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  1. 1. Body Composition Chapter 4
  2. 2. Objectives Define body composition and understand its relationship to assessment of recommended body weight. Explain the difference between essential fat and storage fat. Describe various techniques used to assess body composition. Be able to assess body composition using skinfold thickness and girth measurements. Understand the importance of body mass index (BMI) and waist circumference in the assessment of risk for disease. Be able to determine recommended weight according to recommended percent body fat values and BMI. Learn how to measure body composition. Assess your risks for potential disease.
  3. 3. Introduction Body composition  Fat component  Percent body fat  Nonfat component  Lean body mass Recommended body weight  A fat distribution pattern that is not associated with higher risk for illness.  Best determined based on the percent of body fat and lean tissue
  4. 4. Introduction Recommended body weight  A fat distribution pattern that is not associated with higher risk for illness. Obesity  Excess body fat, not based on total weight.  Some individuals are heavy because of a large amount of muscle.  Some individuals are light but have a substantial amount of body fat.
  5. 5. Essential and Storage Fat Total fat is determined by:  Essential fat  Needed for normal physiologic function.  Found in muscles, nerve cells, bone marrow, intestines, heart, liver, and lungs.  Constitutes about 3% of body weight in men and about 12% of body weight in women  Storage fat  Stored in Adipose tissue under skin and around organs  An insulator to retain heat.  An energy substrate for metabolism.  Padding against physical trauma to the body.
  6. 6. Typical Body Composition of an Adult Man and Woman Similar amounts of storage fat in men and women:  Men tend to store fat around the waist (“android").  Women tend to store fat around the hips and thighs (“gynoid").
  7. 7. Techniques to Assess Body Composition Dual Energy X-ray Absorptiometry (DEXA)  Uses very low-dose beams of X-ray energy  Research and medical facilities  SEE ± 1.8 percent
  8. 8. Techniques to Assess Body Composition Hydrostatic weighing  Most common technique  A persons "regular" weight is compared with a weight taken underwater  Drawbacks?  SEE ± 0.5 percent
  9. 9. Techniques to Assess Body Composition Air displacement  Bod Pod  Computerized pressure sensors determine the amount of air displaced by the person inside the chamber.  Not population specific  SEE ± 2.2 percent
  10. 10. Techniques to Assess Body Composition Skinfold thickness  Relation of subcutaneous fat and total body fat  SEE ± 3.5 percent  Should be taken by the same technician and at the same time of day
  11. 11. Techniques to Assess Body Composition Girth measurements  Administered using a measuring tape to assess the circumference of various body parts.  Women—the upper arm, hip, and wrist  Men—the waist and wrist  May not be valid for athletic individuals or for people who can be classified visually as thin or obese.  SEE ± 4 percent
  12. 12. Body Fat Assessment Accordingto Girth Measurements
  13. 13. Techniques to Assess Body Composition Bioelectrical impedance  Based on the principle that fat tissue is a less efficient conductor than lean tissue of electrical current.  Accuracy is questionable  10 percentage points  Hydration and body temp can affect the results
  14. 14. Body Mass Index (BMI) Determine thinness and excessive fatness  Height and weight to estimate fat values Most widely used measure to determine obesity and overweight  Weight (lb.) x 705 ÷ Height (in.)2 Disease risk  Lowest risk 22-25 range
  15. 15. Mortality Risk Versus Body MassIndex (BMI)
  16. 16. Body Mass Index (BMI) Compared with a BMI between 22-25:  Mortality rates for those with a BMI between 25 and 30 (overweight) are up to 25 percent higher.  Mortality rates for those with a BMI above 30 (obese) are 50 to 100 percent higher.  The risk for premature illness and death increases for individuals who are underweight. Weakness of BMI  cannot differentiate between muscle and fat therefore doesn’t work well with athletes
  17. 17. Disease Risk According to BodyMass Index (BMI)
  18. 18. Overweight & Obesity Trends inthe U.S., 1960-2006
  19. 19. Waist Circumference Storage of fat affects disease risk  Android obesity  Apple shape  Fat around organs  Higher risk for Heart disease, Hypertension, Type 2 diabetes, and stroke  Gynoid obesity  Pear shape Measured at the level of the umbilicus
  20. 20. Visceral Fat Compared to SBC orRTP Fat for Disease Risk
  21. 21. Disease Risk from WC and BMI
  22. 22. Body Composition ClassificationsAccording to Percent Body Fat
  23. 23. Determining Recommended Body WeightEXAMPLE: Sex: Female FP: 30% (.30) Age: 19 years DFP: 22% (.22) BW: 160 lbs.1. FW = BW x %F  FW = 160 x .30 = 48 lbs.2. LBM = BW - FW  LBM = 160 – 48 = 112 lbs.
  24. 24. Determining Recommended Body Weight FW: 48 lbs. BW: 160 lbs. LBM: 112 lbs. DFP: 22% (.22)3. RBW = LBM ÷ (1.0 – DFP)  RBW = 112 ÷ (1.0 - .22)  RBW = 112 ÷ .78 = 144 lbs.4. Desired Weight Loss (DWL) DWL = BW - RBW  DWL = 160 – 144 = 16 lbs.
  25. 25. Importance of Regular Body Composition Assessment Fat gain after 25 yrs  1 to 2 lbs weight gain per year  ½ lb lean tissue lost per year Body composition reassessment periodically because of the effects of negative caloric balance on lean body mass.
  26. 26. Real Life Stories
  27. 27. Real Life Stories Critical Thinking Questions 1. Can you identify what got Camille started on her weight-loss program? Was the starting point self- or environmentally determined? Discuss the pros or cons that got her going on her weight-loss program. How was the end point of the weight loss determined? List the benefits of her long- term approach to weight loss. 2. What weight-loss programs are likely to end up being just another “yo- yo diet”? Have you had any experiences with some of these methods; and if so, what were the results? What strategies are more likely to lead to permanent and sustainable weight loss? 3. Discuss the roles of aerobic exercise and strength training on weight management. Do you think strength training is a good idea for those who are trying to lose weight? Is it as important for women as for men?