Avoiding Addictions• Describe the harmful effects of addictions on every dimension of health.• Identify the risk factors for all addictions.• Compare and contrast reasons students choose to use or not use drugs.• Give examples of appropriate and inappropriate use of over- the-counter and prescription medications.• Categorize the types of drug dependence, and discuss contributing factors.• Identify common drugs of abuse, their street names, how they are abused, their acute effects, and related health risks.• Describe the treatment methods available for individuals seeking help for drug dependence.• Evaluate their personal drug use (legal and illegal) and identify strategies to decrease risky behaviors. Chapter Learning Objectives
Addiction And The Dimensions Of Health
Gambling Problem gambling has become more common among American adults than alcohol dependence. According to recent national surveys, levels of gambling, frequent gambling, and problem gambling increase during the teen years (even though underage gambling is illegal in most states), reach the highest point in the 20s and 30s, and decline after age 70.
Risk Factors For Problem Gambling • Being male. • Gambling at an early age. • A big win earlier in one’s gambling career. • Consistently chasing losses. • Gambling alone. • Feeling depressed before gambling. • Feeling excited and aroused during gambling. • Poor grades at school. • Other addictive behaviors. • Lower socioeconomic class. • Parents with a gambling or other addiction problem. • History of delinquency or stealing money to fund gambling. • Skipping class to go gambling.
Characteristics Of College Drug Users Inappropriate Illicit Drug Users Prescription Drug Use Single, White, Male White, male or female Lower GPA Lower GPA Less likely to report Less likely to report good physical or mental good physical or mental health health Know faculty or Sexually active administration Less religious values
Why Students Don’t Use Drugs Spirituality and Religion Academic Engagement Perceived Harmfulness Athletics
Why Students Use Drugs Genetics and Sexual Identity family history Social Influences Race/ and Norms Ethnicity Mental Health Substance Use In Problems High School Parental Attitudes Positive and Behavior Expectations
Understanding Drugs and Their Effects Drug Any substance, other than food, that affects bodily functions and structures when taken into the body. Drug Abuse The excessive use of a drug in a manner inconsistent with accepted medical practice. Drug Dependence A pattern of continuing substance use despite cognitive, behavioral, and physical symptoms. Drug Misuse The use of a drug for a purpose (or person) other than that for which it was medically intended. Drug Diversion The transfer of a medication from the individual to whom it was prescribed to another person.
Routes of Administration
Caffeine and Its Effects Most widely used psychotropic (mind-affecting) drug. 80% of Americans drink coffee–an average of 3.5 cups per day. General Bodily Effects Relieves drowsiness, helps in performance of repetitive tasks, and improves the capacity for work. Improves performance and endurance during prolonged, exhaustive exercise Enhances short-term, high-intensity athletic performance. Improves concentration, reduces fatigue, and sharpens alertness.
Caffeine and Its EffectsHealth Effects A few cups of coffee/day is safe. Potential Benefits: lower risk for type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease; protect against Alzheimer’s; reduce the likelihood of gallstones, Parkinson’s disease, liver cirrhosis, and colon cancer.High Dosage Effects Dependence Anxiety Insomnia Rapid breathing Upset stomach and bowels Dizziness
Often Misused Over-the-Counter Medications Nasal Spray Laxatives Eye Drops Sleep Aids Pain Killers Cough Syrup
Avoid Misuse of OTC Medications By: Avoid using Use fiber Avoid using for several and exercise for several days in a row instead days in a row Practice sleep Take only hygiene when needed Many active ingredients are ineffective
Prescription Medications Considerations for taking prescription drugs: Most common problem – Ask how to Non- take medication adherence Take entire course Physical and psychological side Side effects are possible Effects Review information on side effects OTC and prescription drugs interact Drug with each other Interactions Alcohol interferes with drugs Read label to check for interactions
Prescription Drug Abuse Is Increasing Highest nonmedical use of prescription medication is among young adults age 18 to 25 Most widely abused medications are prescription stimulants and pain killers
Prescription Drug Abuse Carries Danger High doses: • Increase addiction risk • Panic attacks • Aggressive behavior Stimulants • Suicidal or homicidal impulses Side Effects: • Increased blood pressure • Headache • Cardio-respiratory problems
Prescription Drug Abuse Carries Danger Addictive Pain Usually requires medical Killers detoxification May require medication and therapy
Types of Drug Abuse Drug Abuse is broken down into several categories: Pattern of use resulting in negative Abuse consequences or impairment Pattern of continuing substance Dependence use despite symptoms Taking drug for purpose or person Misuse other than the one intended Not taking recommended dose Transfer of medication from person Diversion it was prescribed to another
Causes of Drug Dependence and Abuse Dopamine release from drugs can Biology change pathways in the brain Difficulty controlling impulses Lack of values Vulnerability Low self-esteem, powerlessness Depression Early Drug abuse during adolescence Influences or parent drug use
Dopamine Levels for Cocaine
Drugs and Driving Alcohol affects perception, coordination, and judgment. Marijuana affects a wide range of driving skills. Sedatives, sedative-hypnotics, and-anti anxiety agents slow reaction time. Amphetamines, after repeated use, impair coordination. Hallucinogens distort judgment.
