The Mediterranean Sea was a body of water the Italian Peninsula extended into.
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The Rhine and Danube Rivers were two rivers that bordered the northern part of the Roman Empire.
There were seven hills Rome settled on or bordered.
Aventine was the hill Remus chose to live on and so did many Plebeians. The Plebeians also built a temple to Ceres.
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Capitoline held many fortresses and held temples to Jupiter Optimus Maximus, Juno Moneta, and Concord.
The temple of Magma Mater was located on Palentine.
Spain was the western boundary of the Roman Empire at its height.
The Sahara Desert was the southern boundary of the Roman Empire at its height.
Northeast Africa, which was Carthage at that time, bordered Rome across the Mediterranean Sea whom Rome finally conquered in the Third Punic War.
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Gaul was northern land invaded by Caesar, secured under Claudius.
Neighboring lands and their Geography
Carthage was mountainy, tropical, and green.
Today’s Sicily was once Carthage property and Sicily is an island off the Italian peninsula.
The Sahara was south of Rome. The Sahara was complete desert, dry and sandy.
The Etruscans believed that gods gave them signs of nature.
Etruscans thought they could predict good harvests by studying the migration of birds.
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Etruscans diviners used the stars to plan the layouts of their town plan
They also read the organs of animals before conducting burials.
Christian artists believed that their art should portray religious ideas than aspects of human life.
When a Christian would die they would be buried in a catacomb because the Christians believed that they bury their dead together so
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that they could be easily reunited in the next life.
Christians believed in one god only who controls life on earth and life after death.
When Romans died their bodies would be cremated and left over ashes would be kept.
At Roman religious ceremonies, Romans sacrificed animals to please their gods.
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Also, Romans believed that their recently deceased emperor was a god.
Jews and their beliefs
Hadrian treated the Jews poorly during his reign, so the Jews led a revolt in which five hundred thousand Jews died.
Jews believed in the Messiah, but rejected the belief that Jesus, the god’s sacred son, resurrected.
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Some Jews accepted Roman rule. They accepted Herod, a non Jew, whom the Romans made king.
System of Law
Early Roman law was written down on tablets.
These tablets were displayed at the Forum, which was Rome’s city square.
These laws would have to be obeyed by all citizens of Rome.
An accused person was considered guilty until proven guilty.
Military and the Dome
Romans knew how to make pillars and arches, so started “thinking out of the box.”
They knew how to handle concrete so after the walls were finished of a structure were finished, they hoisted a dome on the top and put it in place.
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The dome was found in many public places in Rome.
The army of Rome was made up of six thousand legions.
Every citizen in the Roman Empire who owned land must have served in the army.
Artists filled structures with colorful mosaics, which were bits of tile and other material put together to make one big picture.
Sculptures were popular, too. Statues of gods and important officials stood in markets, temples, and other places.
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Skillful artisans made jars, vases, mirrors, combs, and pins.
Hadrian was a Roman emperor who encouraged the spread of Greek culture throughout the empire.
Hadrian traveled throughout the empire to build and rebuild new structures, and to listen to the concerns of the inhabitants of each province.
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Hadrian kept peace in every province except Judea.
Jews became angry and led a revolt regarding his care for Judea. After the revolt five hundred thousand Jews died fighting the Romans
Augustus built new roads in the empire to improve trade and communication.
Augustus restored eighty two temples and theaters.
Augustus paid governors well and let them serve in office longer to help improve provinces.
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Augustus built police departments to reduce crime.
Fall of Rome
Social causes affected the fall of Rome because there was a decline in city population and an increase in slavery.
Political causes affected the fall of Rome because there was a weak central government and the empire was divided.
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Military causes affected the falloff Rome because armies were made up of many foreign soldiers and invasions occurred.
Economic causes affected the fall of Rome because of high taxes and trade and farming weakening.
Rome was a republic, which citizens held the power to vote.
Rulers who held absolute power for more than six month were called Consuls.
The twelve tablets were basic principles of Roman Law.
Through a vast network of concrete roads, trade took place.
As trade increased, provincial cities became centers of industry and commerce.
Ships carried wheat from Egypt to Italy and red pottery was exported west to Brittan and east to India.
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Throughout the Mediterranean Sea, Rome traded with Asia Minor, Syria, Brittan, Gaul, Spain, Macedonia, and Egypt.
During reign, Augustus issued a new currency in the form of coins.
The main coin was a denarius.
For example, a silver denarius was worth twelve times less than a gold one.
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The designs on the coin depicted the emperor and his building projects.
The price was increasing in Rome, at the time of its last days, because the lack of precious material to make a denarius.
A bag of wheat would cost one denarius, but since the price inflation occurred, it would then cost two hundred denarius.
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The inflation hurt commerce, because it made lack of money to supply the army.
The civil wars Rome was facing cost an enormous amount of money the supply the army.
In this case, the emperor had to raise the taxes and few people had high enough incomes to pay what they owned.
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One reason for peoples’ inability to pay their taxes was that the empire’s supply of gold and silver coins was declining.
In the family the father was the “boss.”
He could have the power to execute his relatives if they committed a wrong act that affected the whole family.
If a newborn was born with a problem, the father would choose if the baby lives with the family.
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If the baby was accepted into the family, the baby wears a bulla, necklace, and is taken care of.
If the baby was not accepted, the baby would be left outside to die.
They held debt bondage which means they owned property, and let others rent the space, but when that person couldn’t pay off their debt, Patricians gave them the “boot.”
Most of the government consisted of Patricians.
Patricians were leaders of Rome’s social and economic life.
Plebeians were considered Rome’s lower class.
Plebeians held little power in occupations and in general.
Plebeians could not hold political office, become priests or could not conduct religious ceremonies.
Wealthy Romans lived in hilltop mansions filled with luxury items and beautiful architecture.
These homes included mosaics, marble, dining rooms, and some included a private bath.
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On the other hand, poor Romans lived in cramped dirty and flammable apartments in the chaotic city.
These apartments were usually ten stories. It was dark and noisy. Many apartments included a portable stove which caused several fires to start.
I believe the most important idea about Ancient Rome, was system of law, because it kept Rome from chaos. These laws were supposed to be followed by all citizens. Laws were informed and strict, but kept Rome in a stable position.