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  • 1. Geography
  • 2. Location of Rome
    • Rome began in the center of the Italy.
    • It is located on the Italian Peninsula that stretches into the Mediterranean Sea.
    • Rome started on seven hills. One is called Palatine Hill.
    • Rome at its height covered some of Southern Europe and the whole Mediterranean region.
  • 3. Terrain
    • Terrain in Rome was hilly, green, and valley-like.
    • Rome had fertile soil along the coast of the Mediterranean Sea.
    • The climate in Rome has mild winters and warm, dry summers.
    • In Northern Rome, there are several large plains that are fertile for farming.
  • 4. Neighboring Countries
    • When Rome first started, Rome’s surrounding countries were Spain, Carthage, and Egypt.
    • Rome had expanded and controlled Spain by 133 b.c.
    • Rome and Carthage were huge rivals. As Carthage grew, the two empires competed for power over the Western Mediterranean, sparking the First Punic War.
    • Rome was attacking Egypt continuously until the empress of Egypt, Cleopatra attacked back.
  • 5. Geographical Features
    • Rome at its height surrounded the Mediterranean Sea which helped establish trade routes.
    • Just north of the Italian Peninsula are the Alps Mountains which helped when Hannibal moved his army through them and lost many troops.
    • East of the Italian Peninsula is the Adriatic Sea, which Rome used to trade with Greece and Macedonia.
  • 6. Religion
  • 7. Etruscan Mysticism
    • Etruscan Mysticism believed that gods gave signs through nature.
    • Etruscans thought they could predict good harvests by observing bird flocks.
    • Etruscan Diviners read entrails of animals before performing burials.
    • Etruscans tried to interpret lightning before going into battle.
  • 8. Christianity
    • Christian artists did not make art or sculptures in sacred places such as a church.
    • Christians do not cremate the dead, they bury the dead.
    • Christians worshiped in house-churches as to not attract attention to other people.
    • Christians believed in one true God, so they didn’t believe in a deceased emperor as a god.
  • 9. Rome’s Official Religion
    • Usually, top officials on government also served as priests.
    • At important events such as a wedding, religious rituals were always conducted.
    • Rome worshiped many gods many of which were adopted from Greek and Etruscan practices.
    • The supreme gods of Rome’s religion were Jupiter, Juno, Mars, and Minerva.
  • 10. Greek Mythology
    • Romans adopted the concept of believing in multiple gods from the Greeks.
    • In Greek Mythology, there are twelve gods, each representing one thing.
    • The three supreme gods are Zeus, god of the sky, Poseidon, god of the sea, and Hades, god of the underworld.
    • Greek Mythology says that there is an afterlife in the underworld.
  • 11. Achievements
  • 12. Development of Aqueducts
    • Romans adopted the aqueduct from the Etruscans.
    • Romans used aqueducts to channel drinking water to the city.
    • The longest aqueduct Romans have ever built is fifty nine miles long.
    • Americans also use aqueducts to channel drinking water to citizens.
  • 13. Network of Concrete Roads
    • Approximately fifty thousand miles of roads were built all across Rome.
    • Romans used roads to conveniently travel and move troops through the city.
    • Romans built milestones along roads which were like checkpoints to mark borderlines of cities
    • Americans have roads set up in a grid-like pattern to move through a city.
  • 14. Military Organization
    • Romans invented the legion, which is a unit of troops, usually 4,000 to 5,000 to enable troops to move over rough terrain.
    • Romans made ranks for the military, one is the Adscripticius, who filled the places of wounded or killed soldiers.
    • Rome did not have a strong navy until the First Punic War when they largely built a navy fleet.
    • The army of the late Roman Empire contained about 375,000 men
  • 15. System of Laws
    • Roman law was also applied in most of western Europe until the end of the eighteenth century.
    • Even today, many legal systems in Europe are similar to Rome’s.
    • Before the Twelve Tables, Roman private law only applied to Roman citizens.
    • Roots of Roman law have been said to come from Etruscan religion.
  • 16. Politics
  • 17. Etruscan Kings
    • Rome was originally ruled by Etruscan kings before the Republic.
    • A man named Romulus fought his brother, Remus for power over Rome.
    • Romulus won the fight and named Rome after himself.
    • Aristocrats became tired of Etruscan rule, so they revolted and established the Roman Republic.
  • 18. Roman Republic
    • The Republic was a democracy, which means the people voted for their leader.
    • Only patricians could be elected for a place in the Senate.
    • Later, the poor Romans made aristocrats agree that the poor could elect tribunes.
    • The tribunes could veto anything the Senate did that disadvantaged the poor.
  • 19. The Roman Empire
    • The Empire was ruled by an emperor and citizens could not vote.
    • Julius Caesar was a great emperor living in the time of the Empire.
    • When an emperor named Trajan ruled, the Roman army conquered about 2,300,000 square miles of land.
    • The Empire had an autocratic government, which means the political power was held by one emperor.
  • 20. The Twelve Tables
    • The Twelve Tables were the earliest creation of a code of law.
    • It is also the earliest piece of Roman literature to survive to this day.
    • Originally, there were only ten tables created by ten men.
    • The plebeians weren’t satisfied, so another team of ten men added two more tables.
  • 21. Economy
  • 22. Farming
    • Farmers in Rome worked on estates, which were usually owned by Patricians.
    • Farmers were allowed to pay their taxes in wheat instead of money.
    • Slaves or prisoners of war took farmers’ jobs because they worked for little or no money.
    • It usually only rains in the winter in Rome, so farmers had to store water for the summer.
  • 23. Trade
    • Rome used the Silk Road to receive silk from China.
    • Rome traded with Egypt to receive luxury items such as peacock feathers and perfumes
    • Above all, the trade of food was most vital for the Roman Empire.
    • Rome received large amounts of mined metals from Britain and Spain
  • 24. Coinage
    • Roman coins often had a picture of the current emperor on them and said his greatest achievements.
    • Romans used coins to trade goods and buy from markets.
    • Coins were always made of gold, silver, bronze, and copper.
    • The coins were named aureus, denarius, sesterius, dupondius, and as.
  • 25. Thermopolia
    • A thermopolia was a place that sold hot food and cooked it quickly.
    • Food of a thermopolia was usually a piece of meat, bread, and vegetables.
    • The food came in boxes for conveniently traveling with it.
    • Poor people went to thermopolias often because they own kitchens or grills.
  • 26. Social Structure
  • 27. Slaves
    • Slaves often worked on farms because they worked for little or no money.
    • Slaves were usually prisoners of war or were bought at slave markets.
    • Slavery was vital to Roman economy because it saved lots of money
    • Slaves also worked as servants for patrician families.
  • 28. Plebeians
    • Plebeians were the middle or working class of Rome.
    • They usually lived in three or four story apartments.
    • Plebeian children followed their parents’ career.
    • Children went to school for two to three years to learn how to read, write, and do basic math.
  • 29. Patricians
    • Patricians were the wealthy class of Rome.
    • They lived in large homes with indoor pools and guest rooms.
    • Patrician children had personal servants to play and wrestle with.
    • Patrician children went to school longer than plebeian children did.
  • 30. The Senate
    • The Roman Senate always contained three hundred members.
    • Senate members were always patricians, never plebeians.
    • Senate members usually had participated in government before.
    • Senate members were elected and appointed for life.
  • 31. Conclusion I think the most important things I learned about in ancient Rome were trade, aqueducts, and concrete roads. Without trade, Rome wouldn’t have any way of receiving foreign goods. Aqueducts were very important because they were a way to transport drinking water to the people. Concrete roads were important because they were a convenient way to travel throughout the Roman Empire.