Common Names Of Club Drugs Ecstasy GHB Nitrites GBL Ecstasy GHB Nitrites GBL Love drug hug Beans Herbal Love drug hug Beans Herbal X X Georgia home boy Cloud 9 Liquid Ecstasy Cloud 9 Liquid Ecstasy Herbal bliss XTC G Herbal bliss XTC G Grievous bodily harm Grievous bodily harm
Club Drug – Ecstasy Ecstasy, E, XTC, X, hug, beans, love drug Mood elevator Effect Relaxed, euphoric state Enhance sensory experience • Psychological difficulties • Death of young, healthy 16-24 year old • Hyperthermia, severe dehydration Risks • Dangerous increase in blood pressure • Stroke and heart attack • Risk to developing fetus
Club Drug – GHB and GBL GHB, G, Georgia home boy, grievous bodily harm, liquid ecstasy Sedative while producing euphoria Effect Heightened sexuality • Amnesia (‘date rape’ drug) • Pass out and fall into coma or die • Hallucinations Risks • Decreased heart rate • Convulsions • Addictive
Club Drug – Nitrites Amyl, butyl and isobutyl nitrite Feeling of high with slowed sense of time Effect Intensified sexual experience Carefree sense of well-being • Headache • Drop in blood pressure • Changes in heart rate Risks • Increased pressure in eyes • Skin flushing • Chronic use: chemical burn, skin lesion
Club Drug – Herbal Ecstasy Herbal bliss, cloud 9, herbal X Feeling of high with slowed sense of time Effect Intensified sexual experience Carefree sense of well-being • Stroke • Heart attack Risks • Disfiguring skin condition • Large variation in ingredients because sold as herbal alternative
StimulantsAmphetamines & MethamphetamineThe Facts Amphetamines trigger the release of epinephrine (adrenaline) which stimulates the central nervous system. Methamphetamine is a powerful addictive stimulant. Meth remains in the central nervous system and the body, producing prolonged stimulant effects.How Users Feel Amphetamines produce a state of hyper-alertness and energy. Meth produces long-lasting toxic effects, including psychosis, violence, seizures, and cardiovascular abnormalities.
StimulantsAmphetamines & MethamphetaminePotential Side Effects Bingeing and crashing. Feelings of grandiosity, anxiety, tension, anger, agitation, paranoia, and impaired judgment. Increased heart rate and blood pressure.Long Term Side Effects Malnutrition, skin disorders, ulcers, insomnia, depression, vitamin deficiencies, sexual dysfunction, impaired concentration or memory, and, in some cases, brain damage.
Stimulant Drugs– Cocaine Coke, snow, lady, crack 411: Some effects of INSERT FIGURE 12.4 pg cocaine on theSoaring well-being body. Center on page Boundless energy Effect Feel enormous physical and mental ability Risks See next slide Depression and fatigue Vivid and disturbing dreams Withdrawal Anxiety and irritability Increased appetite
Cocaine’s Effect On The Body
Stimulant Drugs– Khat INSERT FIGURE 12.4 pg 411: tea effects of Kat, catha, chat, abyssinian Some cocaine on the body. Center on page Reduces appetite Effect Alleviates fatigue Compulsive use creates: • Manic behavior Risks • Grandiose illusions • Paranoia • Hallucinations
Depressant Drugs - Benzodiazepines Librium, diazepam, Serax, Ativan, Dalmane, Xanax Tension relief Effect Loosening of sexual or aggressive inhibitions Dependence develops in 2-4 weeks Risks Cross-tolerance Impaired judgment and aggression
Withdrawal From Benzodiazepines Malaise or weakness Sweating and rapid pulse Tremors Nausea or vomiting Withdrawal Insomnia Temporary hallucinations Anxiety or irritability Grand Mal seizures
Depressant Drugs - Opiods Morphine, codeine, heroin (horse, junk, smack, downtown) Relaxation Effect Pain relief Rapid development of dependence Lethargy and weight loss Loss of sexual drive Risks Anxiety Insomnia Restlessness Craving for drug
HallucinogensDefinition Drugs that produce vivid and unusual changes in thought, self-awareness, emotion, and perception.Natural Sources of Hallucinogens Morning glories, jimsonweed, nutmeg, mace, peyote cactus, and psychedelic mushrooms.Synthesized Hallucinogens LSD: lysergic acid diethylamide, a psychedelic drug that produces distorted reality. PCP: an anesthetic that blocks nerve receptors from pain and temperature without producing numbness; angel dust.
Hallucinogens – LSD Acid, lysergic acid diethylamide, peyote Vivid and unusual changes in Effect thought, feeling and perceptions Does not create dependence, can Withdrawal be stopped at any time
Dissociative Drugs– Ketamine K, Special-K, vitamin K Hallucinations Effect Distorted perceptions of time and space Date-rape drug Impaired attention and memory Potentially deadly breathing problems Risks Paranoia Single use can produce long-term memory loss and ‘flashbacks’
Dissociative Drugs– PCP Phencyclidine, Sernyl, angel dust, peace pill, lovely, green Utterly unpredictable • hallucinations or euphoria Effect • emptiness or numbness • violent behavior • irreversible psychosis Suicide Permanent psychosis after only one use Risks Stupor that lasts days Increased blood pressure and heart rate
Dissociative Drugs– Salvia Hallucinations Psychotomimetic episodes Effect Greatly altered perception of reality and self DEA lists it as a drug with high Risks potential for abuse
Inhalants – A Risk For Young People Only alcohol is more widely used than inhalants Slightly stimulated Effect Less inhibited Interference with thinking and impulse control Irritation of throat, lungs and nose Risks Nausea and headache Tolerance occurs Suffocation Cardiac arrhythmia
Treating Drug Dependence and Abuse Recognize the reality of the problem. Consult a physician, counseling center, or local mental health clinic. Intervention Modalities Medical care Medication Detoxification Individual psychotherapy Marital and family therapy Behavior modification 12-step programs
Choosing an Addiction Free Lifestyle Set goals for yourself. Participate in drug-free activities. Educate yourself. Choose friends with a future.