cancer •Side effects of oral contraceptives •Miscarriage •Pregnancy difficulties •Birth defects
Smoking Rates Vary Between Races • Native American, Alaskan Native • African American and Southeast Asian men • White college students • Asian American and Hispanic women • Most abused by Hispanic youth
Other Forms Of Tobacco Cigars Cancer of lung and digestive tract Hookas Same risks as cigarette smoking Three times as much nicotine and Bidis carbon monoxide and five times as much tar as cigarettes
Other Forms Of Tobacco Twice the nicotine and Eugenol Clove which deadens throat sensation so Cigarettes you hold smoke in lungs for longer time Powerful carcinogens Smokeless Tobacco Cancer of lip, pharynx, larynx and esophagus
Because they decide to take personalresponsibility for their health, 90% of former smokers have quit on their own.
Quitting and the Risks Associated with Smoking
Quitting Options • Quitting on Your Own • Virtual Support • Stop-Smoking Groups • Nicotine-Replacement Therapy (NRT) • Nicotine gum • Nicotine patches • Nicotine inhalers • Medications • Chantix and Zyban • Other Ways to Quit • Hypnosis • Acupuncture
Environmental second-hand smoke isthe most hazardous form of indoor air pollution and is the third-leading preventable cause of death
Environmental Tobacco Smoke Mainstream smoke The smoke inhaled directly by smoking a cigarette. Sidestream smoke The smoke emitted by a burning cigarette and breathed by everyone in a closed room, including the smoker; contains more tar and nicotine than mainstream smoke.
Health Effects Of Environmental Smoke Postmenopausal women—breast Women cancer Brain tumors, leukemia, lymphoma Growth and development impaired Children Behavior problems Speech, language, intelligence and visual-spatial ability deficits Heart disease Everyon Asthma e Cancers—lung, nasal, pharynx Alzheimer’s and dementia
Becoming Smoke-Free Use delaying tactics. Distract yourself. Establish nonsmoking hours.Never smoke two packs of the same brand in a row. Make it harder to get your cigarettes. Change the way you smoke. Stop completely for just one day at a time. Spend time in places where you cannot smoke. Go cold turkey.