M. Short - CCC Online Class
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  • 1. EDUC 302: Literacy Foundations Missy Short rshort@gardner-webb.edu rshort@clevelandcountyschools.org
  • 2. Introductions:  Me  You – 20 Questions
  • 3. What to expect this semester:  Lots of reading   Notes in class  Field experiences  Challenges  Opportunities  Strategies (notebook/file)  Syllabus overview (Blackboard)  http://www.myeducationlab.com/  Login for posttests  cm323808
  • 4. Survey:  Need your cell phone  www.polleverywhere.com  Literacy Survey
  • 5. Beliefs about reading: I think that reading is not a linear process  Some stages, steps, and skills have a reciprocal relationship with the skill before and after it.  For example - the Big 5 (phonics, phonemic awareness, vocabulary, fluency, and comprehension)  The best readers have a pocket FULL of strategies that they use, including letter sounds, affix knowledge, analogical (like word family associations), context clues, and sight vocabulary.  The more we can teach children to use multiple strategies, the better readers they will become.  My strongest belief about reading and teaching children to read is that children learn to read by being talked to, read to, and demonstrated a genuine love of reading consistently at an early age.  I believe vocabulary is a key factor in early reading acquisition. Children who are talked to and read to often develop strong vocabularies, an understanding of story, and the purpose and function of language, which are all essential for learning to read. (Morgan Blanton, Title One Reading Teacher, Casar Elementary)
  • 6.  Students who are not talked to, read to, and demonstrated a love of reading consistently typically struggle with reading. Addressing skills such as phonemic awareness, phonics and fluency can make a significant improvement in reading skills of students who would have otherwise struggled without activities to nurture these skills.  I believe providing opportunities to read to students, teachers to share favorite texts, for students to share favorite texts, compare and contrast texts, make connections, book discussions, etc. encourage a true love of reading which will last into adulthood.  This should be our goal as educators.  I believe forcing students to read, reading to accumulate points, forcing memorized word lists, over focused emphasis on test taking skills, etc. do not promote a true development of life long readers. (Gina Gold, CCS Curriculum/Technology Coordinator)
  • 7.  It is one of the most important things we do.  It is really intrinsic in every other thing we do, because in teaching them to read, you enable the students to learn and grow in every other area.  Every part of reading is important, the phonics, the vocabulary, the fluency, comprehension. Some learners respond best to certain aspects, so it is our responsibility to put it all out there in ways they can understand.  Your room can be a reading lesson: if items are labeled, schedules are posted, etc. Songs, poems, mysteries, fables, etc. grab students attention and you can sneak reading skills in there without the students even knowing it. Reading lessons can be both deliberate and intentional: " Today we will practice the following consonant diagrams", etc. OR come as result of a word a child cannot decode or due to something that the student saw on the news.  All are important, but the most important thing is that the children "catch“ from us a positive attitude about "all things reading"! (Robin Thurkill, 2nd Grade Teacher, Boiling Springs Elementary)
  • 8. “We shouldn't teach great books; we should teach a love of reading.”  B. F. Skinner
  • 9. Knowledge and Beliefs About Reading Chapter 1
  • 10.  What factors influence how we teach reading?
  • 11. However…..  How each reading teacher arrives at excellence can be very different according to belief systems.
