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  1. 2. Location <ul><li>Rome is located near the Tiber river and on seven hills. </li></ul><ul><li>The Etruscans took over Rome from the original Roman leaders. </li></ul><ul><li>Italy is a peninsula that extends into the Mediterranean Sea and to the right of the peninsula is the Adriatic Sea. </li></ul><ul><li>The Italian peninsula has many large plains especially in the north, which gave Rome more arable land. </li></ul>
  2. 3. Expansion <ul><li>The two rivers that were the northern boundaries of the Roman empire at it’s height were the Danube and the Rhine. </li></ul><ul><li>The Black Sea to Mesopotamia was the eastern and the northern boundary. </li></ul><ul><li>The western boundary was the Atlantic Ocean. </li></ul><ul><li>North Africa was the southern boundary. </li></ul>
  3. 4. Resources <ul><li>The Romans got all of their gold and silver from conquered lands. </li></ul><ul><li>On their way to war, farmland was trampled or eaten by soldiers. </li></ul><ul><li>Small farmers were displaced by Roman conquests and they drifted toward major cities. </li></ul>
  4. 5. Decline <ul><li>Emperor Diocletian divided the empire into two parts, but it made the empire weaker. </li></ul><ul><li>Barbarians crossed the Rhine and the Danube to invade Rome. </li></ul><ul><li>Constantine built a new capital in present day Turkey. </li></ul>
  5. 7. Etruscan Augury <ul><li>Etruscans brought their gods to Rome when they took over. </li></ul><ul><li>Etruscan augury was used to predict the future. </li></ul><ul><li>The augurs (priests) used to study animal entrails and the flight pattern of birds and to read the will of the gods. </li></ul>
  6. 8. Roman Religion <ul><li>Romans worshipped hundreds of gods adopted from the Greeks and Etruscans. </li></ul><ul><li>When Rome became an empire, the emperors became seen as gods. </li></ul><ul><li>Some gods are Jupiter, Juno, Mars, and Minerva. </li></ul>
  7. 9. Christianity <ul><li>Christianity evolved from Judaism and originated in Judea. </li></ul><ul><li>Jesus traveled around from town to town teaching about the ways of God. </li></ul><ul><li>Jesus was believed to be the son of God and was resurrected. </li></ul><ul><li>For most Christians, Christianity meant believing in Jesus and in his sacrifice for other people’s sins and in his resurrection. </li></ul>
  8. 10. Spread of Christianity <ul><li>Paul the Apostle traveled around the eastern empire and in Rome preaching. </li></ul><ul><li>Paul the Apostle traveled on the Roman roads which made it possible for ideas and people to traverse the empire. </li></ul><ul><li>People who no longer believed in polytheism were attracted to the monotheist aspect of Christianity. </li></ul><ul><li>Others liked to hear that in God’s eyes, everyone is equal whether they are slave, free, man, woman, Jew, or Gentile. </li></ul>
  9. 12. Aqueducts <ul><li>The aqueducts brought water to all of the Roman cities. </li></ul><ul><li>Aqueducts brought water from springs, wells, and distant lakes. </li></ul><ul><li>Aqueducts were bridged across valleys and around mountains. </li></ul>
  10. 13. Concrete Roads <ul><li>The concrete roads stretched 250,000 miles to unify the empire. </li></ul><ul><li>All of the roads led to Rome. </li></ul><ul><li>The roads were designed to last forever. </li></ul>
  11. 14. Development of the Dome <ul><li>Domes were constructed from wooden arches. </li></ul><ul><li>Then the Romans poured concrete between the arches. </li></ul><ul><li>Then, when the dome dried, it was hoisted on top of a building. </li></ul>
  12. 15. Latin Language <ul><li>Latin was the written and spoken language of Rome. </li></ul><ul><li>Many English words have Latin roots. </li></ul><ul><li>Latin became the language of the Roman Catholic Church. </li></ul>
  13. 17. Kings <ul><li>An Etruscan leader, Torque the Elder, took control of Rome and became Rome’s king. </li></ul><ul><li>The throne later passed to two more monarchs after Tarquin the Elder. </li></ul><ul><li>Each monarch had broad powers, he was the head of the army, the chief priest, and the supreme judge. </li></ul><ul><li>Etruscan kings ruled with the consent of the aristocrats, or the Senate. </li></ul>
  14. 18. Republic <ul><li>Republic comes from the Latin term, res publica , which means public things. </li></ul><ul><li>Two officials called consuls took over the jobs done by the king. </li></ul><ul><li>The aristocratic Senate held most of the power. </li></ul><ul><li>The system of government was an oligarchy, not a democracy. </li></ul>
