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301 301 Presentation Transcript

  • Location
    • Rome is located near the Tiber river and on seven hills.
    • The Etruscans took over Rome from the original Roman leaders.
    • Italy is a peninsula that extends into the Mediterranean Sea and to the right of the peninsula is the Adriatic Sea.
    • The Italian peninsula has many large plains especially in the north, which gave Rome more arable land.
  • Expansion
    • The two rivers that were the northern boundaries of the Roman empire at it’s height were the Danube and the Rhine.
    • The Black Sea to Mesopotamia was the eastern and the northern boundary.
    • The western boundary was the Atlantic Ocean.
    • North Africa was the southern boundary.
  • Resources
    • The Romans got all of their gold and silver from conquered lands.
    • On their way to war, farmland was trampled or eaten by soldiers.
    • Small farmers were displaced by Roman conquests and they drifted toward major cities.
  • Decline
    • Emperor Diocletian divided the empire into two parts, but it made the empire weaker.
    • Barbarians crossed the Rhine and the Danube to invade Rome.
    • Constantine built a new capital in present day Turkey.
  • Etruscan Augury
    • Etruscans brought their gods to Rome when they took over.
    • Etruscan augury was used to predict the future.
    • The augurs (priests) used to study animal entrails and the flight pattern of birds and to read the will of the gods.
  • Roman Religion
    • Romans worshipped hundreds of gods adopted from the Greeks and Etruscans.
    • When Rome became an empire, the emperors became seen as gods.
    • Some gods are Jupiter, Juno, Mars, and Minerva.
  • Christianity
    • Christianity evolved from Judaism and originated in Judea.
    • Jesus traveled around from town to town teaching about the ways of God.
    • Jesus was believed to be the son of God and was resurrected.
    • For most Christians, Christianity meant believing in Jesus and in his sacrifice for other people’s sins and in his resurrection.
  • Spread of Christianity
    • Paul the Apostle traveled around the eastern empire and in Rome preaching.
    • Paul the Apostle traveled on the Roman roads which made it possible for ideas and people to traverse the empire.
    • People who no longer believed in polytheism were attracted to the monotheist aspect of Christianity.
    • Others liked to hear that in God’s eyes, everyone is equal whether they are slave, free, man, woman, Jew, or Gentile.
  • Aqueducts
    • The aqueducts brought water to all of the Roman cities.
    • Aqueducts brought water from springs, wells, and distant lakes.
    • Aqueducts were bridged across valleys and around mountains.
  • Concrete Roads
    • The concrete roads stretched 250,000 miles to unify the empire.
    • All of the roads led to Rome.
    • The roads were designed to last forever.
  • Development of the Dome
    • Domes were constructed from wooden arches.
    • Then the Romans poured concrete between the arches.
    • Then, when the dome dried, it was hoisted on top of a building.
  • Latin Language
    • Latin was the written and spoken language of Rome.
    • Many English words have Latin roots.
    • Latin became the language of the Roman Catholic Church.
  • Kings
    • An Etruscan leader, Torque the Elder, took control of Rome and became Rome’s king.
    • The throne later passed to two more monarchs after Tarquin the Elder.
    • Each monarch had broad powers, he was the head of the army, the chief priest, and the supreme judge.
    • Etruscan kings ruled with the consent of the aristocrats, or the Senate.
  • Republic
    • Republic comes from the Latin term, res publica , which means public things.
    • Two officials called consuls took over the jobs done by the king.
    • The aristocratic Senate held most of the power.
    • The system of government was an oligarchy, not a democracy.
  • Tripartite Government
    • The Roman government had a Tripartite government, or a three part government.
    • The Magistrates were the main officials of the Republic. The top two Magistrates were the consuls who held the power of the kings.
    • The Senate advised the consuls and passed laws. The original Senate had 300 patricians, but wealthy plebeians made it grow.
    • The assemblies elected the Tribunes, who had veto power over the other branches. One assembly was made of patricians, which was called the . The other was called, and was full of plebeians.
  • Emperor Trajan
    • Emperor Trajan reduced taxes, increased the free distribution of food, and created a fund for the poor people.
    • Trajan encouraged blood sport events such as gladiator fights and chariot races.
    • Trajan was excellent at administering the provinces of the empire. He sent capable governors to the provinces.
    • Trajan failed to put down a religious revolt in the eastern empire.
  • Roman Economy
    • The foundation of the Roman economy was farming.
    • The Pax Romana greatly increased the economic growth of Rome.
    • Skilled workers produced wool, linen cloth, glass, pottery, metalwork, and ships.
  • Commerce and Trade
    • All of the goods that were manufactured were moved peacefully throughout the empire.
    • The Romans linked the empire with a network of roads that goods can be moved fast on.
    • Since the Romans controlled the Mediterranean, travel by sea was safe.
    • Red pottery was exported to Britain and India, silver bowls and bronze ware was exported to Russia and Northern Europe. Silk was imported from as far east as China.
  • Stable Currency
    • Stable currency is quickly and more widely accepted in trade and commerce.
    • Augustus issued new currency in the form of coins after taking power.
    • A gold denarius was the main coin in Roman economy. A silver denarius was worth twelve times less than a gold one.
    • Pictures on the coins depicted the achievements of the emperor.
  • Decline of the Economy
    • Civil wars created huge economic taxes because wars cost very much.
    • The empire’s supply of gold and silver was declining.
    • A silver denarius, that was once silver, was turned into a copper denarius with a thin silver coating.
    • Merchants began raising prices when they realized that the coins were made of less valuable materials.
  • Plebeians
    • The plebeians had little power in government and could not hold political office.
    • Plebeians also held little influence in Rome’s economic life too.
    • Most plebeians worked as poor farmers. In poor harvest years, some had to take out loans just to survive.
    • Plebeians made up 90% of the Roman population.
  • Patricians
    • Patricians made up 10% of the Roman population.
    • Patricians held all of the political power in Rome until the plebeians rebelled.
    • They also acted as the leaders in economic growth.
  • Role of Men
    • The father or grandfather of a Roman family was the head of the house hold.
    • The father had absolute power over a house hold.
    • When a father died, the eldest son took control of the family.
    • A man’s power was limited by custom. Custom called for men to show respect for their family.
  • Role of Women
    • Women in Rome could own land, while women in Greece could not.
    • Women had to bear children and raise them to honor traditional values.
    • The ideal woman was a faithful wife and mother and devoted to the home and family.
    • When Rome grew in wealth, slaves took over most of the household work.
  • Conclusion I think that the most important things that I learned about ancient Rome are the Emperors, the location, the plebeians, concrete roads, trade, and Christianity because those aspects are key ideas in the ancient Rome.