Rome is surrounded by the Adriatic Sea, the Mediterranean Sea, the Syrian Desert and the Sahara Desert at Rome's height.
Rome is more specifically located in modern day Italy.
Rome’s most important river was the Tiber River which is right next to the city of Rome.
Rome came into conflict with many countries.
The main country that Rome came into conflict a lot with was Carthage. In fact, Rome and Carthage fought against each other in three different wars called the Punnic Wars.
In the first Punnic War Rome won, and with this victory came the island of Sicily and a huge navel fleet .
In the second Punnic War Rome won again. They got lots of money plus new Spanish territories.
In the third and last Punnic War Rome surrounded the city of Carthage and demanded that Carthage be re-built ten miles inward .The people of Carthage refused the proposal so the Romans attacked Carthage for three years. Eventually, Carthage lost and the Romans burned Carthage.
The most important neighboring countries of Rome were Gaul, Spain, Egypt, Carthage, Greece, and Syria.
Carthage was located south of the city of Rome.
Gaul and Spain were located west of the city of Rome.
Greece and Syria were located east of the city of Rome.
Egypt was located to the south- east of the city of Rome.
Origins Of Rome
There are two myths about the origins of Rome. One myth involves the Trojan hero Aeneas and the other involves two sons of Mars, Romulus and Remus.
Over time the two stories have combined into one story.
In the new story, Aeneas is the founder of the Roman people and Romulus and Remus are the founders of the city of Rome.
There is no archaeological evidence supporting or denying either of these myths.
Etruscan mysticism was based on the signs in nature that the gods apparently gave the Etruscans.
These “signs” told them almost everything from how to lay out a town to whether the year was going to be a bad year for harvesting crops.
They studied almost everything to find those “signs”.
Some things the Etruscans studied were bird migrations, lighting, stars, and even animal livers.
Christianity is based on the idea of one true god, who is suppose to come to Earth again. Jesus is considered the messiah that already came to Earth.
Christians study the bible, follow its virtues and pray to God.
Most Romans didn’t like Christianity because Romans felt that Christians would revolt and take over the Roman empire.
Even though most Romans didn’t want Christianity to spread Christianity did spread.
Romans believed in Polytheism, which is the belief in many gods.
Romans thought that their gods controlled every aspect of life.
Romans gave offerings like food and money to their gods. Romans also had shrines in their homes that honored their gods.
Roman beliefs came from Etruscan mysticism and Greek religion.
Judaism is pretty much exactly like Christianity except Jews believe that Jesus wasn’t the messiah.
Jews, just like Christians, were not liked by the Romans because they felt that the Jews would revolt and take over the Roman empire.
However, again like Christianity most Romans didn’t want Judaism to spread, but it did.
Network of Concrete Roads
A network of concrete roads in Rome was a incredible achievement because it allowed people to travel safer and faster.
Today our concrete roads may not make travel safer however, the roads do make travel faster as they did in Ancient Rome.
Roman roads and modern roads have one big difference. Roman roads were chunks of concrete rocks set into the ground. Modern Roads are slabs of Poured concrete.
Latin language is an achievement that marked Roman culture and many modern languages.
Latin was the official language in western Rome.
Today Latin may be referred to as a “dead language”, but almost all of the words in the English language have Latin roots. This makes Latin language an awesome achievement.
The Development of Aquaducts
The development of aquaducts is a monumental achievement.
Aquaducts carried water to Rome and different aquaducts carried sewage out of Rome.
The Roman aquaduct technology would not be matched until modern times.
Modern water systems are based on Rome’s aquaducts.
Roman System of Laws
The Roman system of laws was pretty much the beginning of written laws.
Rome’s written system of laws worked very well for keeping Rome’s legal system fair.
Today, most countries also have a written system of laws so their countries can have a fair legal system like Rome.
Etruscans lived just north of Latium in a area called Etruria.
Tarquin gained control over Rome around 600 B.C.E and he became Rome's first Etruscan king.
After Tarquin, the throne later passed to two other Etruscan kings.
Etruscan kings ruled with the consent of Rome's wealthy aristocrats and the kings called upon an assembly of citizens for the peoples opinion.
Etruscan kings introduced new technologies to the Romans like making arches and organizing gladiator sports.
Eventually Romans got tired of Etruscan rulers so some Romans deiced to revolt.
In 509 B.C.E the Romans over- threw the Etruscans and then established a Republic.
The Republic was ruled by two rulers called consuls.
Even though it was called a Republic it was actually a oligarchy with special features.
The Roman Empire
The Roman empire was ruled by a single ruler called the emperor.
Augustus was the first Roman emperor of Rome.
The empire began when Augustus won the civil war which occurred because of the assasination of Julius Caesar.
Nero had anyone he thought was a threat to his rule killed, which were mostly his relatives.
Nero sometimes locked people into theaters and forced them to listen to him sing and play the lyre. He also bribed contest judges.
Nero may have done some crazy things, but he managed to maintain a level of stability throughout the Roman Empire.
Grain, olive oil, wool, linen cloth, glass, pottery, ships and metal items were the main Roman exports.
Rome traded with Egypt, China, Europe, Britain, India, and Russia.
Red pottery was exported to Britain and India.
Silver bowls and bronze ware were shipped to Russia and Europe.
China supplied Rome with silk.
Roman currency was extremely stable because the main coin was the Gold Denarius.
The Gold Denarius was made of gold. Gold was 12 times more valuable than silver making the Denarius widely accepted.
The wide expectance of the Gold Denarius made the Roman currency very stable.
Roman coins advertised the Emperor and his building projects. It showed the people aspects about Rome so even if they never went to Rome they could still admire the cities beauty .
Inflation was caused by the Roman Empire wanting more money in circulation, so they used less precious metal per coin.
When merchants found out about the change in Roman coins metals they raised their prices.
Tax collectors started taking food, clothing, wagons, and other valuables after they found out about the change in Roman coins metals.
Many people believe that inflation helped lead to the fall of the Roman Empire.
Unemployment was caused by slaves.
Romans made prisoners of war slaves.
The slaves were cheaper to use than plebian farmers. That’s why many plebian farmers lost their jobs.
Unemployment was also considered one of the causes that lead to the fall of the Roman Empire.
Consuls were the highest officials in the Roman Republic.
There were two Consuls in the Roman Republic.
Each Consul had the power to block the other consuls decision.
Consuls could only rule for one year.
Patricians were the wealthy class of Rome.
Patricians took great pride in having famous relatives.
Patricians influenced the economy and the government.
Plebeians were the lowest class of Rome, considering that slaves are not a class.
Most Plebeians were poor.
Plebeians had little influence over the government and the economy.
Plebeians couldn’t be priests.
Many Plebeians had to take out a loan just to survive a year of bad harvest.
If a Roman didn’t pay his or her debt the loaner could sell the debtor into slavery.
Slaves had no freedom.
Slaves were used to farm and participate in gladiator activities.
Many slaves were prisoners of war or concord people.
Roman Culture has played a major role on modern society. For instance, concrete roads from Ancient Rome were the beginning of the complex road systems that we use today. The Democratic government the Untied States uses today is based on the Roman Republic. These are just some of the Roman Achievements that influence society in modern times.