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  1. 1. By: Mary Ann Subijano
  2. 2. Methods of Study, Design and Sources of Data <ul><li>WHAT IS A RESEARCH DESIGN ? </li></ul><ul><li>Research design </li></ul><ul><li>is a plan, structure and strategy of investigation so conceived in order to get answers to research questions or problems. </li></ul>
  3. 3. <ul><li>WHAT ARE THE FUNCTIONS OF RESEARCH DESIGN ? </li></ul><ul><li>To identify and develop procedures and logistical arrangements </li></ul><ul><li>To stress the importance of quality (validity, objectivity and accuracy) </li></ul>Methods of Study, Design and Sources of Data
  4. 4. <ul><li>WHAT ARE THE TYPES OF RESEARCH DESIGN ? </li></ul><ul><li>COMMON </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Historical Research – use of reference periods </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Descriptive Normative Survey – write-up of existing events </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Case Study – intensive study on single case </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Descriptive Evaluation Study – describes particular situation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Experimental Research – cause-and-effect relationship </li></ul></ul><ul><li>SPECIAL DESIGNS </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Particularly – involves people in the definition of problem and solution </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Ethnographic – intensive study of a particular culture </li></ul></ul>Methods of Study, Design and Sources of Data
  5. 5. <ul><li>SAMPLING </li></ul><ul><ul><li>A few subjects are chosen from the universe to be studied in such a way that the sample can be used to estimate the same characteristics in the total </li></ul></ul>Methods of Study, Design and Sources of Data
  6. 6. <ul><li>STEPS IN SAMPLING PROCESS </li></ul><ul><li>Define the population from which the sample is to be drawn </li></ul><ul><li>Specify the population frame from which the sample will be taken </li></ul><ul><li>Choose the sampling methods of selecting </li></ul><ul><li>Determine the sample size requirement for the study </li></ul><ul><li>Select the actual samples </li></ul>Methods of Study, Design and Sources of Data
  7. 7. <ul><li>SAMPLING DESIGNS </li></ul><ul><li>Probability Sampling </li></ul><ul><ul><li>each unit within the population or universe has a “ known chance ” of being selected </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Non-Probability Sampling </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Chance of being selected of each unit within the population is unknown </li></ul></ul>Methods of Study, Design and Sources of Data
  8. 8. <ul><li>PROBABILITY SAMPLING </li></ul><ul><li>Random Sampling – each element has an equal chance of being selected </li></ul><ul><li>Systematic Sampling – allows the elements of the population to be selected as a respondent </li></ul><ul><li>Stratified Sampling – the whole population is classified first into mutually exclusive subgroups or strata and then units are selected randomly from each stratum </li></ul><ul><li>Cluster Sampling – grouping or division of population into heterogeneous groups </li></ul><ul><li>Area Sampling – geographical divisions </li></ul><ul><li>Double Sampling - getting a smaller sample from the initial large sample </li></ul><ul><li>Multi-Stage Sampling – cluster sampling done in several stages </li></ul>Methods of Study, Design and Sources of Data
  9. 9. <ul><li>NON-PROBABILITY SAMPLING </li></ul><ul><li>Quota Sampling – stratification of the population; predetermining of quota; selection samples </li></ul><ul><li>Judgment Sampling – selection of respondents considered to be in the best position or most knowledgeable to give the needed information </li></ul><ul><li>Convenience Sampling – selection of units from population is based on easy availability and/or accesibility </li></ul><ul><li>Accidental Sampling – implies that information is collected from the respondents who, by chance, are met by the research in the process of gathering data </li></ul><ul><li>Snowball Sampling – choosing initial samples </li></ul><ul><li>Purposive Sampling – selection of key informants based on a predetermined set of criteria </li></ul>Methods of Study, Design and Sources of Data
