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The north & south in conflict alana rach

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Transcript

  • 1. THE NORTH & SOUTH IN CONFLICT Rachel Walsh & Alana Candido Period: 12
  • 2. MOUNTING TENSIONS- Slavery- Election of Abraham Lincoln- Secession- Fire-eaters/Abolitionists vs. Proslavery- Wilmot Proviso- Personal Liberty Laws- Uncle Tom’s Cabin & The Impending Crisis of the South- Harper’s Ferry- Freeport Doctrine- Kansas-Nebraska Act- Missouri Compromise- Compromise of 1850
  • 3. EXPANSION IN TRANSPORTATIONTranscontinental RR: (May 10, 1869) completion of thefirst railroad spanning N. America *Impact: 1. Made tradeand transportation easier (could make a coast to coast journeyin a week that would normally take several months) 2.W.erners could ship their products to E.ern markets & vice-versa 3. United the two ‘sections’ of America (E & W) 4.Defined difference/boundary b/w N & S*Clipper Ships: greater speed and lower rates, dominatedAtlantic sealanes *Impact: allowed industrialist to widenmarkets*
  • 4. Map of the Transcont. RR
  • 5. INDUSTRIAL EXPANSIONReasons: 1. RRs 2. Clipper ships 3. CA gold rushWho? - North East b/c of trade, factories, andtechnologyEffects: 1. Provided the North with powerful leader tochallenge plantation owners in South 2. Made N.ernleaders dissatisfied with S.ern domination of politics
  • 6. Factories
  • 7. IMMIGRATIONGerman & Irish: Mostly immigrated from 1845-48. Camebecause of potato famine.Irish: Settled in North East, looked for jobs in factories.Germans: Became farmers in the upper Mississippi valleyISSUE: 1. opposition to religion (Roman Catholic) 2. politicalopposition (many became Democrats) 3. threatened by theinflux of immigrants taking places in jobs *where nativismstarted*
  • 8. Political cartoon by nativists
  • 9. BOOKSUncle Tom’s Cabin:By: Harriet Beecher Stowe (1852)Anti-slavery novel as a result of the Fugitive Slave ActStimulated sympathy for fugitive slavesAngered the South because of its portrayal of itThe Impending Crisis of the South:By: Hinton Helper (1857)Increased sectionalism and the sections dissension towards each other. Also said thatslavery ruined the South economicallyExtremely influential in the NorthSociology for the South:By: George Fitzhugh (1854)Defended slavery and the system on which it was based
  • 10. Uncle Tom’s Cabin
  • 11. OSTEND MANIFESTOBecause ---> 1) Polk wished to buy Cuba from Spain, but Spainrefused. 2) Then, filibustering expeditions were allowed to leaveNew Orleans in hope that they would spark a movement (whichwould add Cuba to the U.S.)HOWEVER, U.S. ship (Black Warrior) was seized for violatingCuba’s port regulations. Spain then apologizedBecause of disorder in Spain = U.S. ministers w/ England,France, & Spain to meet at Ostend, Belgium to create Cubanpolicy *asserted rt. for U.S. to seize Cuba if Spain would not sellit*
  • 12. Political cartoon“Practical Dem.s carving out the principle”
  • 13. CLAYTON-BULWER TREATYU.S. got permission from Colombia to build across theisthmus of Panama.BUT-- England got similar permission from Nicaragua.To avoid fighting = signed this treaty in 1850 *stated thatneither would seek exclusive control over any CentralAmerica canal. Triumph for U.S. but became unpopularafter the Civil War b/c it prevented building of canals*
  • 14. Clayton-Bulwer Treaty
  • 15. SIGNIFICANT PEOPLEWilliam Walker - B/c of U.S. & Engl. rivalry, he wassent to organize a filibustering expedition (seized ctrl ofNicaragua) Ruled for 2 yrs. before being overthrownMatthew Perry - Japan refuses to trade after navalsquadron under Perry visits. Returns in 1854 to signcommercial treaty that gave the U.S. limited tradingprivileges
  • 16. William Walker
  • 17. Matthew Perry
  • 18. ELECTIONS1852: Dem. - Franklin Pierce vs. Whig - WinfieldScott *Pierce was the darkhorse*1860: Dem.s - Stephen Douglas & John C. Breckinridgevs. Constitut. Union - John Bell vs. Rep. - AbrahamLincoln *Lincoln wanted emancipation*
  • 19. Election of 1852
  • 20. Election of 1860
