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locomotion and support based on curriculum. …

locomotion and support based on curriculum.
excluded mechanism and the rest topic after mechanism of locomotion

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  • Locomotion requires support that is suited to moving in water, through air or over land
  • Lie along the main axis of the body
  • Latin word which means to ‘hang’ ----attached to the axial skeleton
  • Each vertebra differs in structure , depending on its function and position in the vertebral column
  • Latin word which means to ‘hang’ ----attached to the axial skeleton
  • Humerus (upper arm),ulna n radius (forearm),carpals,metacarpals and phalanges (hand)
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    • 1. LOCOMOTION AND SUPPORT1)Understanding support & locomotion in human &animals2) Appreciating a healthy musculoskeletal system
    • 2. LEARNING OUTCOMES (UNDERSTANDINGSUPPORT & LOCOMOTION)I. Necessity for support/locomotionII. Problems that could be facedIII. Solution for the problemsIV. Bones (components of axial & appendicular skeletons)V. Know bones, skeleton muscles & tendons
    • 3. LEARNING OUTCOMES CONT…VI. How movement is brought in a limbVII. Function of cartilage and synovial fluidVIII. Mechanism of locomotionIX. Some consequences of impaired musculoskeletal system on support & locomotion
    • 4. INTRODUCTION Support/Locomotion Healthy Support/Locomotion Musculoskeletal in Humans & Animals System Skeletal Muscles & The Mechanism of Skeleton Tendons in Locomotion movement
    • 5. FORMS OF LOCOMOTION
    • 6. INTRODUCTION CONT..Definition: Locomotion is the whole movement organisms from place to placeForms of locomotion: walking climbing running swimming crawling flying
    • 7. NECESSITY FOR SUPPORT & LOCOMOTION INHUMANS & ANIMALSThe purposes of locomotion are to search for food search for a mate seek for shelter avoid from predators and other dangers
    • 8. PROBLEMS FACED IN SUPPORT &LOCOMOTION Water- supportive medium - but it is dense & resists movement Air - less dense - but a lot of effort and energy is needed to lift an animal off to fly Land- provides with surface for support/movement -but most animals need to hold their bodies clear off the ground to minimise friction
    • 9. SOLUTION FOR THE PROBLEMS In humans & animals, support & locomotion are provided by the skeleton Skeleton is a structure that supports the body of a human or an animal
    • 10. SKELETON Types of Skeleton Exoskeleton Endoskeleton Hydrostatic Skeleton crab fish worm grasshopper cat caterpillar
    • 11. EXOSKELETON Outer covering Made up of rigid & strong materials eg: calcium and chitin Jointed external skeleton (chitin) provides locomotion & support to insects (Phylum Arthropoda) For molluscs (eg: snails,oysters) consists of a hard shell of calcium to cover and protect the soft body
    • 12. ENDOSKELETON Comprising of many component parts of cartilage or bones These articulate (move against each other) at the joints Soft tissues surround the bones, protected by the skin
    • 13. HYDROSTATIC SKELETON Pressure in spaces surrounded by muscles exerted by the body fluids Body fluids do not flow out and is of constant value Forms an incompressible ‘skeleton’ for the muscles to contract
    • 14. IMPORTANCE OF SKELETAL SYSTEM Giving shape and form; without it the whole body collapses Makes locomotion possible-skeleton works together with muscles Protects soft tissues and vital organs Makes breathing possible Formation of blood cells Stores calcium and phosphorus within the bones