  • 12. Latisha’s view: Systematic Instructional Approach  When children decode words accurately and quickly, they are in a better position to comprehend what they read than children who are not accurate and automatic deoders. (Vacca, pg 7)  Direct teaching  Logical instructional sequence
  • 13. Arch’s View: Constructivist View  Children who engage in authentic literacy will search for meaning in all that they read and write (Vacca, pg 7)  Focused on needs of individual child  Teacher helps the child negotiate text by meeting the most immediate instructional needs  Instruction based on individual progress
  • 14. According to the IRA, excellent teachers…. Teachers make a difference in children’s reading achievement and motivation to read. That’s why every child deserves to have an excellent teacher in her or his classroom. Excellent reading teachers  Understand how literacy develops in children  Can assess progress and relate instruction to previous experience  Know a variety of ways to teach reading  Provide a range of materials and texts for children to read  Tailor instruction to individual students
  • 15. Excellent reading teachers also motivate children, encourage independent learning, have high expectations for achievement, and help children who are having difficulty. They understand that reading development begins well before children enter school and continues throughout the school years—and beyond.  To ensure that children have the excellent teachers they deserve, IRA advocates that  Teachers must view themselves as lifelong learners  Administrators must be instructional leaders  Teacher educators must provide their students with a solid knowledge base and extensive supervised practice  Legislators and policymakers must understand the complex roles of the teacher  Parents, community members, and teachers must join in providing learners with rich opportunities to explore, practice, and develop literacy  (IRA Position Statement on Excellent Teachers, www.reading.org)
  • 16. Where does all of this come from? National Reading Panel assessed the status of scientifically based reading strategies and gave recommendations on use of these strategies as a way to increase student achievement (released in 2000)
  • 17.  But the IRA’s position is “No single study ever establishes a program or practice as effective; moreover, it is a convergence of evidence from a variety of study designs that is ultimately scientifically convincing” (IRA, 2002b, p.1)
  • 18. TEACHERS produce effective reading instruction and student achievement – NOT programs.
  • 19. New Literacies  According to Karchmer, Mallette, Kara-Soteriou, and Leu (2005) “new literacies” are the knowledge, skills, strategies, and dispositions needed to use and adapt to constantly changing information and communication technologies. Developing new literacies is dependent on teachers’ belief systems and relies on their professional expertise and their evaluation of current technology to succesfully integrate technology in their classrooms. (Vacca, pg 9)
  • 20. List of New Literacies
  • 21. Why not a consensus on effective reading instruction?  Using several methods instead of one approach empowers educators to apply their own knowledge and expertise.  Children are different.  Reading is a process not an act that has many areas that grow and change.  Our belief systems are different.  (Farstrup page 1)
  • 22. So How Do Teacher’s Know This?  Jean Piaget’s theory of constructivism explains the acquisition of knowledge: Children do not internalize knowledge directly from the outside but construct it from interactions with the environment.  Apply this acquisition of knowledge to teachers and it shows that teacher’s engage in the process of seeking and making meaning about how to teach through personal, practical, and professional experiences.
  • 23. Personal Knowledge  Grows out your history as a reader and writer.  What are some of your specific influences (people, processes, and/or things?) when it comes to reading and writing? Are all positive? Why or why not?  Reading autobiographical narrative (page 12)
  • 24. Practical Knowledge  Similar to personal knowledge because it is based on experiences in and out of the classroom.  The more you observe children and the instructional practices involved in teaching reading the more begin to develop your own theories about best practices and strategies.  Often you find differences in what you are learning in college and what is actually taking place in classrooms – and that is OK!  Field experiences are imperative – watching teaching and talking to teachers.  Teaching extends beyond the classroom into the community.  Beliefs may be influenced greatly by colleagues, administration, curriculum, school board policies, district requirements, testing, public opinion, and other factors.
  • 25. Professional Knowledge  Acquired from ongoing study of the practice of teaching  Professional organizations, such at the International Reading Association, often refer to what teacher’s should know.  Should be grounded in current theory, research, and practice.  Theories influence our way of knowing  influences our way of teaching (planning, use and selection of text, learner interaction, assessment, etc.)  influences students’ reading performance  influences attitudes toward reading
  • 26. xmrbacdy boragle institution flour wiggle come stove investigate girl door yell the beautiful girl ran down the steep hill
  • 27. List 1  scrass  sook  tolly  amittature  lanfication  tblc  gfpv  oeaiu  rtbm  gdhtaiueo List 2
  • 28. Cognitive Insights  Alphabetic principle  Association between graphemes (Letters) and Phonemes (Letter Sounds)  Written English contains predictable patterns that skilled readers are able to associate with sounds rapidly and accurately (Vacca, pg 17)  Skillful readers chunk words into syllables automatically because of knowledge of spelling patterns or orthographic knowledge. It is so thoroughly learned that skilled readers do not have to put any energy into word identification.  Words are the primary units of written language  beginning readers need to develop word-reading skills  important to learning to read
  • 29. The procedure is actually quite simple. First you arrange things into different groups. Of course, one pile may be sufficient depending on how much there is to do. If you have to go somewhere else due to lack of facilities that is the next step, otherwise you are pretty well set. It is important not to overdo things. That is, it is better to do too few things at once than too many. In the short run this may not seem important but complications can easily arise. A mistake can be expensive as well. At first the whole procedure will seem complicated. Soon, however, it will become just another facet of life. It is difficult to foresee any end to the necessity for this task in the immediate future, but then one never can tell, After the procedure is completed one arranges the materials into different groups again. Then they can be put into their appropriate places. Eventually they will be used once more and the whole cycle will then have to be repeated. However, that is part of life. What in the world is going on here? Bransford, J.D., & Johnson, M.K. (1972). Contextual prerequisites for understanding: Some investigations of comprehension and recall. Journal of Verbal Learning and Verbal Behavior, 11, 717-726.
