Chapter 1 cell review


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Chapter 1 cell review

  1. 1.  1. All living things are made of cells. 2. The cell is the basic structural and functional unit of life. 3. All cells come from pre-existing cells.
  2. 2.  Organisms-are individual forms of life that use energy to carry out activities. To be classified as living, something must be; ◦ Organized ◦ Grow and develop ◦ Respond to its environment; and ◦ Be able to reproduce. All organisms need energy, materials, and living space. All energy used by life on Earth comes from the Sun.
  3. 3.  The cell is the smallest unit that can perform the basic activities of life. Multicellular organisms have specialized cells that, together, meet the basic needs. Unicellular organisms are made up of only one cell.- ex. Bacteria, some algae plants
  4. 4.  Robert Hooke and Anton van Leeuwenhoek first described cells in the 1660s and 1670s. Microscopes were the new technology that led to their discoveries of many of the cells we have today.
  5. 5.  Three types of microscopes are useful in studying cells. ◦ Light microscopes can magnify living cells. ◦ Scanning electron microscopes and transmission electron microscopes can magnify smaller objects, but preparation of living specimens kills them. Transmission Electron - Scanning Electron-
  6. 6.  In the 1850s people knew for sure that cells come from other cells. This fact is part of the cell theory: 1. All living things are made of one or more cells. 2. Cells carry out the functions needed to support life. 3. Cells come only from other living things.
  7. 7.  A theory is an explanation of what is observed, and must be supported by evidence. Louis Pasteur used the cell theory as a foundation for his studies. He found that: ◦ Bacteria causes food spoilage, sour milk, and many diseases. ◦ Living things do not arise by spontaneous generations.
  8. 8.  All cells have cell membranes as a protective covering. They all contain cytoplasm, a thick fluid where most of the work of the cell is done. Most cells also have genetic material, called DNA (Deoxyribonucleic Acid). ◦ In prokaryotic cells, DNA is in the cytoplasm. ◦ In eukaryotic cells, DNA is separated from the rest of the cytoplasm in a nucleus.
  9. 9.  Eukaryotic cells are much larger than prokaryotic cells. They have many complex structures, including organelles. Prokaryotic cells lack a nucleus and other organelles, with DNA that is not organized into chromosomes. Organelles called chloroplasts use energy from sunlight to make sugar. Cells have mitochondria to make energy available to the organism. The endoplasmic reticulum, ribosomes, and Golgi apparatus process and transport materials. Other organelles such as vacuoles and lysosomes store and recycle water and waste.
  10. 10.  Organisms can be classified by their cell type. ◦ Most organisms on Earth are unicellular. They can be in one of three domains.  Archaea- are prokaryotes that mostly live in extreme environments.  Bacteria- are prokaryotes that share some similarities with archaea, but grow virtually everywhere on Earth.  Eukarya-are eukaryotes, which include multicellular organisms (plants, animals, fungi and some protists) and unicellular organisms (some protists).
  11. 11.  All multicellular organisms begin life as a single fertilized egg cell. As cells divide, they specialize to perform specific jobs. The more specialization there is, the more complex the organism is.
  12. 12.  Organisms have different degrees of organization. For example, sponges have specialized cells, but are not strictly organized. ◦ Similar cells group together to form tissues. ◦ Tissues act together to form organs. ◦ Organs and tissues act together in organ systems.
  13. 13.  Scientists use models to make complicated structures or processes easier to understand. ◦ Some examples of models include mathematical or chemical equations, diagrams, process models, or physical models. DNA Model- created by Watson and Crick