  11. 11. METHODS OF DATA COLLECTION <ul><li>Primary Data Collection – information which are gathered directly from an original source (e.g. survey, observation, interviewing, Questionnaire) </li></ul><ul><li>Secondary Data Collection – information which are taken from published and unpublished data (e.g. books, magazine, printed articles, e-mails) </li></ul>
  12. 12. Types of Data <ul><li>Primary Data </li></ul><ul><li>Secondary Data </li></ul>
  13. 13. Primary Tools in Data Collection <ul><li>OBSERVATION </li></ul><ul><li>INTERVIEW </li></ul><ul><li>QUESTIONNAIRE </li></ul><ul><li>SURVEY </li></ul>
  14. 14. Primary Tools in Data Collection <ul><li>Observation </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Collecting data by way of watching and listening to an interaction or phenomenon as it takes places. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>No direct posing of questions to respondents </li></ul></ul>
  15. 15. Types of Observation: <ul><li>  </li></ul><ul><li>Participant Observation – a researcher participates in the activities of the group being observed in the same manner as its members with or without knowing that they are being observed. </li></ul><ul><li>  </li></ul><ul><li>Non-Participant Observation – the researcher remains a passive observer and does not involved in any activities of the group </li></ul><ul><li>  </li></ul>
  16. 16. <ul><li>Natural – observing a group in its natural activities rather than intervening (e.g., people inside the mall, watching an event) </li></ul><ul><li>  </li></ul><ul><li>Controlled – stimulus is introduced to the group for it to react to and observing the reaction (e.g., taste test in a mall) </li></ul><ul><li>  </li></ul>SITUATION IN WHICH OBSERVATIONS CAN BE MADE
  17. 17.   Ways of Recording Observations <ul><li>Narrative – the researcher records a description of the interaction or activities and later interpret the reactions or draw conclusions from it. </li></ul><ul><li>  </li></ul><ul><li>Scales – observer may rate various aspects of interaction or phenomenon that may be directional, depending upon the purpose of the observation (e.g., rate scale can be positive, neutral, negative) </li></ul><ul><li>  </li></ul><ul><li>Categorical Recording – observations can be recorded based on categories (e.g., passive/active, introvert/extrovert) </li></ul><ul><li>  </li></ul><ul><li>Recording on Mechanical Devices – records observation by using video tapes, cameras, etc.  </li></ul>
  18. 18. Interviewing <ul><li>  </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Commonly used method of collecting information from people </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>A person to person interaction with specific purpose in mind </li></ul></ul><ul><li>  </li></ul>
  19. 19. Kinds of Interview <ul><li>  </li></ul><ul><li>1. Unstructured Interview or </li></ul><ul><li>In-depth Interview </li></ul><ul><li>  </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>The interviewer develops a framework called an interview guide. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>  </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Questions are being formulated for spontaneous interview </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>  </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>May be conducted on one-on one format or by group </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>  </li></ul>
