What to expect this semester:
Lots of reading
Notes in class
Syllabus overview (Blackboard)
Login for posttests
Need your cell phone
Beliefs about reading: I think that reading is not a linear process
Some stages, steps, and skills have a reciprocal relationship with
the skill before and after it.
For example - the Big 5 (phonics, phonemic awareness, vocabulary,
fluency, and comprehension)
The best readers have a pocket FULL of strategies that they use,
including letter sounds, affix knowledge, analogical (like word family
associations), context clues, and sight vocabulary.
The more we can teach children to use multiple strategies, the
better readers they will become.
My strongest belief about reading and teaching children to read is that
children learn to read by being talked to, read to, and demonstrated a
genuine love of reading consistently at an early age.
I believe vocabulary is a key factor in early reading acquisition. Children
who are talked to and read to often develop strong vocabularies, an
understanding of story, and the purpose and function of language, which
are all essential for learning to read. (Morgan Blanton, Title One Reading
Teacher, Casar Elementary)
Students who are not talked to, read to, and demonstrated a
love of reading consistently typically struggle with reading.
Addressing skills such as phonemic awareness, phonics and
fluency can make a significant improvement in reading skills
of students who would have otherwise struggled without
activities to nurture these skills.
I believe providing opportunities to read to students,
teachers to share favorite texts, for students to share
favorite texts, compare and contrast texts, make
connections, book discussions, etc. encourage a true love of
reading which will last into adulthood.
This should be our goal as educators.
I believe forcing students to read, reading to accumulate
points, forcing memorized word lists, over focused emphasis
on test taking skills, etc. do not promote a true development
of life long readers. (Gina Gold, CCS Curriculum/Technology
It is one of the most important things we do.
It is really intrinsic in every other thing we do, because in teaching
them to read, you enable the students to learn and grow in every other
Every part of reading is important, the phonics, the vocabulary, the
fluency, comprehension. Some learners respond best to certain
aspects, so it is our responsibility to put it all out there in ways they
Your room can be a reading lesson: if items are
labeled, schedules are posted, etc. Songs, poems, mysteries, fables,
etc. grab students attention and you can sneak reading skills in there
without the students even knowing it. Reading lessons can be both
deliberate and intentional: " Today we will practice the following
consonant diagrams", etc. OR come as result of a word a child cannot
decode or due to something that the student saw on the news.
All are important, but the most important thing is that the
from us a positive attitude about "all things reading"!
(Robin Thurkill, 2nd
Grade Teacher, Boiling Springs Elementary)
“We shouldn't teach
great books; we
should teach a love
B. F. Skinner
What factors influence how
we teach reading?
How each reading teacher
arrives at excellence can be
very different according to
Latisha’s view: Systematic
When children decode words
accurately and quickly, they are in a
better position to comprehend what
they read than children who are not
accurate and automatic deoders.
(Vacca, pg 7)
Logical instructional sequence
Arch’s View: Constructivist View
Children who engage in authentic
literacy will search for meaning in all
that they read and write (Vacca, pg 7)
Focused on needs of individual child
Teacher helps the child negotiate text
by meeting the most immediate
Instruction based on individual
According to the IRA,
Teachers make a difference in children’s reading achievement and
motivation to read. That’s why every child deserves to have an
excellent teacher in her or his classroom.
Excellent reading teachers
Understand how literacy develops in children
Can assess progress and relate instruction to previous experience
Know a variety of ways to teach reading
Provide a range of materials and texts for children to read
Tailor instruction to individual students
Excellent reading teachers also motivate children, encourage independent
learning, have high expectations for achievement, and help children who are
having difficulty. They understand that reading development begins well
before children enter school and continues throughout the school years—and
To ensure that children have the excellent teachers they deserve, IRA
Teachers must view themselves as lifelong learners
Administrators must be instructional leaders
Teacher educators must provide their students with a solid knowledge
base and extensive supervised practice
Legislators and policymakers must understand the complex roles of the
Parents, community members, and teachers must join in providing
learners with rich opportunities to explore, practice, and develop literacy
(IRA Position Statement on Excellent Teachers, www.reading.org)
Where does all of this come from?
National Reading Panel assessed
the status of scientifically based
reading strategies and gave
recommendations on use of these
strategies as a way to increase
student achievement (released in
But the IRA’s position is “No single
study ever establishes a program or
practice as effective; moreover, it is a
convergence of evidence from a
variety of study designs that is
ultimately scientifically convincing”
(IRA, 2002b, p.1)
– NOT programs.
According to Karchmer, Mallette, Kara-Soteriou, and
Leu (2005) “new literacies” are the knowledge, skills,
strategies, and dispositions needed to use and adapt to
constantly changing information and communication
technologies. Developing new literacies is dependent
on teachers’ belief systems and relies on their
professional expertise and their evaluation of current
technology to succesfully integrate technology in their
classrooms. (Vacca, pg 9)
Why not a consensus on effective
Using several methods instead of one approach
empowers educators to apply their own
knowledge and expertise.
Children are different.
Reading is a process not an act that has many
areas that grow and change.
Our belief systems are different.
(Farstrup page 1)
So How Do Teacher’s Know This?
Jean Piaget’s theory of constructivism explains the
acquisition of knowledge: Children do not internalize
knowledge directly from the outside but construct it from
interactions with the environment.
Apply this acquisition of knowledge to teachers and it
shows that teacher’s engage in the process of seeking
and making meaning about how to teach through
personal, practical, and professional experiences.
Grows out your history as a reader and writer.