  • 21. POLITICSFree Soil party: 3rd party active from 1848-52, formed byanti-slavery Whigs/Dem.s, support from NY *opposed spreadof slavery*Know-Nothing party: 3rd party active from 1845-55,formed by nativists/xenophobics, anti-Catholic, violentRepublicans: founded in 1854 by N.ern st.s, consisted ofanti-slavery ppl, ex-Whigs and ex-Free Soil, formed b/copposition to Kansas-Neb. Act/ opposition to Dem.sPopular Sovereignty: The people rule themselves by votingand then the majority wins and is enacted
  • 22. Political cartoon“The great Republican Reform party calling on their candidate”
  • 23. ECONOMYPanic of 1857Cause: 1) decline in internat’l economy but expansionin US economy 2) failure of Ohio Life Insur. & Trust Co.Effects: 1) businesses close 2) workers laid off 3) RR =hard times
  • 24. Political cartoon“The Panic of 1857”
  • 25. COURT CASESCommonwealth v. Hunt: (1842) CJ Lemuel Shawruled that unions were legal and had rt. to strikeDred Scott: (1857) Scott (Missouri slave) sued forfreedom b/c he said since he had moved to a free land bythe Missouri Comp., he was free *CJ Taney ruled hecouldn’t sue b/c he was not a citizen, he was property*
  • 26. Newspaper with the Dred Scott ruling
  • 27. SLAVERY North SouthTrying to halt expansion Supported slaveryof slavery to newly because they had aacquired Western “need” for it (lg.territories, had a growing plantations exportingnumber of abolitionists, goods such as cotton anddidn’t need to use slave tobacco)labor (lg. factories andmore industrializedbusiness such as textiles)
  • 28. Map of free & slave states
  • 29. SLAVERYFugitive Slave Act: Denied alleged fugitives rt. to trial by jury, didnot allow them to testify, slave was returned to slavery, &commissioners = collect $10 if ruled for slaveholder/only $5 if ruledfor fugitive *reminded N.erners that slavery was a nat’l problem*This = defiance by 1) Underground RR 2) Mobs to rescue slaves 3)Personal Liberty LawsHarper’s Ferry: (1859) WV; Abolitionist John Brown attempted tostart an armed slave revolt *Fail - brought down by Gen. Lee &Marines*Wilmot Proviso: (1846) By David Wilmot; Tried to ban slavery inany territories acquired from Mexico (Mex. Cess. from the Mex-AmWar)
  • 30. Marines fighting at Harper’s Ferry
  • 31. SLAVERY CONT.Kansas-Nebraska Act: By Stephen A. Douglas = 1) organizedlands of the West into 2 territories (Kansas & Nebraska) Onedeemed slave st./the other free 2)Missouri Comp. was repealed w/settlers deciding if they did/didn’t want slaves *Led to violence AKA“Bleeding Kansas”*Lincoln-Douglas Debates: (1858) about the issue of slavery’sexpansion into new territories *Lincoln - insisted the US could notkeep going with 1/2 slave 1/2 free states...Douglas - preferredpopular sovereignty*Freeport Doctrine: Ppl of any territory could keep slavery out byrefusing to enact “black codes” & other laws necessary for its survival(Popular sovr.)
  • 32. Stephen Douglas
  • 33. AND CONT.Lecompton Constitution: rejected pro-slaverydocument urging Kansas’ admission to the unionCompromise of 1850: 1) CA = free st. 2) TXsurrendered claims to NM 3) NM & UT = decide bypop. sov. 4) no Wilmot Proviso 5) stronger Fug. Slave ActSumner-Brooks Affair: Senate floor - CharlesSumner made speech denouncing the South & calls outAndrew Brooks (SC). Brooks beats Sumner over the headw/ crane & cripples him
  • 34. Map of the Comp. of 1850
  • 35. THE SOUTH...Society: Very proper with rules, agrarian/slavery based,slow on industrializationKing Cotton: Cotton = 57% of US exports...thoughtthey could be self-sufficient and support their owneconomy w/ thisFire-eaters: extremist pro-slavery politicians...urged theConfederate St.s of Amer.
  • 36. King Cotton advertisement
  • 37. SECESSION?WHY?Lincoln’s ElectionKing CottonSlavery debateConfederate States of America: (1861-65) 11 statesseceded from the Union and became an independentgovernment; prez. = Jefferson Davis *US is being tornapart!*
  • 38. Confederate flag
  • 39. THE WAR BEGINS...Fort Sumter: (1861) SC demands that the US evacuatethe ft., wouldn’t so = siege. Union surrenders/Confed.wins *1st battle of the Civil War*Repressible or irrepressible?WHY?
  • 40. The war begins...
  • 41. BIBLIOGRAPHYBillington, Ray Allen. American History Before 1877.Totowa: Rowman & Littlefield Publishers, 1968.Boyer, Paul, Clifford Clark, Joseph Kett, Neal Salisbury,Harvard Sitkoff, and Nancy Woloch, ed. EnduringVisison. 4th. Boston: Houghton Mifflin Company, Print.Miss Connolly :)