  15. 19. Tripartite Government <ul><li>The Roman government had a Tripartite government, or a three part government. </li></ul><ul><li>The Magistrates were the main officials of the Republic. The top two Magistrates were the consuls who held the power of the kings. </li></ul><ul><li>The Senate advised the consuls and passed laws. The original Senate had 300 patricians, but wealthy plebeians made it grow. </li></ul><ul><li>The assemblies elected the Tribunes, who had veto power over the other branches. One assembly was made of patricians, which was called the . The other was called, and was full of plebeians. </li></ul>
  16. 20. Emperor Trajan <ul><li>Emperor Trajan reduced taxes, increased the free distribution of food, and created a fund for the poor people. </li></ul><ul><li>Trajan encouraged blood sport events such as gladiator fights and chariot races. </li></ul><ul><li>Trajan was excellent at administering the provinces of the empire. He sent capable governors to the provinces. </li></ul><ul><li>Trajan failed to put down a religious revolt in the eastern empire. </li></ul>
  17. 22. Roman Economy <ul><li>The foundation of the Roman economy was farming. </li></ul><ul><li>The Pax Romana greatly increased the economic growth of Rome. </li></ul><ul><li>Skilled workers produced wool, linen cloth, glass, pottery, metalwork, and ships. </li></ul>
  18. 23. Commerce and Trade <ul><li>All of the goods that were manufactured were moved peacefully throughout the empire. </li></ul><ul><li>The Romans linked the empire with a network of roads that goods can be moved fast on. </li></ul><ul><li>Since the Romans controlled the Mediterranean, travel by sea was safe. </li></ul><ul><li>Red pottery was exported to Britain and India, silver bowls and bronze ware was exported to Russia and Northern Europe. Silk was imported from as far east as China. </li></ul>
  19. 24. Stable Currency <ul><li>Stable currency is quickly and more widely accepted in trade and commerce. </li></ul><ul><li>Augustus issued new currency in the form of coins after taking power. </li></ul><ul><li>A gold denarius was the main coin in Roman economy. A silver denarius was worth twelve times less than a gold one. </li></ul><ul><li>Pictures on the coins depicted the achievements of the emperor. </li></ul>
  20. 25. Decline of the Economy <ul><li>Civil wars created huge economic taxes because wars cost very much. </li></ul><ul><li>The empire’s supply of gold and silver was declining. </li></ul><ul><li>A silver denarius, that was once silver, was turned into a copper denarius with a thin silver coating. </li></ul><ul><li>Merchants began raising prices when they realized that the coins were made of less valuable materials. </li></ul>
  21. 27. Plebeians <ul><li>The plebeians had little power in government and could not hold political office. </li></ul><ul><li>Plebeians also held little influence in Rome’s economic life too. </li></ul><ul><li>Most plebeians worked as poor farmers. In poor harvest years, some had to take out loans just to survive. </li></ul><ul><li>Plebeians made up 90% of the Roman population. </li></ul>
  22. 28. Patricians <ul><li>Patricians made up 10% of the Roman population. </li></ul><ul><li>Patricians held all of the political power in Rome until the plebeians rebelled. </li></ul><ul><li>They also acted as the leaders in economic growth. </li></ul>
  23. 29. Role of Men <ul><li>The father or grandfather of a Roman family was the head of the house hold. </li></ul><ul><li>The father had absolute power over a house hold. </li></ul><ul><li>When a father died, the eldest son took control of the family. </li></ul><ul><li>A man’s power was limited by custom. Custom called for men to show respect for their family. </li></ul>
  24. 30. Role of Women <ul><li>Women in Rome could own land, while women in Greece could not. </li></ul><ul><li>Women had to bear children and raise them to honor traditional values. </li></ul><ul><li>The ideal woman was a faithful wife and mother and devoted to the home and family. </li></ul><ul><li>When Rome grew in wealth, slaves took over most of the household work. </li></ul>
  25. 31. Conclusion I think that the most important things that I learned about ancient Rome are the Emperors, the location, the plebeians, concrete roads, trade, and Christianity because those aspects are key ideas in the ancient Rome.