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What Is Genre?• Definition: Different conventions which classifies texts and putting them into categories based on conventions.
Aims/Objectives• To introduce the concept of genre theory and key genre theorists.• To have a basic understanding of how to categorise evaluate your coursework against genre theory.
Daniel Chandler ‘Genre’ is a critical tool that helps us study texts and audience responses to texts by dividing them into categories based on common elements. Daniel Chandler (2001) details that the word genre comes from the word for ‘kind’ or ‘class’. The term is widely used in rhetoric, literary theory, media theory to refer to a “distinctive type of ‘text’.”
Barry Keith Grant - Sub Genres(genre within a genre)All genres have sub genres (genre within a genre).This means that they are divided up into more specific categories. Barry Keith Grant (1995) suggests that this allows audiences to identify them specifically by their familiar and what become recognisable characteristics.
Task –Chandler’s and Grant’s theories. You have 5 minutes to write down how the production you are writing about for Q1b) fits into a specific genre/sub-genre/hybrid genre. Back this up with at least 5 specific elements/examples from this production that show how you have replicated genre conventions. Must be specific – Music, photographs, fonts, editing techniques.
How (insert production) fits into a specific 1. Costume- Hooded jumpers, Trainers, genre/sub- and heels for the female to represent the revealing male point genre/hybrid genre. of view to gain more audience. This is a main generic conventions which female RnB/Hip-Hop would use. Daniel Chandler (2001) details that the word 2. Props – Gun is a RnB/Hip-Hop generic convention. genre comes from the 3. Representation of music artist- body word for ‘kind’ or ‘class’. language- introducing the The term is widely used character walking with attitude was in rhetoric, literary used to help introduce the genre to theory, media theory to the audience. refer to a “distinctive 4. Location – Tunnel - urban type of ‘text’.” 5. Lighting – Black and white Barry Keith Grant (1995) 6. suggests that this allows Barry Keith Grant (1995)relates to my music video because I have used audiences to identify many generic conventions for the them specifically by their audience to easily identify the familiar and what genre. become recognisable characteristics.
Jason Mittell (2001) argues thatindustries use genre to sell productsto audiences. Media producers usefamiliar codes and conventions thatvery often make references to theiraudience knowledge of society,other texts.
Task – Jason Mittel’s theory. You have 5 minutes to write down how you used real media products in your chosen industry to help you construct your product. How, for example, does the horror genre provide familiar expectations? Back this up with at least 5 specific elements/examples from this industry that show how you have replicated/challenged genre conventions. Finally, write a sentence about how these choices would make sure your product appealed to your demographic.
How I used real mediaproducts in your chosen 1. Facial expression/Body industry to help you movement – attitude construct my product? 2. Clothes –Rhianna, Ashanti, Aaliyah influenced me as most of their music videos Jason Mittell (2001) share similar costuming ideas. I argues that industries had chosen to be less use genre to sell revealing but use tight clothes and heels to show I am using products to audiences. similar conventions as. Media producers use 3. Urban environment – tunnel familiar codes and and house, I had used this because usually Rnb/Hip-Hop conventions that very music videos are either outside often make references on the streets or in a house. to their audience 4. Narrative- The narrative of the story involves Love and Hate knowledge of which is usually portrayed in society, other texts. Rnb/hip-Hop music videos.
Genre Pleasure Genre also allows audiences to make choices about what products they want to consume through acceptance in order to fulfil a particular pleasure. Theorist Rick Altman (1999) argues that genre offers audiences „a set of pleasures‟. Basically, the genre of your text will have provided your demographic/subculture with some satisfaction upon their consumption.
Rick Altman (1999)1. Emotional pleasuresThe emotional pleasures offered to the audiences of genre films areparticularly significant when they generate a strong audience response.Horror, comedy or melodrama for example are generically designed tomake audiences feel emotional in a particular way.2. Visceral pleasuresVisceral pleasures (‘visceral’ refers to internal organs) are defined byhow the films stylistic construction elicits a physical effect upon itsaudience. This can be revulsion, kinetic speed or a ‘roller coaster ride’for example – it has a PHYSICAL effect.3. Intellectual puzzlesCertain film genres such as the thriller and the whodunnit offer thepleasure of trying to unravel a mystery or a puzzle. Scream, althoughprimarily a horror film, draws upon the conventions of the whodunnitand much of the pleasure of watching the film comes from analysingthe suspects, their motives, and the clues. Pleasure is derived fromdeciphering the plot and forecasting the end or being surprised by theunexpected
How I used genre 1. Lyrics – Sad and not upbeat, mypleasures in my media music video has fulfilled this by filming in black and white which text. sets the effect as gloomy and the tension is already set as the You have 5 minutes music artist is being introduced. This would be another to write down: emotional pleasure. Altman’s three 2. Performance – Is structured pleasures. Decide about the music artists emotions due to the facial expressions which one might and body movement. Linking relate to your back to Altmans theory this product and write would be an Emotional pleasure 3. The narrative is the storyline down in detail 3 between the music artist and examples from your the other character the plot of product which offer when the music artist shoots herself may seem to be a this for your Visceral pleasure due to the audience. pain.
