Revising The Urban Unit 06


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  • Revising The Urban Unit 06

    1. 1. Revising the urban unit
    2. 2. Revision framework <ul><li>Urban morphology & land use models </li></ul><ul><li>Urban growth & urbanisation cycle </li></ul><ul><li>Quality of life </li></ul><ul><li>Managing urban areas </li></ul><ul><li>Translating knowledge into exam answers </li></ul>
    3. 3. WHAT’S IN A CITY?
    4. 4. MODELS Bid rent theory Land use models – MEDC & LEDC
    6. 6. CBD
    7. 7. URBAN GROWTH
    8. 8. CHANGES OVER TIME TIME % Urban Rural LLEDC LEDC NIC MEDC Ethiopia Indonesia China Mexico South Korea Japan U.K.
    9. 9. STAGES IN URBANISATION <ul><li>1. Very slow growth with most people employed in agriculture ( Rural Society phase) </li></ul><ul><li>2. Increase in the rate of urbanisation alongside economic development (Take-off phase) </li></ul><ul><li>3. Rapid rise in urbanisation - rural-urban migration + suburbanisation </li></ul><ul><li>4. Urbanisation slows considerable - the majority live in towns/cities + are employed in industry & services </li></ul><ul><li>5. Counterurbanistion + commuting </li></ul><ul><li>6. Re-urbanisation + urban renewal </li></ul>
    10. 10. URBANISATION <ul><li>Occurs when: </li></ul><ul><li>Rural – urban migration is greater than urban to rural </li></ul><ul><li>Life expectancy & natural increase are greater in urban areas </li></ul><ul><li>Problems create by rapid urbanisation: </li></ul><ul><li>Insufficient housing – homelessness – squatter settlement – overcrowding – lack of tenure </li></ul><ul><li>Strain on health, education & welfare services </li></ul><ul><li>Traffic congestion & pollution </li></ul><ul><li>Unemployment – rise in the informal sector </li></ul>
    11. 11. SUBURBANISATION <ul><li>= the process by which people, factories, offices and shops move out of the central area and into the suburbs </li></ul><ul><li>Factors leading to Suburbanisation: </li></ul><ul><li>Push / pull factors </li></ul><ul><li>Development of transport networks </li></ul><ul><li>Improvements in technology </li></ul><ul><li>Filtering & life stage changes </li></ul><ul><li>Planning </li></ul>
    12. 12. DIFFERENCES BETWEEN GROWTH & SPRAWL <ul><li>URBAN GROWTH = an increase in the absolute number of people living in an urban area </li></ul><ul><li>URBAN SPRAWL = An increase in the area covered by urban activities </li></ul>
    13. 13. PUSH & PULL FACTORS <ul><li>URBAN RURAL </li></ul><ul><li>Overcrowding Open space </li></ul><ul><li>Pollution Better housing </li></ul><ul><li>Crime Community </li></ul>
    14. 14. COUNTER-URBANISATION <ul><li>= The movement of people away from towns </li></ul><ul><li>and cities to live in villages & small towns in the countryside </li></ul><ul><li>Consequences: </li></ul><ul><li>Development of dormitory settlements </li></ul><ul><li>Changing service needs </li></ul><ul><li>Increasing property prices (executive homes) </li></ul><ul><li>Diversification </li></ul><ul><li>Conflict - newcomers & traditional residents </li></ul><ul><li>Traffic congestion </li></ul><ul><li>Change in village population structure </li></ul>
    15. 15. RE-URBANISATION <ul><li>= The process whereby towns & cities </li></ul><ul><li>which have been experiencing a loss of population are able to reverse the decline </li></ul><ul><li>and begin to grow again. </li></ul><ul><li>Some form of city centre redevelopment is often the catalyst that starts </li></ul><ul><li>re-urbanisation: </li></ul><ul><li>Planned initiatives such as UDC’s </li></ul><ul><li>Other development/renewal schemes </li></ul><ul><li>Gentrification </li></ul><ul><li>Greenstreet initiatives </li></ul>
    16. 16. IMPACT ON LAND USE
    18. 18. LA MANAGEMENT <ul><li>RE-URBANISATION </li></ul><ul><li>+ A </li></ul><ul><li>MORE </li></ul><ul><li>COMPACT </li></ul><ul><li>CITY </li></ul>
    19. 19. QUALITY OF LIFE - MEDC
    21. 21. QUALITY OF LIFE - LEDC
    22. 22. LEDC ISSUES
    23. 23. SUSTAINABILITY <ul><li> - a city has inputs and outputs </li></ul>Food Coal, oil Goods Emissions Waste dumped in rivers/landfill Reduced waste & pollution Food Renewable energy Goods Recycling CITY CITY Unsustainable Sustainable
    24. 24. Footprint
    25. 25. 3 ASPECTS TO CONSIDER <ul><li>ENVIRONMENTAL </li></ul><ul><li>Renewable energy </li></ul><ul><li>Minimising pollution </li></ul><ul><li>& waste </li></ul><ul><li>Green city </li></ul><ul><li>ECONOMIC: </li></ul><ul><li>Employment/livelihoods </li></ul><ul><li>Green growth </li></ul><ul><li>SOCIAL: </li></ul><ul><li>Affordable housing </li></ul><ul><li>Personal opportunities / equal opportunities </li></ul><ul><li>Community involvement </li></ul>
    26. 26. Answering the exam questions
    27. 27. LEVELS MARK SCHEME: <ul><li>Level 3 10 - 9 Structured explanation Supported by a range </li></ul><ul><li> of exemplified detail </li></ul><ul><li> Clear linkage to the question </li></ul><ul><li>Level 2 8 – 5 Some structure in an explanation Some exemplification. </li></ul><ul><li> Lacks range or depth to the answer. May wander off focus </li></ul><ul><li>Level 1 4 - 1 One or two basic ideas. General with virtually no examples </li></ul>
    28. 28. IN THE EXAM: <ul><li>Read the question carefully </li></ul><ul><li>Brainstorm possible ideas & examples to include </li></ul><ul><li>Try to sequence them so you can write efficiently </li></ul><ul><li>Try a simple one line plan to get you started: </li></ul><ul><li>Examine the consequences of rapid growth in a named LEDC city Bangkok </li></ul><ul><li>River & air pollution - Traffic congestion – Subsidence – Unsustainability – Temp. housing under road bridges – social problems – reliance on NGO’s – attempts at management </li></ul>