  20. 20. Kinds of Interview <ul><li>  2. Structured Interview </li></ul><ul><li>The interviewer asks a pre-determined set of questions. </li></ul><ul><li>  </li></ul><ul><li>An Interview Schedule is a research tool/instrument in the form of written list of questions, open or closed-ended, prepared for use by the researcher in face-to-face interaction, by telephone or by other electronic media. </li></ul><ul><li>  </li></ul>
  21. 21. What to Avoid in Interviews
  22. 22. Questionnaire <ul><li> A written list of questions, the answers to </li></ul><ul><li>which are recorded by respondents. </li></ul><ul><li>  </li></ul><ul><li>Guides in Constructing a Questionnaire </li></ul><ul><li>  </li></ul><ul><li>Content: Other Features: </li></ul><ul><li>  </li></ul><ul><li>Purpose Introduction </li></ul><ul><li>Language Appearance </li></ul><ul><li>Type of Questions Personal Data </li></ul><ul><li>Order </li></ul><ul><li>Measurement </li></ul>
  23. 23. <ul><li>Purpose – the items to be included in the form should adequately answer the objectives and hypothesis of the study </li></ul><ul><li>Language – words to be used in the questionnaire should be simple and easy to understand </li></ul><ul><li>  </li></ul>Content Criteria for a Good Questionnaire
  24. 25. Types of Questions   <ul><li>2. Open-ended (Unstructured) Questions – </li></ul><ul><li>Gives the respondent the opportunity to respond to the question in the manner one prefers. </li></ul><ul><li>  </li></ul><ul><li>The possible responses are not given. In the case of questionnaire, the respondent writes down the answers but in case of interview schedule, the researcher records the answers. </li></ul><ul><li>  </li></ul><ul><li> Example: Why do you prefer Sony? </li></ul><ul><li>  1. It is a better brand. </li></ul><ul><li>2. Good Quality </li></ul><ul><li>3. Highly sophisticated features </li></ul>
  25. 26. <ul><li>Order – the questions should be arranged in a manner that will give spontaneous response from the respondent. </li></ul><ul><li>  </li></ul><ul><li>Measurement – to determine the type of response categories that will be used for fixed alternative questions. (e.g. the Likert Scale 5 – strongly agree, 4-agree, 3-don’t know, 2 – disagree, 1 –strongly disagree) </li></ul>
  26. 27. OTHER FEATURES OF GOOD QUESTIONNAIRE   <ul><li>  </li></ul><ul><li>Introduction – questionnaire should briefly state the purpose and significance of the study, the reason for choosing the respondent, assurance of data confidentially and gratitude to the respondent for his/her cooperation. </li></ul><ul><li>  </li></ul><ul><li>Appearance - the external features of the questionnaire should motivate the respondent to take a look at the instrument. </li></ul><ul><li>  </li></ul><ul><li>Personal Data – demographic information such as age, civil status, gender, educational attainment, occupation and income are obtained in the questionnaire. </li></ul><ul><li>  </li></ul>
  27. 28. Managerial action Questionnaire Findings Survey Objectives Respondent’s information Data Analysis Recommendation
  28. 29. <ul><li>Primary role of any questionnaire is to provide the required information for management decision making. </li></ul><ul><li>  </li></ul><ul><li>Provides standardization and uniformity in the data gathering process </li></ul><ul><li>  </li></ul><ul><li>Also called as an interview schedule or survey instrument </li></ul><ul><li>  </li></ul><ul><li>Plays a critical role in the data collection process. Both the questionnaire and the interviewer are the production line of market research. </li></ul><ul><li>  </li></ul>
