Fluvioglacial Processes And Landforms
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  • 1. Fluvioglacial Processes and Landforms
  • 2. Meltwater streams
    Warm based glaciers produce the most meltwater
    Tunnel
    Snout
    Meltwater channel
  • 3. Fluvioglacial deposits come from glacial meltwater
    Features formed by glacial deposition are different from those from fluvioglacial deposits.
    Retreating glacier
    Braided channels
    Terminal moraine
    Tunnel
  • 4. Fluvioglacial deposits come from glacial meltwater
    Glacial deposits are unsorted whilst fluvioglacial deposits are sorted
    Retreating glacier
    Braided channels
    Terminal moraine
    Tunnel
  • 5. Features of fluvioglacial deposition
    Terminal moraine
    Kettle holes
    Kame terrace
    Kame
    Esker
  • 6. Sorting effect of fluvioglacial deposition
    Because of the effect that water has is similar to that of rivers the heaviest deposits are deposited first followed by the smaller and finer sand and finally clay.
    Outwash plain
    Gravel Sand Clay
  • 7. Kettle Holes
    Blocks of ice that have broken off the glacier get surrounded and buried by glacial deposits
    When the ice melts they leave holes in the outwash plain called kettle holes.
  • 8. Eskers
    Eskers are long winding ridges of sand and gravel that run in the same direction as the glacier.
    They’re deposited by meltwater streams flowing in tunnels under the ice.
    When the glacier retreats the stream dries up and the load remains as an esker.
  • 9. Kames
    Kames are mounds of sand and gravel found on the valley floor.
    Meltwater streams on top of glaciers collect in ice depressions and deposit layers of sediment.
    When the ice melts the debris is deposited on the floor.
  • 10. Kame Terraces
    Kame terraces are piles of deposits left agains the valley wall by meltwater streams that run between glaciers and the valley sides.
    The look like lateral moraine but they are sorted into layers
    Meltwater streams deposit the heaviest layers first, so they have gravel at the bottom and clay at the top.
  • 11. Proglacial lakes
    Proglacial lakes can form in front of glaciers
    Tunnel
    Meltwater streams
    Terminal moraine
    Proglacial lake
    Glacier
  • 12. How Proglacial lakes can form
    Proglacial lakes can form in front of glaciers
    This is usually when water from meltwater streams gets dammed by terminal moraine
    As the meltwater flows into the proglacial lake they slow down and deposit their load on the ice
    These deposits are dumped on the valley floor when the glacier retreats and the lake disappears and form delta kames