What are some of your specific influences
(people, processes, and/or things?) when it
comes to reading and writing? Are all positive?
Why or why not?
Reading autobiographical narrative (page 12)
Similar to personal knowledge because it is based on experiences
in and out of the classroom.
The more you observe children and the instructional practices
involved in teaching reading the more begin to develop your own
theories about best practices and strategies.
Often you find differences in what you are learning in college
and what is actually taking place in classrooms – and that is OK!
Field experiences are imperative – watching teaching and talking
Teaching extends beyond the classroom into the community.
Beliefs may be influenced greatly by colleagues, administration, curriculum,
school board policies, district requirements, testing, public opinion, and other
Acquired from ongoing study of the practice of teaching
Professional organizations, such at the International
Reading Association, often refer to what teacher’s
Should be grounded in current theory, research, and
Theories influence our way of knowing influences our
way of teaching (planning, use and selection of text,
learner interaction, assessment, etc.) influences
students’ reading performance influences attitudes
flour wiggle come stove investigate girl door yell
the beautiful girl ran down the steep hill
Association between graphemes (Letters) and Phonemes
Written English contains predictable patterns that skilled readers
are able to associate with sounds rapidly and accurately (Vacca,
Skillful readers chunk words into syllables automatically because
of knowledge of spelling patterns or orthographic knowledge. It is
so thoroughly learned that skilled readers do not have to put any
energy into word identification.
Words are the primary units of written language beginning
readers need to develop word-reading skills important to
learning to read
The procedure is actually quite simple. First you arrange things into different
groups. Of course, one pile may be sufficient depending on how much there is
to do. If you have to go somewhere else due to lack of facilities that is the
next step, otherwise you are pretty well set. It is important not to overdo
things. That is, it is better to do too few things at once than too many. In the
short run this may not seem important but complications can easily arise. A
mistake can be expensive as well. At first the whole procedure will seem
complicated. Soon, however, it will become just another facet of life. It is
difficult to foresee any end to the necessity for this task in the immediate
future, but then one never can tell, After the procedure is completed one
arranges the materials into different groups again. Then they can be put into
their appropriate places. Eventually they will be used once more and the
whole cycle will then have to be repeated. However, that is part of life.
What in the world is going on here?
Bransford, J.D., & Johnson, M.K. (1972). Contextual prerequisites for understanding: Some investigations of
comprehension and recall. Journal of Verbal Learning and Verbal Behavior, 11, 717-726.
Schemata – reflects the prior knowledge, experiences, conceptual
understandings, attitudes, values, skills, and procedures a reader
brings to a situation (Vacca, pg 18)
Schema is described as the process humans use to organize and
construct meaning in their head.
Directly influences reading and comprehension in three ways
a. Provides a framework for readers to organize text efficiently and
effectively (putting new information into old information)
b. Allows the reader to make inferences (predicting what will or might
happen next) to help fill in the gaps
c. Helps readers to elaborate on the material
Self–knowledge – what we know about ourselves as
readers and learners (Do children know what
reading is for?)
Task knowledge – Knowledge of reading and the
strategies that can be used in a given instance
(Knowing what to do when you don’t understand –
pocketful of strategies)
Self–monitoring – Ability to monitor by keeping track of
comprehension (Automatic pilot)
When the parts of language are taught in
isolation then learning to read can be very
Support for holistic (whole language) reading
comes from two areas of language study:
Psycholinguistics – reading is an active process that
combines the how and the why of language
Sociolinguistics – language is used for
Readers act on and interact with written language
in an effort to make sense of text.
Graphophonemic System – The print itself…the more
experience readers have with written language the
more they learn about the sounds of letters and words.
Syntactic System – Readers use their knowledge of the
arrangement of words in a sentence to construct
meaning from the text.
Semantic System – Schemata that readers bring to the
Ten uses of language:
1. Instrumental – to get something
2. Regulatory – controls behavior, attitude, etc. of others.
3. Interactional – Getting along with or separating from others.
4. Personal – Individuality
5. Heuristic – Seeking knowledge
7. Representational – Information, propositions, etc.
8. Divertive – Jokes, puns, etc.
9. Authoritative/contractual – Laws, regulations, etc.
10. Perpetuating – Histories, diaries, notes, etc.
Four expectations (strategies) of beginning readers:
1. Text Intent – Language is expected to be
2. Negotiability – Use whatever knowledge they
have about text to make the print meaningful;
give and take process
3. Risk-taking – Experiment with the uses of
4. Fine-tuning – The more they read and interact
with text the better they become at constructing
Models of Reading
Bottom-Up: Print Letters
Spelling Patterns Words
Sentence Paragraph Text
Top-Down: Predictions about the
print Decoding to test predictions
Interactive – Combines prior
knowledge with semantics,
graphophonemics, and syntax.
“Data” driven – Letters and words
Automaticity – automatic recognition of
letter, word, text
Visually driven – text is extremely
Decoding must become automatic so that
comprehension can take place
Prior knowledge is important
Conceptually driven – reader’s
mind triggers processing during
Very non-visual – what’s in your
head is more important
Rarely is reading totally top-down or bottom-up
When readers bring a lot of topic knowledge to
the text then their experiences are more active
and there is very little use of graphophonemic
When readers have little experience with the
topic then they rely much more on print and text
clues and are more passive readers.
Write down three things you
learned tonight about reading.
Write down two things you want to
know more about.
Write down one question you still
Chapters 1, 3, and 4 Posttest
Bring read-aloud book to class on
1/31 instead of 1/24
A particular slide catching your eye?
Clipping is a handy way to collect important slides you want to go back to later.