  29. 30. <ul><li>  </li></ul><ul><li>Survey </li></ul><ul><li>  </li></ul><ul><li>Another way of interacting with respondent either in person or by mail to obtain facts, opinion and attitudes. </li></ul><ul><li>  </li></ul><ul><li>Valuable data or information can be gathered from people like opinion, certain issues and concerns, products, policies or events. </li></ul><ul><li>  </li></ul><ul><li>Easy and quick way of finding out people’s response to the research problem being investigated. </li></ul><ul><li>  </li></ul><ul><li>Internet Survey </li></ul><ul><li>  </li></ul><ul><li>Another means of data gathering through survey is via internet. Cyber Survey, there is interaction and ability to expose respondents to various stimuli (e.g., print ads, audio for radio commercial, video clips,). </li></ul><ul><li>  </li></ul><ul><li>  </li></ul>
  30. 31. ADVANTAGES OF CYBER SURVEY   <ul><li>Speed - online panels can be easily recruited and quickly accessed on an ongoing basis for online survey. </li></ul><ul><li>Cost Effective – online panels are more cost effective than offline panel </li></ul><ul><li>  </li></ul><ul><li>Geographic Scope – online panels involving other respondents from other country. </li></ul><ul><li>  </li></ul><ul><li>Accessibility – online panels provide continuous access to individuals who otherwise difficult to recruit (e.g., doctors, business travelers, etc.) </li></ul><ul><li>  </li></ul><ul><li>Tracking – online panels are an ideal way to track the attitudes, behavior and perceptions of a specific group of consumers over a period of time. </li></ul>
  31. 32. GUIDELINES IN DATA GATHERING <ul><li> </li></ul><ul><li>Identify the instrument to be used based on the problem and sub-problems </li></ul><ul><li>Specify reliability data, describe validity information and norms used if standardized tests are utilized </li></ul><ul><li>Give details of construction and data on validity and reliability in the instrument constructed by the researcher </li></ul><ul><li>Give details of instructions given to assistants if data are gathered by persons other than the researcher </li></ul><ul><li>State qualifications of informants if used in the study </li></ul><ul><li>  </li></ul>
  32. 33. <ul><li>  </li></ul><ul><li>Data may be analyzed quantitatively and/or qualitatively </li></ul><ul><li>Analyzed in depth, avoid simple table reading </li></ul><ul><li>Use either descriptive or inferential analysis </li></ul><ul><li>Check if data are sufficient, valid, realistic and accurate </li></ul><ul><li>State statistical descriptions in declarative sentences specially in the following studies: </li></ul><ul><li>  </li></ul>ANALYSIS OF DATA
  33. 34. INTERPRETATION OF DATA <ul><li>Check for indicators whether hypothesis is supported or not by findings </li></ul><ul><li>Link the present findings with previous/related literature </li></ul><ul><li>Use parallel observations with contemporary events to give credence to the situation analysis presented in the introduction </li></ul><ul><li>Draw out implications </li></ul>
  34. 35. Secondary Data
  35. 36. <ul><li>Definition of Secondary Data Collection </li></ul><ul><li>Sources of Secondary Data Collection </li></ul><ul><li>How it differs from Primary Data Collection </li></ul><ul><li>The Advantage </li></ul><ul><li>The Disadvantage </li></ul><ul><li>When to use this mode of data collection </li></ul><ul><li>When to avoid using this mode of data collection. </li></ul>
  36. 37. D efinition <ul><li>Secondary Data is data or information that is already available. </li></ul><ul><li>Secondary data is data collected by someone (person or organization) other than the user. </li></ul>
  37. 38. P opular Sources of Secondary Data Collection <ul><li>Books </li></ul><ul><li>Published articles – journals, newspapers, magazines, periodUnpublished master’s thesis, dissertations, studies </li></ul><ul><li>Manuscripts, monographs </li></ul><ul><li>Internet – blogs, ratings, review, comments </li></ul><ul><li>icals, brochures, etc. </li></ul>
  38. 39. H ow it differs from Primary Data Collection <ul><li>Data or information is of two types; primary data and secondary data. Primary data is information collected by the researcher or the person himself whereas secondary data is collected by others but utilized or used by researchers. </li></ul><ul><li>Primary Data is not instantly available. The researcher collects the data first-hand.  Methods used for the collection of Primary Data can be:  Questionnaires, interviews, observations, and the likes. </li></ul>