    • 15. HUMAN SKELETON 2 main parts Axial skeleton Human skeleton Appendicular skeleton
    • 16. AXIAL SKELETON Vertebral column (spine) Skull Rib cage Axial skeleton
    • 17. APPENDICULAR SKELETON Appendicular skeleton Upper limb Lower limbPectoral girdle Pelvic girdle (Fore limb) (Hind limb) Arm Hand Upper arm Forearm
    • 18. APPENDICULAR SKELETON Pectoral girdle (consists of two halves) and each half consists of: o A scapula (shoulder blade) o A clavicle (collar bone) Pelvic girdle (hips) Two upper limbs, each limb consists of: o Arm (upper arm and forearm) o Hand Two lower limbs, each limb consist of : o Femur ( thigh bone) o Tibia o Fibula (thin bone) o Foot
    • 19. HUMAN SKELETAL SYSTEM
    • 20. THE AXIAL SKELETON (SKULL) Skeleton of the head Consists of :  Cranium  Facial skeleton
    • 21. SKULL (CRANIUM) Dome-shaped Formed from the fusion of sutures (immovable joints found only between skull bones) of 8 flat bones soon after birth Protects the brain Supports organs of special senses (sight, hearing, smell, and taste) Provides a foundation for structures to take air, food and water into the body
    • 22. SKULL (FACIAL SKELETON) Consists of 14 bones Example:  2 eye sockets (orbits) – which protect the eyeballs  2 nasal bones – which form the bridge of the nose  Upper jaw bone (maxilla) – which is fused to the base of the cranium  Lower jaw bone (mandible) – which is hinged to the cranium
    • 23. AXIAL SKELETON (VERTEBRAL COLUMN) Also known as the backbone or the spine Consists of a series of 33 small bones (vertebrae) Provides protection for the spinal cord which runs through it Intervertebral cartilage disc:  Separates adjacent vertebrae  Acts as a shock-absorbing cushion; reduces friction and allows movement between adjacent vertebrae
    • 24. AXIAL SKELETON (VERTEBRAL COLUMN) 33 vertebrae of the vertebral column are made up of:  7 cervical (cervix=neck) vertebrae in the neck region  12 thoracic vertebrae in the thorax region  5 lumbar vertebrae – supporting the lower back  5 sacral vertebrae – fused to form a single sacrum  4 caudal vertebrae – fused to form a single coccyx
    • 25. VERTEBRAL COLUMN
    • 26. VERTEBRAL COLUMN
    • 27. VERTEBRAL COLUMN (A TYPICAL VERTEBRA)Common characteristics of a typical vertebra  A centrum- body of the vertebra  A neural arch (vertebral arch)- protects the spinal cord  A neural canal (vertebral canal)- carries the spinal cord  Transverse process- for attachment of muscle
    • 28. THE TYPICAL VERTEBRA
    • 29. THE CERVICAL VERTEBRAE 3 types  Atlas – first cervical vertebra  Axis – second cervical vertebra  Typical cervical vertebra All cervical vertebrae have  1 neural canal – the spinal cord passes through this hole  2 vertebraterial canals – the vertebral arteries pass through these holes
    • 30. THE CERVICAL VERTEBRA (ATLAS)
    • 31. THE CERVICAL VERTEBRA (ATLAS) 1st cervical vertebra Supports the head Do not have these 3 structures  Centrum (body)  Transverse processes  Neural spine
    • 32. CERVICAL VERTEBRAE (AXIS)
    • 33. THE CERVICAL VERTEBRA (AXIS) 2nd cervical vertebra Has centrum and tranverse processes
    • 34. THE 3RD TO 7TH CERVICAL VERTEBRAE The smallest and lightest vertebrae Have thinner centrum and a smaller neural spine Transverse process has a vertebrarterial canal
    • 35. THE THORACIC VERTEBRAE
