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Chapter 8 theo


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  • 1. Madeline Schmidt<br />3-15-2010<br />Chapter 8 Outline<br />
    • The High Middle Ages: High times, low times
    • 2. A new world in the making: cities and powerful kings
    • 3. Urban culture on the rise
    • 4. The monastic spur to urban growth
    • 5. Cistercians- founded in 1098 as a reformed offshoot of the Benedictines developed new agricultural techniques- ways of draining swamps and the use of crop rotation
    • 6. The growth o f trade and crafts
    • 7. Guilds- regulated the training of those who were learning a trade and at the same time got a fair price for the guild members work
    • 8. Kings and Nations on the rise
    • 9. Church institutions flourish
    • 10. A reforming papacy and clergy
    • 11. The battle over lay investiture
    • 12. Gregory VII – (hide brand) became pope in 1073 wanted to free the church from secular control
    • 13. Lay investiture- the practice by which a high-ranking lay person could appoint bishops or abbots “investing” them with power and requiring their loyalty
    • 14. Henry IV – German emperor who objected to the popes ruling
    • 15. Concordat of Worms- whereby the emperor agreed that rulers would no longer have the right to appoint bishops; all bishops would be elevated and consecrated by church authority
    • 16. A strong papacy
    • 17. Innocent III- most powerful medieval pope
    • 18. Papal elections
    • 19. College of cardinals- a group o f bishops from the area around Rome would meet to elect the pope by a 2/3 vote
    • 20. Reform for priests
    • 21. Celibacy- not marrying
    • 22. Sacraments- baptism confirmation the Eucharist reconciliation anointing of the sick marriage and holy orders
    • 23. Beauty and inspiration in the cathedrals
    • 24. Cathedrals- provided focal points for peoples lives and work
    • 25. Romanesque- named after the roman style
    • 26. Gothic
    • 27. Flying buttresses
    • 28. Choir- the front enclosure that was reserved for the priests and monks who sang and recited the divine office
    • 29. Divine office- the series of psalms and prayers organized for use during each liturgical season
    • 30. Nave- the main room was used for the common peoples mass and in a section of the nave was the font for baptisms
    • 31. Universities born from cathedrals
    • 32. From the cathedral schools
    • 33. University- teachers and students began to group together to study some of the classical subjects
    • 34. University life medieval style
    • 35. Help from Muslim scholars
    • 36. A church divided zeal misguided
    • 37. The split between east and west
    • 38. A buildup of differences
    • 39. The final break
    • 40. Michael Cerularius- the patriarch of Constantinople