  39. 40. T he Advantage <ul><li>Advantages of secondary data are that it is cheap and inexpensive. It is easily accessible. It is already available. It saves time and efforts. It is unobtrusive. It avoid data collection problems and it provides a basis for comparison. </li></ul>
  40. 41. T he Disadvantage <ul><li>Disadvantages are related to the credibility of the source who has published this info and the small nuances that may not fit into your research objectives. Another disadvantage can be that the data might be outdated. Similarly you have no control over the quality of data and you do not know how authentic the measures used for data collection have been. Also, copyright must be considered. </li></ul>
  41. 42. W hen to use this mode of data collection <ul><li>It is best to use this mode of data collection if there is a need to produce immediate report and if the budget allocated for the gathering of data is limited. </li></ul><ul><li>When the report needed is casual and less sensitive, as secondary data though verified, is not as accurate as gathering data first hand which is specifically designed for your purpose. (results may be compromised) </li></ul>
  42. 43. W hen to avoid the secondary mode of data collection <ul><li>When the report needed is sensitive, requiring minimal errors and higher accuracy. </li></ul><ul><li>Example: </li></ul><ul><li>Current conditions of the 20 pediatric patient exposed to AH1N1 virus at the ABC Hospital on May to June 2009 treated with antibiotics . </li></ul><ul><li>When the data to be collected is specific, unique and unpopular. </li></ul><ul><li>Example: </li></ul><ul><li>Consumer habits of middle income ilocanos married to kapampangans, within the age bracket of 17 to 35, residing in Mindanao from the period of January 2008 to January 2009. </li></ul>
  43. 44. Strengths and Weaknesses of Various Data Collection Techniques in Terms of Quality Produced. DOOR TO DOOR <ul><li>Respondent is at ease at home </li></ul><ul><li>Face to Face contact </li></ul><ul><li>Can observe respondents home </li></ul><ul><li>Can show, explain, probe. </li></ul><ul><li>Distractions from family members, phone calls </li></ul><ul><li>Greater chance of interviewer bias </li></ul><ul><li>Sampling problems </li></ul>MALL INTERCEPT <ul><li>Interviewer can show, explain, probe as in door to door. </li></ul><ul><li>Distractions inherent to mall environment </li></ul><ul><li>Respondents may be in a hurry </li></ul><ul><li>Not in the proper frame of mind </li></ul><ul><li>Non probability sampling problems </li></ul>CENTRAL LOCATION TELEPHONE <ul><li>Can monitor the interviewing process readily. </li></ul><ul><li>Excellent sampling </li></ul><ul><li>Opportunity to explain and probe </li></ul><ul><li>Distraction from the other side of the line </li></ul><ul><li>Problems with long interviews </li></ul>METHODS STRENGTH WEAKNESS
  44. 45. SELF-ADMINISTERED <ul><li>Elimination of interviewer biases </li></ul><ul><li>Respondent can complete the questionnaires when convenient </li></ul><ul><li>Respondent can look up information and work at own pace. </li></ul><ul><li>Absence of interviewer to show, explain or probe. </li></ul><ul><li>Poor sample because of non response. </li></ul><ul><li>No control on who actually completes the questionnaires. </li></ul>MAIL QUESTIONNAIRE THE SAME AS SELF ADMINISTERED THE SAME AS SELF ADMINISTERED The quality of sampling may be better that that of self-administered. INTERNET <ul><li>Inexpensive </li></ul><ul><li>Data can be gathered quickly </li></ul><ul><li>Limited to particular respondents (internet people) </li></ul><ul><li>Unrestricted sample </li></ul><ul><li>Unregulated, may be answered multiple times. </li></ul>METHODS STRENGTH WEAKNESS