The Strengths Of Genre Theory The main strength of genre theory is that everybody uses it and understands it – media experts use it to study media texts, the media industry uses it to develop and market texts and audiences use it to decide what texts to consume. The potential for the same concept to be understood by producers, audiences and scholars makes genre a useful critical tool. Its accessibility as a concept also means that it can be applied across a wide range of texts.
Genres are not fixed. They constantly change and evolve over time –they will adapt to changes to advances in technology. Christian Metz (1974) argued that genres go through a typical cycle of changes during their lifetime. David Buckingham (1993) argues that genre is not... Simply "given" by the culture: rather, it is in a constant process of negotiation and change‟. Steve Neale (1995) “genres are processes of systemisation” – they change over time.
Music video –medium with manysub-genres /postmodern styles? Music video is a medium intended to appeal directly to youth subcultures by reinforcing generic elements of musical genres. They are called pop-promos as they are used to promote a band or artist. Music videos are postmodern texts (Andrew Goodwin, 1992) whose main purpose is to promote a star persona (Dyer, 1975). They don’t have to be literal representations of the song or lyrics.
Film GenreFilm genres are changing/evolving Nicholas Abercrombie (1996) suggests that “the boundaries between genres are shifting and becoming more permeable.” (Hybrids?) Abercrombie is concerned with modern television, which he suggests seems to be engaged in ‘a steady dismantling of genre.’
Evolving Genre 1. Location, the mise-en-scene of the Theories location is more classic, for example rappers tend to rap in the street, I had You have 5 minutes to chose a tunnel because it is outside and can be seen as intimidating. write down: How your 2. Costuming- Metz theory related to my product is part of a music video due to the change of costuming over time. Compared to genre that has other music artists and rappers they had dressed very differently compared to changed over time. how music artists dress today, I feel I have chosen a more contemporary style Give 3 examples of for how the music artists dress today. 3. Buckinghams theory basically says if a texts that were part of trend is famous it is more likely to be used in music videos. For example props. „experimental‟ or Guns, money and girls are more likely to „classic‟ ideas of your be seen in music videos. I had chose to use a gun because this is a typical product within the generic convention. 4. Performance – This has not changed or genre and 5 examples evolved over time I feel this is a generic convention that would not change due that show your text as to the generic convention which stands out to the audience. a „classic‟ or as an 5. „evolving‟ piece.
Theory Poster Split into two groups Each group will produce a poster on genre theory You will present your finished posters to the class.
This boxshould Reflect on yourdefine the use of genreterm and Quotes from the key (using theexplain theorists – Each quote theories) and thehow it is should have a impact that itsused in the ‘dummies’ explanation use had on yourfilm/music of what they mean production forindustry the audience This poster will be your quick revision tool before thePut all of the key terms in this box with a examdefinition if needed
Plenary 1. Andrew Goodwin- Ways in which to promote the music artist 2. Rick Altman- Emotional pleasure which gives a connection between the protagonist and the audience 3. Jason Mittell – The industries use genre to sell products to audiences. Media producers use familiar codes and conventions that very often make references to their audience knowledge of society, other texts.1. Write down 2 pieces of medium specific theory and relate it to your sub genre. 1. Andrew Goodwin is a good example which relates to my music video because it’s a reinforcing generic element of musical genre. This theory is a direct appeal to youth subcultures. 2. The idea of this theory is to base it around the music artist this is called pop promos this theory is used to promote the music artist.
“Analyse one of your coursework productions in relation to genre”.Genre is different conventions which classifies texts and putting them into categories based on conventions. The course work I will be analysing is my music video production. The genre of the music video is RnB/Hip-hop. I have used conventions of other music videos which share the generic conventions as my music video. The type of generic conventions I had used in my music video are specific types of costuming, props and location. I felt these were my main focus points in creating the genre in which my audience can easily identify. The costuming for the male was a hooded jumper, and trainers with a baseball hat. The music artist had heels with a leather jacket to create attitude and also to represent a more revealing side for the males point of view to gain more of an audience; I felt this element of generic convention is good to use since the female music artists are stereotypically always wearing revealing clothes within this genre. For the prop side of the music video I had used a gun because I felt this is a more urban aspect of the convention as well as the location I felt a tunnel was effective because it introduces the character and the emotions of the start of the music video. Overall I felt Barry Keith Grant (1995)relates to my music video because I have used many generic conventions for the audience to easily identify the genre.