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  • 1. Behavior Modification Chapter 2
  • 2. Objectives Learn the effects of environment on human behavior. Understand obstacles that hinder the ability to change behavior. Explain the concepts of motivation and locus of control. Identify the stages of change. Describe the processes of change. Explain techniques that will facilitate the process of change. Describe the role of SMART goal setting in the process of change. Be able to write specific objectives for behavioral change.
  • 3. Behavior ModificationIntroduction Why is it so hard for people to change? What triggers the desire to change?
  • 4. Exercise/Exercise dropout cycle  Research has documented the benefits of physical activity and healthy lifestyles  Most Americans accept that exercise is beneficial to health  70% of new and returning exercisers are at risk for early dropout
  • 5. Living in a Toxic Health and Fitness Environment Most behaviors we adopt are a product of our environment Environment includes family, friends, home, school, workplace, television, radio, movies, community, country, and culture We live in a “toxic” fitness and wellness environment We overlook the ways our environment influences our behaviors, lifestyle, and health
  • 6. Living in a Toxic Health and Fitness Environment We incorporate learned behaviors into our own lifestyle Children watch adults  Drive short distances  Automatically use elevators, remote controls, etc.  Order super-sized fast foods  Use recreational time to watch TV or surf the Internet  Smoke, drink, and abuse other drugs  Engage in risky behaviors, such as not wearing seat belts
  • 7. Environmental Influences on Physical Activity Physical inactivity and poor diet are among the leading causes of death in the United States Most daily activities require almost no effort and negatively impact health, fitness, and body weight Examples: short car rides that replace walking/biking decrease energy expenditure by 50-300 calories, TV viewing 200 calories or more
  • 8. Our environment is not conducive toa healthy, physically active lifestyle
  • 9. Environmental Influences on Physical Activity A person must accumulate the equivalent of 5-6 miles of walking per day or 10,000-12,000 daily steps to be considered active People are moving less thanks to cell phones, escalators, automatic doors, intercom systems, television, etc. Excessive TV viewing is linked to obesity as it is a “snacking setting” Many cities lack safe places to exercise
  • 10. Environmental Influences on Physical Activity Communities are designed around the automobile, making pedestrians “obstructions” Walking and biking account for 10% of daily trips and the automobile accounts for 84% in the U.S.
  • 11. Walking and cycling are priority activitiesin many European communities
  • 12. Environmental Influence on Diet and Nutrition The amount of daily food supply available in the United States is about 3,900 calories per person, before wastage. This figure represents a 700-calorie rise over the early 1980s. The overabundance of food increases pressure on food suppliers to advertise and try to convince consumers to buy their products. Many activities of daily living in todays culture are associated with eating.
  • 13. Environmental Influence on Diet and Nutrition As a nation, we now eat out more often than in the past, portion sizes are larger, and we have an endless variety of foods to choose from.  Compared to home meals, restaurant and fast food meals are higher in fat and calories and lower in essential nutrients and fiber.  Most restaurants are pleasurably decorated to enhance comfort, appetite, and length of stay, with the intent to entice more eating.  Restaurants and groceries often appeal to our sense of thrift by using "value marketing," meaning they offer us a larger portion for only a small price increase, or free soft drink refills. On average, American women consume 335 more daily calories than they did 20 years ago, and men an additional 170 calories.
  • 14. Barriers to Change Lack of core values  Most people are unwilling or unable to trade convenience for health or other benefits.  Tip: Educate yourself regarding the benefits of a healthy lifestyle and subscribe to several reputable health, fitness, and wellness newsletters. Procrastination  They think: "Tomorrow or sometime later will be a better time to change."  Tip: Ask, "Why not change today?" and find the motivation to do so. Preconditioned cultural beliefs  They think: "I cannot change because I am merely a product of my environment."  Tip: Find a like-minded partner. Finding people who are willing to "sail" with you will help overcome this barrier.
  • 15. Barriers to Change Gratification  They think: "Benefits later are not worth the discomfort now. Instant good feelings outweigh any long-term satisfaction."  Tip: Ask, "What happened last time when I didnt consider the consequences? Is the immediate good feeling really worth it later? Is the long-term satisfaction worth suffering discomfort for a while?“ Risk complacency  They think: "If I get heart disease, Ill deal with it then. For now, let me eat, drink, and be merry."  Tip: Ask, "How well do I want to live my last decades of life?“ Complexity  They think: "The world is too complicated, with too much to think about. There are so many things to do to be healthy. I just cant do them all."  Tip: Ask, "Cant I take them one at a time?"