  46. 47. PERSONAL INTERVIEW <ul><li>Data are gathered with the interviewer asking the questions based on the interview guide, and recording the responses in the form. Can be done on a one-on-one basis or through a panel. </li></ul>Method is best used when funds are adequate, availability of competent interviewers, in-depth interviews are needed and availability of other logistics. ADVANTAGE DISADVANTAGE <ul><li>COMPLETION OF FORM </li></ul><ul><li>ACCURACY RATE IS HIGH </li></ul><ul><li>BY OBSERVATION INTERVIEWER CAN COLLECT DATA W/C RESPONDENT REFUSES TO GIVE </li></ul><ul><li>HIGHER RATES OF RETRIVAL </li></ul><ul><li>INCLUSION OF THOSE WHO CAN NOT READ AND WRITE </li></ul><ul><li>TIME CONSUMING AND COSTLY </li></ul><ul><li>BIASES OF INTERVIEWER CAM INFLUENCE RESPONDENTS </li></ul><ul><li>POORLY TRAINED INTERVIEWER CAN RECORD INACCURATE RESPONSES </li></ul><ul><li>REFUSAL OF RESPONDENTS TO GIVE PERSONAL/CONFIDENTIAL DATA </li></ul><ul><li>TIME MAY LEAD TO INSUFFICIENT DATA. </li></ul>
  47. 48. TELEPHONE INTERVIEW <ul><li>Data are collected by the interviewer through the use of the telephone. </li></ul>Method is best used when QUICK AND SHORT SURVEY is to be collected. ADVANTAGE DISADVANTAGE <ul><li>AFFORDABILITY </li></ul><ul><li>COLLECTION OF DATA IS FAST. </li></ul><ul><li>AVAILABILITY OF RESPONDENTS THROUGH DIRECTORY </li></ul><ul><li>CAN BE SCHEDULED </li></ul><ul><li>CONFIDENTIAL INFORMATION MAY BE GIVEN BY RESPONDENTS </li></ul><ul><li>LIMITED TO RESPONDENTS WITH LISTED TELEPHONE NUMBERS </li></ul><ul><li>QUESTIONS MUST BE LIMITED TO 2 TO 3 MINUTES </li></ul><ul><li>QUESTIONS TO BE ASKED MUST BE ANSWERED CONSICELY OR BY YES/NO OR AGREE/DISAGREE </li></ul><ul><li>EASY REFUSAL OF RESPONDENTS </li></ul>
  48. 49. SELF-ADMINISTERED QUESTIONNAIRES <ul><li>Data are collected by directly administering the form to a respondent or group of respondents who answer the form by themselves simultaneously. </li></ul>Method is best used when in-depth interviews are not needed and when there are means of transportation or the places are accessible. ADVANTAGE DISADVANTAGE <ul><li>HIGHER PERCENTAGE OF SATISFACTORILY COMPLETED FORMS </li></ul><ul><li>HIGHER RATE OF RETRIEVAL OF FORMS </li></ul><ul><li>RESEARCHER CAN CLARIFY QUESTIONS </li></ul><ul><li>LIMITED TO THOSE WHO CAN READ AND WRITE. </li></ul><ul><li>PROBING QUESTIONS REQUIRING LONG ANSWERS CAN NOT BE ASKED </li></ul><ul><li>TENDENCY OF RESPONDENTS TO COMPARE ANSWERS. </li></ul>
  49. 50. MAILED QUESTIONNAIRE <ul><li>Data are collected by sending the form to the respondents through (snail) mail. </li></ul>Method is best used when postal system is efficient, when addresses are available, when in-depth interviews are not required, and if you have the luxury of time. ADVANTAGE DISADVANTAGE <ul><li>AFFORDABILITY </li></ul><ul><li>COLLECTION OF DATA IS FAST. </li></ul><ul><li>MANY RESPONDENTS CAN BE INCLUDED </li></ul><ul><li>CONFIDENTIAL INFORMATION MAY BE GIVEN BY RESPONDENTS </li></ul><ul><li>LIMITED TO RESPONDENTS WHO CAN READ AND WRITE. </li></ul><ul><li>LOWER PERCENTAGE OF RETURN OF COMPLETED FORMS. </li></ul><ul><li>DELAYED RETURNS. </li></ul><ul><li>NO OBSERVATION TO SUPPLEMENT DATA COLLECTION </li></ul>
  50. 51. E-MAIL or THE INTERNET <ul><li>Data are collected by the interviewer by encoding the questions in the computer and sending them directly to the respondents through the use of the internet. </li></ul>Method is best used when survey can be done using the computer, when questions to ask are relatively few, and in-depth interviews are not required. ADVANTAGE DISADVANTAGE <ul><li>SENDING OF QUESTIONS IS FAST. </li></ul><ul><li>CONFIDENTIAL INFORMATION MAY BE GIVEN BY RESPONDENTS </li></ul><ul><li>POSSIBILITY OF CLARIFYING QUESTIONS </li></ul><ul><li>LIMITED TO RESPONDENTS WITH INTERNET ACCESS AND E-MAIL ADDRESS. </li></ul><ul><li>LOW RETRIEVAL RATE </li></ul><ul><li>REPLIES MAY BE DELAYED </li></ul><ul><li>OBSERVATION TO SUPPLEMENT DATA COLLECTION IS IMPOSSIBLE. </li></ul>