  • 30.  Schemata – reflects the prior knowledge, experiences, conceptual understandings, attitudes, values, skills, and procedures a reader brings to a situation (Vacca, pg 18)  Schema is described as the process humans use to organize and construct meaning in their head.  Directly influences reading and comprehension in three ways a. Provides a framework for readers to organize text efficiently and effectively (putting new information into old information) b. Allows the reader to make inferences (predicting what will or might happen next) to help fill in the gaps c. Helps readers to elaborate on the material Cognitive Insights
  • 31. Cognitive Insights  Metacognition:  Self–knowledge – what we know about ourselves as readers and learners (Do children know what reading is for?)  Task knowledge – Knowledge of reading and the strategies that can be used in a given instance (Knowing what to do when you don’t understand – pocketful of strategies)  Self–monitoring – Ability to monitor by keeping track of comprehension (Automatic pilot)
  • 32. Language  When the parts of language are taught in isolation then learning to read can be very difficult.  Support for holistic (whole language) reading comes from two areas of language study:  Psycholinguistics – reading is an active process that combines the how and the why of language  Sociolinguistics – language is used for communication
  • 33. Language: Psycholinguistics Readers act on and interact with written language in an effort to make sense of text.  Graphophonemic System – The print itself…the more experience readers have with written language the more they learn about the sounds of letters and words.  Syntactic System – Readers use their knowledge of the arrangement of words in a sentence to construct meaning from the text.  Semantic System – Schemata that readers bring to the text
  • 34. Language: Sociolinguistics Ten uses of language: 1. Instrumental – to get something 2. Regulatory – controls behavior, attitude, etc. of others. 3. Interactional – Getting along with or separating from others. 4. Personal – Individuality 5. Heuristic – Seeking knowledge 6. Imaginative 7. Representational – Information, propositions, etc. 8. Divertive – Jokes, puns, etc. 9. Authoritative/contractual – Laws, regulations, etc. 10. Perpetuating – Histories, diaries, notes, etc.
  • 35. Four expectations (strategies) of beginning readers: 1. Text Intent – Language is expected to be meaningful 2. Negotiability – Use whatever knowledge they have about text to make the print meaningful; give and take process 3. Risk-taking – Experiment with the uses of language 4. Fine-tuning – The more they read and interact with text the better they become at constructing meaning.
  • 36. Models of Reading  Bottom-Up: Print  Letters  Spelling Patterns  Words  Sentence  Paragraph  Text  Top-Down: Predictions about the print  Decoding to test predictions  Interactive – Combines prior knowledge with semantics, graphophonemics, and syntax.
  • 37. Bottom-Up Reading  “Data” driven – Letters and words  Automaticity – automatic recognition of letter, word, text  Visually driven – text is extremely important  Decoding must become automatic so that comprehension can take place
  • 38. Top-Down Reading  Prior knowledge is important  Conceptually driven – reader’s mind triggers processing during reading  Very non-visual – what’s in your head is more important
  • 39. Interactive  Rarely is reading totally top-down or bottom-up  When readers bring a lot of topic knowledge to the text then their experiences are more active and there is very little use of graphophonemic information.  When readers have little experience with the topic then they rely much more on print and text clues and are more passive readers.
  • 40. Summary  3-2-1 Strategy  Write down three things you learned tonight about reading.  Write down two things you want to know more about.  Write down one question you still have.
  • 41. Due 1/24  Chapters 1, 3, and 4 Posttest  Reading Autobiography  Bring read-aloud book to class on 1/31 instead of 1/24