    • 36. THE THORACIC VERTEBRAE 12 thoracic vertebrae  Larger than the cervical vertebrae  Increase in size from top to bottom  Support the rib cage A typical thoracic vertebra has  A heart shaped centrum (body)  A small circular neural canal  A long neural spine which point downwards  2 long transverse processes with facets on top fitting into facets on the bottom of the upper vertebra  Neural spine and the transverse processes –for attachment of ligaments and muscles supporting the head and neck
    • 37. THE LUMBAR VERTEBRAE
    • 38. THE LUMBAR VERTEBRAE 5 lumbar vertebrae  Kidney shaped  The largest vertebrae found  Provides the only support to the upper body  Triangular spinal canal  Large broad transverse processes  Short broad neural spine
    • 39. SACRUM AND COCCYX
    • 40. SACRUM & COCCYX Sacrum  Triangular bone formed by the fusion of 5 sacral vertebrae  4 transverse lines indicates the fusion of the vertebrae  On both sides of the transverse lines are paired sacral foramina (openings) Coccyx  Triangular bone formed by the fusion of 4 caudal vertebrae
    • 41. RIB CAGE (AXIAL SKELETON)
    • 42. AXIAL SKELETON (RIB CAGE) 12 pairs Articulate with the thoracic vertebrae 7 upper ribs directly join the sternum by cartilage at the end of the ribs Next 3 ribs (8th,9th,10th) attach to the rib cage above cartilage The bottom remaining 2 ribs are not connected to sternum or rib cage (called ‘floating ribs’)
    • 43. RIB CAGE Functions:  Protect vital organs (eg: lung, heart)  Attachment of intercostal muscles  Provides the pumping mechanism required for breathing
    • 44. APPENDICULAR SKELETON The components are  Pectoral girdle  Pelvic girdle  Upper limb  Lower limb
    • 45. APPENDICULAR SKELETON (PECTORALGIRDLE) Contains 2 bones Clavicle (collar bone) Scapula (shoulder blade)
    • 46. PECTORAL GIRDLE Clavicle  Long,flat,gently curved bone  Articulates with the shoulder at one end and with the scapula at the other end Scapula  Flat triangular shaped bone with a spine at its dorsal surface
    • 47. APPENDICULAR SKELETON (PELVIC GIRDLE)
    • 48. PELVIC GIRDLE Strong, bony structure, supporting the upper body (trunk) & transmitting its weight to the legs Formed by a pair of hips Each hip bone  Consists of 3 bones  ilium  pubic  ischium
    • 49. APPENDICULAR SKELETON (UPPER LIMB) Upper limb (Fore limb) Arm Hand Upper arm Forearm
    • 50. APPENDICULAR SKELETON (UPPER LIMB)
    • 51. UPPER LIMB 2 upper limb  Arm  Upper arm  Forearm  Hand Attached to the pectoral girdle Upper one consists 1 bone  Humerus Forearm consist 2 bones  Radius  Ulna
    • 52. UPPER LIMB Hand consists of:  8 carpals -Arranged in 2 rows of 4 bones each  5 metacarpals -Form the palm  14 phalanges -Form fingers -2 phalanges in the thumb -3 phalanges in the rest of the four other fingers
    • 53. APPENDICULAR SKELETON (LOWER LIMB)
    • 54. LOWER LIMB Consists of  Femur (thigh bone)  Tibia and fibula  Foot bones Femur -The longest bone -Femur,tibia and patella together form the knee joint -Patella (knee cap) covers the front of the lowest end of the femur
    • 55. LOWER LIMB Foot consists of these bones  7 tarsal  5 metatarsals  14 phalanges
    • 56. MUSCLE The most abundant tissues in the human body Specialised to be able to contract to produce movements 3 main types  Smooth muscle  Cardiac muscle  Skeletal muscle
    • 57. MUSCLE Smooth muscle  Cardiac Muscle
    • 58. MUSCLE Skeletal muscle
    • 59. SMOOTH MUSCLE Spindle-shaped muscle cells with pointed ends Each muscle cell has 1 nucleus lying in its centre Involuntary muscle (no conscious control over them)  Eg: the alimentary canal wall
    • 60. CARDIAC MUSCLE Found only in the heart Also involuntary muscle
