Social Health• Identify skills that improve communication.• Illustrate the gender differences in communication.• Discuss the pros and cons of online social networks.• Recount why students may have physical and mental- health benefits when involved in intimate relationships.• Discuss the science of love, including the psychological, anthropological, and biochemical views.• Identify characteristics of healthy and unhealthy relationships.• Recall the issues that couples in long-term relationships may confront. Chapter Learning
Social Health Refers to the ability to interact effectively with other people and with the social environment
Create Close Ties With Other People • Supportive relationships protect people from stress, distress and disease • A sense of belonging may have the greatest impact on college students’ health
Your Social Network Affects Your Health Process in which friends, friends of Social friends, acquaintances and social Contagion circle affect health Health factors change in clusters • Obesity in one person made friends Is it real? 57% more likely to become obese • Smoking in one person made friends 35% more likely to start smoking
Two Skills That Will Improve Communication 1. Learn to Listen Try to understand feelings and motivation Ask questions when you don’t understand Prompt person to continue talking 2. Be Agreeable, but Assertive Make needs and desires clear Use non-provocative words See Strategies for Change, page 120
Men And Women Communicate Differently Men Talk to demonstrate superiority Interrupt to get information E-mails are brief and utilitarian Online conversations more likely to include strong assertions, sarcasm and disagreement with others
Men And Women Communicate Differently Women Talk to draw people closer Likely to wait rather than interrupt Writing uses more words related to emotion E-mails are written similar to spoken word to build connection with audience
How do you communicate? Nonverbal CommunicationMore than 90 percent of communication maybe nonverbalCulture can dictate how we use body languageIs using a smiley face the answer to onlinebody language?
Social Networking Over 90% of Americans have internet access and half of those use social network sites These sites offer someone the opportunity to: Explore their identities. Make new friends. Voice their opinions. Explore their sexuality. Be creative. Continue to develop long-standing relationships. Things that make you go hmm… Do you think this type of social communication affects how people interact when they are face to face?
The Facebook Phenomenon Keep in touch with acquaintances Support from acquaintances isPros meaningful Maintain relationships, make new friend Private events become public Can be used to humiliate, bully,Cons harass or stalk Takes time and attention away from other responsibilities
Friendship“The most holy bond of society”•Every culture has prized the respect, tolerance,and loyalty that friendship builds and nurtures•Qualities of a Good Friend: • Honesty, acceptance, dependability, empathy, and loyalty•Do you think you exceed the “Dunbar number”of friends?
Dating on campus• You can learn how to make conversation, get to know more about others as well as yourself, and share feelings, opinions, and interests • However, many young people meet and maintain contact online where certain interaction is lost• College hook-ups usually involve two people who have met earlier in the evening and agree to engage in some sexual behavior, after which there is little or no expectation of future commitment • Consequences include STIs, sexual assaults, and the “double standard” still exists
How to be Single and Satisfied Fill your life with meaningful work, experiences, and people. Build a network of supportive friends who care about you. Be open to new experiences that can expand your feelings about yourself and your world. Don’t miss out on a special event because you don’t have someone to accompany you. Enjoy your own company. Volunteer to help others less fortunate, or become involved in church and social organizations.
Healthy Relationships Intimacy A state of closeness between two people, characterized by the desire and ability to share one’s innermost thoughts and feelings with each other. Although intimacy doesn’t require sex, an intimate relationship often includes a sexual relationship
Healthy Relationships Infatuation Refers only to falling in love. Infatuation doesn’t last for the long haul Infatuation also can be a disguise for something quite different: a strong sex drive, a fear of loneliness, loneliness itself, or a hunger for approval.
Healthy Relationships Attraction Most of us end up with partners much like ourselves—in age, race, ethnicity, socioeconomic class, education, etc. 4 Predictors for attraction among College Students Warmth and kindness. Desirable personality. Something specific about the person. Reciprocal liking.
Psychological View Of Love6 Types Of Love 3 Components Of Love • Liking • Infatuation • Romantic Love • Compassionate Love • Fatuous Love • Consummate Love
Anthropological View Of Love A near universal experience for all cultures • Primitive, basic human emotion Historically, it pulled people together for • child-rearing • Four-year ‘itch’ is present across cultures
Biochemical View Of Love Love causes changes in the brain Causes release of stimulants: Dopamine, • norepinephrine, phenylethylamine After initial infatuation, love causes release • of endorphins Endorphins and stimulants create the physical symptoms of love and the feelings of well-being, security and tranquility of longer- lasting relationships
Dysfunctional Relationships Harm Health Dysfunctional Does not promote healthy communication, honesty and Relationship intimacy Headaches Physical Digestive Trouble Symptoms Difficulty Sleeping Evaluate your relationship on page 133. It takes a lot of time and energy to change a dysfunctional relationship.
Beware Of Abuse In Relationships Behavior to control another person Abuse - fear, humiliation, verbal or physical assault Constant berating, belittling or Emotional criticism Abuse Wears away at trust, self-worth and belief in self Reach out to your friends and family for help if you think you are in an abusive relationship
Codependency Behavior learned by family members to survive great pain and Defined stress of their loved one’s addiction or illness Individual and group therapy Treatmen t Education Codependents Anonymous
Codependency Among the characteristics of codependency are: • An exaggerated sense of responsibility. • An attraction to people who need rescuing. • Always trying to do more than one’s share. • Doing anything to cling to a relationship. • An extreme need for approval and recognition. • A sense of guilt. • A compelling need to control others. • Lack of trust in self and/or others. • Fear of being alone. • Difficulty identifying feelings. • Rigidity/difficulty. • Chronic anger. • Lying/dishonesty. • Poor communications. • Difficulty making decision
Transitioning To Adulthood Successful Transition Includes: • Completing school • Establishing independent household • Being employed full-time • Marriage and children (possibly)
Cohabitation Has Become More Common Cohabitation increased by 13 percent from 2009 to 2010 Reasons couples decide to live together: • Economic • Social acceptance of cohabitation • More time together • ‘Test’ relationship • Alternative to marriage
Unmarried Couple HouseholdsRisen dramatically in the past 50 years
Same-Sex Couples Relationship follows familiar stages • Intense passion and romantic love • Starting home together • Building trust and dependability • Establishing strong partnership Experience more social isolation Use more affection and humor during disagreements
Marriage Brings Benefits And Challenges Better physical and mental health Benefits Longer life Less disease and common illnesses Requires preparation Common challenges require effort Challenges • money, sex and careers Divorce rate remains 50%
Premarital AssessmentsThere are scientific methods of predicting maritalhappiness though assessment inventories that addressall aspects of a relationship.Other common predictors of marital discord,unhappiness, and separation are:• High level of arousal during a discussion.• Defensive behaviors such as making excuses.• A wife’s expression of contempt.• A husband’s stonewalling.
Common Issues In Long-Term Relationships Money Sex Extramarital Affairs Two-Career Couples Conflict
Saving Marriages • Couples therapy uses a variety of psychological techniques to help couples understand and overcome their conflicts • Behavioral marital therapy • Emotionally focused therapy• Insight-oriented marital therapy
Suggestions For Relationship Success Focus on friendship Remember the beginning Show respect Compliment your partner Forgive one another Keep positive interactions more frequent than negative interactions
Diversity• Blended families are those in which one or both of the partners bring children from a previous union.• The proportion of babies born to unmarried parents has grown from 4% in 1940 to 40% currently.• Unmarried African American mothers have the lowest marriage and cohabitation and the highest break-up rates.