  52. 53. CASE STUDY: TROPICANA MART <ul><li>CASE FACTS: </li></ul><ul><li>TROPICANA MART has 12 branches in the Miami area that caters to ethnic shoppers, particularly Cuban-Americans </li></ul><ul><li>From a single store to 15 stores within the period of 10 years offering full range of standard and ethnic food items. </li></ul><ul><li>TROPICANA MART is famous for its excellent customer service. </li></ul><ul><li>PROBLEMS </li></ul><ul><li>Rapid growth has strained TROPICANA MART’S ability to provide the outstanding customer service that brought about their success. </li></ul><ul><li>TASK </li></ul><ul><li>There is a need to develop a program to continuously track customer satisfaction with the service provided by Tropicana Mart. </li></ul><ul><li>OFFERED SOLUTIONS </li></ul><ul><li>FIRM 1 </li></ul><ul><li>Has proposed a measurement system built around telephone interviewing. Random selected respondents, 400 customers each month ( a sample of this size, will provide estimates of customer satisfaction that are within the 5 percent of true population values with 95% confidence. </li></ul><ul><li>COST OF DATA COLLECTION: $8,400.00 </li></ul><ul><li>FIRM 2 </li></ul><ul><li>Has proposed a customer satisfaction measurement program that utilizes mail surveys to collect the necessary data. </li></ul><ul><li>Collection of data at a lower cost without sacrificing quality </li></ul><ul><li>Argued that customers will be more honest in a mail survey </li></ul><ul><li>COST OF DATA COLLECTION: $6,900.00 </li></ul>
  53. 54. CASE STUDY: TROPICANA MART TELEPHONE APPROACH MAIL SURVEY RESPONSE RATE: 70 PERCENT ONLY 30% WILL BE UNREACHEABLE, The non response bias will be much smaller and the results are more likely to be the representative of the true sentiments of Tropicana Mart’s customers RESPONSE RATE: 25 PERCENT MEANS THAT 75% WILL NOT RESPOND Results will be biased and not truly representative of Tropicana Mart’s customers. <ul><li>FASTER TURNAROUND </li></ul><ul><li>Reports can be generated within 2 weeks </li></ul><ul><li>SLOW TURNAROUND </li></ul><ul><li>Initial report is generated in 6 weeks. </li></ul><ul><li>Requires a second mailing of questionnaires if a 25% response rate is to be achieved. </li></ul>AFFORDABLE MORE AFFORDABLE Method is best used for short survey and when there is a need for quick generation of report. Method is best used when postal system is efficient, when addresses are available, when in-depth interviews are not required, and if you have the luxury of time.
  54. 55. <ul><li>While both methodologies are proven to be effective, both methods have advantages and disadvantages. The telephone approach is a little more expensive than the mail survey, however, considering the response rate of 70% as compared to 25% if mail survey is utilized, the telephone approach eventually becomes more cost efficient than the mail approach. </li></ul><ul><li>Though accuracy in mail survey is higher than the telephone approach, the low response rate of the mail survey becomes a liability which eventually may cause a higher error because of poor representation/ If consideration will focus on response rates, the telephone approach is best used. </li></ul><ul><li>IMHO, In the rapid changing consumer habits and fierce competition, accuracy and timing are equally important. What is at stake is the very core why TROPICANA MART succeeded—Outstanding customer service. Therefore, the management must never compromise on that aspect. </li></ul><ul><li>A rapid turnaround of data collection means faster generation of needed report to solve the problem. The price of data collection to be able to come up with a solution on bringing back the reputation on customer service must not be the point of consideration. What is important is to accurately solve the problem before it’s too late. </li></ul>
  55. 56. APPLE STORE
  59. 60. Mary Ann Subijano