    • 61. SKELETAL MUSCLE Also called striated/striped muscle Because the presence of alternating light and dark bands on the muscle fiber Voluntary muscle  Can be made to contract and relax by conscious control via nervous system
    • 62. SKELETAL MUSCLE (STRUCTURE) Made up of long cylindrical cells called muscle fibres/myofibres Each muscle fibre  Has many nuclei  Covered by plasma membrane called sarcolemma  Contains many protein fibers (myofibrils)-contract
    • 63. TENDONS & LIGAMENTS
    • 64. TENDONS & LIGAMENTSTendons A cord of dense connective tissue made up of strong & inelastic collagen fibres Connects muscle tissue to bones or cartilageLigaments Made of collagen fibres containing an elastic protein Strong and elastic Holding bones together at a joint & preventing them from being dislocated
    • 65. COMPARISONS BTW TENDONS & LIGAMENTS Similarities  Connect 2 types of tissues together  Made of collagen tissue Tendons Aspect of Ligaments Comparison Muscle to bone Types of tissues Bone to bone connected Absent Presence of Present elastin Inelastic Elasticity Elastic
    • 66. CARTILAGE & SYNOVIAL FLUID JOINTS Joints Found in the skeleton where bones meet Divided into 3 groups  Immovable (fixed joints) eg: sutures (skull)  Slightly movable eg: joints between adjacent centra of the vertebral column  Freely movable (synovial joints) eg: hip & knee
    • 67. CARTILAGE & SYNOVIAL FLUID JOINTSCartilage In moveable joints, smooth muscle covers the bone surfaces Reduces the friction between articulating bone structuresSynovial fluid Secreted by the surrounding synovial membrane Lubricates the joint & nourishes the surrounding cartilage
    • 68. CARTILAGE & SYNOVIAL FLUID JOINTSSynovial joints Articulating bone ends Surfaces are separated by a fluid-filled space (synovial joint) Classified according The ball & socket joints (at the shoulders & the hips ) which allow freedom of movement in any plane The hinge joints ( at the elbows & the knees) which allow movement only in one plane
    • 69. HOW MOVEMENT IS BROUGHT ABOUT IN A LIMB(MOVEMENT IN THE UPPER LIMB: ELBOW JOINT) Flexion = bending of hinge joint Extension = straightening of hinge joint Muscle causes flexion = flexor Muscle cause extension = extensor In the elbow hinge joint, 2 sets of muscle  Biceps muscle  Triceps muscle
    • 70. HOW MOVEMENT IS BROUGHT ABOUT IN A LIMB(MOVEMENT IN THE UPPER LIMB: ELBOW JOINT)Biceps muscle Lies in front of the humerus, forms the flexor Connected to the scapula (point of origin) by 2 tendons at its upper end Connected to the radius of the forearm (point of insertion) by a single tendon at its lower end
    • 71. HOW MOVEMENT IS BROUGHT ABOUT IN A LIMB(MOVEMENT IN THE UPPER LIMB: ELBOW JOINT)Triceps muscle Lies behind the humerus , forms the extensor Connected to the scapula & the humerus (points of origin) by 3 tendons at its upper end Inserted to (olecranon process of)the ulna at its lower end
    • 72. HOW MOVEMENT IS BROUGHT ABOUT IN A LIMB(MOVEMENT IN THE UPPER LIMB: ELBOW JOINT) Biseps & triceps muscles form an antogonistic pair Flexion occurs when biceps muscle contracts & triceps muscle relaxes causing the forearm to bend at the elbow, pulling it towards the scapula Extension occurs when the triceps muscle contracts and the biceps muscle relaxes causing the extension of the forearm at the elbow
    • 73. HOW MOVEMENT IS BROUGHT ABOUT IN A LIMB(MOVEMENT IN THE UPPER LIMB: ELBOW JOINT)
    • 74. HOW MOVEMENT IS BROUGHT ABOUT IN A LIMB(MOVEMENT IN THE LOWER LIMB: KNEE JOINT) Body moves forward by pushing each foot downwards and backwards against the ground one after another

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