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  • 2. Expansion
    • Rome conquered Gaul, Asia minor,Syria,and a part of north Africa by 44B.C.
    • Rome conquered Spain, Carthage, Sicily, Sardinia, and Macedonia Greece by 146B.C.
    • By 264B.C. Rome controlled all of Italy
  • 3. Location
    • Rome was located next to the Tiber River so that was Rome’s main water supply
    • Rome, despite its many mountains, had arable land meaning it was good farming land
    • Rome has many mountains but one main mountain range is the Apennines which had rivers flowing down them
    • Rome was in the Mediterranean Sea meaning they could travel by water and trade by water
  • 4. Boarder Invasions
    • Rome was mainly at war with Carthage
    • Carthage had a brilliant general named Hannibal who took 40,000 soldiers and 40 elephants to invade Northern Italy
    • The Romans worst defeat came at a fort called Cannae in Southern Italy when 45,000 Roman soldiers were killed
    • Rome finally started the third Punic War where the Romans burned Carthage to the ground and plowed salt into its fields
  • 5. Trade Routes
    • Since the Romans controlled the Mediterranean shipping goods by sea was safe
    • The Romans linked their empire together with a vast network of paved roads that were meant for military purposes but goods also traveled on the roads
    • The Roman trade routes extended well beyond the empire
    • The Romans trade routes went through many places such as Egypt, Macedonia, Spain, Carthage, and many more
  • 7. Christianity
    • After the death of Jesus the apostle Peter became the leader of the disciples
    • The Roman roads made it possible for Christians and their ideas to move across the empire
    • When a great fire destroyed much of Rome, the emperor Nero blamed it on the Christians so, many Christians were rounded up and killed
    • Romans tolerated most religions as long as everyone worshipped the Roman emperor as a god, but the Christians refused and faced waves of persecution
  • 8. Judaism
    • The Jews resented Rome, They saw the Romans as unbelievers occupying their land
    • The Jews were divided by religious differences, some priests focused on protecting the temple even when they needed the Romans help, while others moved to caves where they would be left alone
    • Jesus had angered religious leaders by criticizing the way money was being used in the temple
  • 9. Greek Mythology
    • Greeks conducted elaborate rituals and sacrifices to ensure the favor of their god
    • Greek gods and goddesses controlled all aspects of life including founding cities, healing the sick, and victory in battles
    • Zeus was the god of the sky and the ruler of the Olympian gods and he held a thunder bolt as a weapon and would hurl it at those who displeased him
  • 10. Etruscan Mysticism
    • The Etruscans believed that gods gave them signs in nature
    • The Etruscans thought they could predict harvests by bird migrations
    • The Etruscan diviners used the stars to plan the layouts of their towns and read the livers of animals before conducting burials
  • 12. System of Laws
    • The Romans took the rule of law further by setting up a court system with judges, lawyers, and juries
    • One law the Romans believe was if a slave committed theft or did damage with his masters knowledge, the action or damage is in the slaves name
    • Another law is if anyone summons a man before the magistrate, he must go, if the man does not go they may take him by force
    • Today we use laws to live by and hold order in society to prevent theft and murder
  • 13. Development of Aqueducts
    • Roman engineers designed aqueducts to supply towns with clean water
    • Wealthy Romans had water piped directly to their homes
    • Water flowed through a system of lead pipes which ran into public fountains where poor people got their water
    • Other water pipes supplied water to the public baths found in every city
  • 14. Republican Form of Government
    • The Roman republic government let the Roman citizens elect their leaders
    • The Roman government had two bodies of law : the Senate and the Assembly
    • The Roman government says all citizens are equal before the law
  • 15. Network of Concrete Roads
    • More than 50,000 miles of straight paved roads crisscrossed the empire
    • The Roman roads linked cities and military forts
    • Roman roads were built to last a long time
    • Roman roads were built to mainly move the army quicker from place to place
  • 16. POLITICS
  • 17. Augustus Rule
    • While Augustus was the emperor he opened up the senate to all men, not just members of old patrician families
    • Augustus claimed Caesar was sitting among the gods and being Caesars heir this made him the son of a god