  • 16. Barriers to Change Indifference and helplessness  They think: "No matter what I do, my genetics will work against me."  Tip: Ask, "Didnt I just read that 84 percent of the risk for disease is based on everyday decisions?“ Rationalization  They think: "Im not as bad as Joe or Sally."  Tip: Ask, "Do Joe and Sallys problems improve mine?“ Illusions of invincibility  They think: "It might be a bad choice, but I can handle anything that comes my way."  Tip: Ask, "Will I be able to handle anything when I am older? Might it be better to maintain good health throughout life?"
  • 17. Self-Efficacy The belief in ones own ability to perform a given task.  It exerts a powerful influence on peoples behaviors and touches virtually every aspect of their lives.  The knowledge and skills you possess and further develop determine your goals and what you do and choose not to do.
  • 18. Self-Efficacy Sources of Self-Efficacy  Mastery experiences, or personal experiences that one has had with successes and failures—best contributors of self-efficacy.  Vicarious experiences provided by role models or those one admires also influence personal efficacy.  Verbal persuasion of ones capabilities to perform a task also contributes to self-efficacy.  Physiological cues that people experience when facing a challenge—least significant source of self- efficacy.
  • 19. Motivation and Locus of Control Motivation  Drive that dictates human behavior  Often the explanation given for why some people succeed and others do not. Locus of control  Internal: when individuals believe they have control over events in life. These people are usually:  Healthier.  More successful in adhering to exercise.  External: results when individuals do not believe their behavior will alter events in life; rather, events happen by chance or for some other external reason. These people:  Usually feel powerless and vulnerable.  Are at greater risk for illness and slower recovery from illness.  Few people have a completely external or internal locus of control.
  • 20. Motivation and Locus of Control Problems with competence  Lacking the skills to get a given task done leads to reduced competence.  Solutions? Problems with confidence  Arise when you have the skill but dont believe you can get it done and/or when the task seems insurmountable.  Solutions? Problems with motivation  Individuals have both the competence and the confidence, but are unwilling to change because the reasons to change are not important to them.  Solutions?
  • 21. Changing Behavior Recognizing that a problem exists Five general categories of behaviors  Stopping a negative behavior  Preventing relapse of a negative behavior  Developing a positive behavior  Strengthening a positive behavior  Maintaining a positive behavior Change  Does not occur all at once  Usually done without professional help  Occurs along a continuum
  • 22. Changing Behavior – Behavior Change Theories Learning theories  Behaviors are learned and maintained  Scheduled reinforcement and anticipated outcomes Problem-solving model  Behaviors result from making decisions as we seek to change problem behavior
  • 23. Changing Behavior – Behavior Change Theories Social cognitive theory  Change is influenced by environment, self- efficacy, and characteristics of behavior Relapse prevention model  Anticipate high-risk situations  Develop action plans Humanistic theory of change  Ultimate goal of self-actualization
  • 24. Changing Behavior – Behavior Change Theories Transtheoretical model  Change is gradual and involves stages
  • 25. Model of Progression and RelapseRelapse• To slip into unhealthy behavior or to regress in the stages of the transtheoretical model (Figure 2.4).• May occur at any level after the precontemplation stage.
  • 26. The Process of Change Using the same plan for everyone does not work Timing  Apply any number of techniques of change within each process to help go through that specific process.
  • 27. Applicable Processes of ChangeDuring Each Stage of Change
  • 28. The Process of Change Consciousness-raising  Obtaining information about the problem  Stages Social liberation  External alternatives  Gain confidence in ability to change
  • 29. The Process of Change Self-analysis  Develop decisive desire to modify behavior Emotional arousal  Experience and express feelings  “Dramatic release” Positive outlook Commitment
  • 30. The Process of Change Behavior analysis  Frequency, circumstances, and consequences of behavior to be changed Goals  Motivate change in behavior Self-evaluation Countering  Substitution of behaviors
  • 31. The Process of Change Monitoring  Increased awareness of the desired outcome Environment control  Restructuring of physical surroundings Helping relationships Rewards
  • 32. The Transtheoretical Model  Where am I now?
  • 33. Techniques of Change Goals motivate behavior change SMART goals  Specific  Measurable  Acceptable  Realistic  Time specific Perform periodic progress evaluations
  • 34. Steps for Successful BehaviorModification
  • 35. Real Life Stories
  • 36. Real Life Stories Critical Thinking Questions 1. Describe how lack of self-efficacy was a barrier that kept Aisha from adhering to an exercise program. Can you identify her exercise stage of change prior to understanding the concept of self-efficacy? 2. What stage of change are you at in terms of your own physical activity habits? How about your exercise habits? 3. Can you identify environmental influences in your own life that have kept you from implementing healthy lifestyle habits? If you have made some changes, please indicate what processes of change have worked for you and techniques of change used that helped you adopt healthy behaviors.