    • To avoid the same fate as Julius Caesar, Augustus offered to give up the throne but, when the people demanded he be absolute ruler he accepted gracefully
  • 18. Trajan Rule
    • Trajan decreased taxes for the Roman citizens
    • To stop starvation Trajan increased the distribution of food
    • Trajan built bridges to cross rivers and streams
    • He was very efficient in controlling provinces
  • 19. Hadrian Rule
    • Hadrian encouraged Greek culture within the Roman empire
    • Hadrian built an 80 mile wall around Rome to protect it from invaders
    • Hadrian divided Italy into four regions to settle legal matters quickly
    • Hadrian built new structures and helped reform the legal system
  • 20. The Senate
    • The Senate was the second branch of government that represented the tradition of oligarchy
    • In the republic, the Senate continued to advise consuls, it also controlled state finances and passed laws
    • The original Roman Senate had 300 members who served for life, they came from the oldest and richest Patrician families in Rome
  • 21. ECONOMY
  • 22. Farming
    • Farming was the foundation of the Roman economy, the most important crop was grain
    • Farmers paid their taxes in grain
    • The city of Rome was a huge market for grain, olive oil, and other farm products
  • 23. Inflation
    • Emperors tried to increase the money supply by issuing coins made of less precious metals
    • When merchants realized that coins were being made of less precious they raised their prices
    • A bag of wheat that had cost one denarius a century earlier rose in price to 200 denarius
    • As money lost its value, tax collectors began seizing food, clothing, wagons, and other valuable and necessary goods as payment of taxes
  • 24. Trade
    • Grain was shipped to Rome’s widespread armies for soldiers to eat
    • Ships carried wheat from Egypt to Italy, silver bowls and bronze ware were shipped to Russia and Northern Europe
    • Ships also carried wine, olive oil, and pottery to Europe and the Greek islands
    • Red pottery was exported west to Britain and east to India, Romans also imported luxury goods such as silk from as far away as China
  • 25. Military Spending
    • Military spending left few resources for other vital activities such as providing public housing and maintaining the quality of public roads
    • In the later years of the empire, frustrated Romans lost their desire to defend the empire so the government paid mercenaries from other countries
    • The army was not only reliable but expensive thus the emperors were forced to raise taxes frequently
  • 27. Plebeians
    • The Plebeians were the poor Romans
    • Poor Plebeians lived at the top of buildings where there was rarely running water
    • The poor Plebeians also known as clients could not afford the spacious rooms on the bottom so they lived in the smaller and less expensive apartments above
  • 28. Patricians
    • Patricians also known as patrons were wealthy Romans who offered their assistance to Plebeians
    • Patricians helped the less fortunate because they would receive something in return
    • A Plebeian who was helped by a patrician would support the political careers of their patron
    • A Patrician would provide money and other forms of aid, such as help in legal matters
  • 29. Consuls
    • A Consul was a official appointed by the Roman government to reside in another country
    • Some Consuls led the army and the government, while others also acted as judges and high priests
    • When the Consuls left for war they sometimes appointed a dictator to serve in their place, Consuls appointed dictators for periods of six months.
    • In 458 B.C. the Consuls appointed a farmer soldier named Cincinnatus to serve as a dictator, according to legend he raised an army, defeated the enemy, and handed power back to the Consuls in just 16 days
  • 30. Tribunes
    • The Tribunes started in 471 B.C., the Plebeians went on strike and demanded their own voice in the government
    • The Tribunes represented the Plebeians interests in civic affairs.
    • The Tribunes had the power to veto or block a law they viewed unfair to the common people.
    • The Tribunes were in the interest of the common people such as state representatives in modern time
    • I believe expansion was the most interesting idea about the Roman Empire.I think it was important because it determined how far the empire stretched.Also since the slaves took most of the Roman jobs the expansion gave more land for new jobs and new jobs meant less homeless people.Even though expansion caused wars and death I think it was the most interesting idea about Rome.