    29. 29. Example 1 - Examine the consequences of rapid growth in a named LEDC city. <ul><li>E.g. Mexico City </li></ul><ul><li>“ There are too many people for the amount of land available & not enough housing for the people, so Mexico City people lived on the roofs of other houses. Squatter settlements form where people will build houses out of materials they can find. These are so numerous that they become out of control. The authorities cannot cope with the amount of people living there, and subsequently the amount of waste they produce. Whereas in some areas of Mexico City, the squatter settlements are built on hilly areas, the land becomes unstable and collapses, taking homes and people with it”. </li></ul>
    30. 30. Example 2 - With reference to specific examples, examine how the quality of life has been improved for residents in LEDC cities <ul><li>“ Mexico City has tackled its traffic problem by the introduction of a scheme where cars with certain registration numbers cannot drive on certain days of the week, which reduces pollution and congestion. They are also spending £1m to extend the Metro line to carry 4 million/hr during rush hour, and improving the bus service to be more efficient, cheaper, cover a wider area, and hopefully reduce pollution from cars. </li></ul><ul><li>In Cairo, they are managing the problem of housing provision for the expanding population, (2000 per week), by building satellite cities such as 10th Ramadan and Sadar City, (which will house up to 30 000 people). They are also legitimising the illegal occupation of land, (in shanty towns and tombs in the City of the Dead), providing electricity to the area and increasing the number of green spaces in the city……” </li></ul>
    31. 31. Example 2 - With reference to specific examples, examine how the quality of life has been improved for residents in LEDC cities <ul><li>“…… Providing clean water also decreases the spread of diseases such as cholera. They have also improved the sewage system via the Greater Cairo Waste Water Project. This is a drainage system to collect water and take it out to the desert to irrigate farmland. Cairo’s authorities manage the rubbish collection by licensing the Zabbalean people to collect, clean and recycle rubbish. </li></ul><ul><li>In Curitiba, Brazil, they pay individuals to collect rubbish in carts and sell them to recycling companies. Public transport is comfortable and drivers are paid by the amount of km. they drive not by the amount of passengers, so they are encouraged to visit all parts of the city”. </li></ul>
    32. 32. Example 3 - With reference to a named city, examine why large urban areas are unsustainable <ul><li>“ Cities are usually unsustainable because of their growing population and everyones demands for resources and for the dumping of waste. Mexico City is surrounded by hills and pollution, largely from car emissions, becomes trapped above the city and is a serious danger to health, especially lung disease, (just like smoking around 40 cigarettes per day). Solid waste is a big problem: 11 000 tonnes of waste is produced but only 9000 tonnes collected. This waste ends up in waterways and streets, (2000 tonnes of waste is dumped in the Penuco River each day). Mexico City is growing uncontrollably, (60% through natural increase and 40% through rural-urban migration), and it now has a population of 26m…….” </li></ul>
    33. 33. Example 3 - With reference to a named city, examine why large urban areas are unsustainable <ul><li>“…… .This causes huge problems for the quality of life of migrants on the outskirts of the city: a third have no sanitation and live in one room. Mexico’s Federal District produces 28% of the country’s industrial output and contains 40 000 factories. This adds up to the transport pollution, producing 12 000 tonnes of noxious gases released into the atmosphere each day. As areas expand it becomes difficult to co-ordinate a sustainable infrastructure, waste disposal, etc. By damaging their environment through pollution, etc, the area is made unsustainable because future generations will not be able to meet their resource needs”. </li></ul>
    34. 34. Example 4 - With reference to a named large urban area, examine the factors that influence the spatial pattern of land use <ul><li>“ Middlesborough grew into a large town with the Industrial Revolution and the discovery of iron ore on Eston Moor which, in turn, led to the development of the iron works. People moved to the town for jobs. In 1851 the population was 8100; in 1921 it had risen to 120 000. After that it was well known for its chemical industry and the main industrial area was situated close to the river for transport. Both of these industrial developments promoted the growth and expansion of the city. However, growth has been restricted by the River Tees running through the heart of the area. The town can be compared to the Hoyt model with different sectors. The CBD contains the most expensive land and the Bid Rent theory suggests that high profile businesses and retail will be able to afford to locate there…..” </li></ul>
    35. 35. Example 4 - With reference to a named large urban area, examine the factors that influence the spatial pattern of land use <ul><li>“ … ..They will out-bid other land uses in order to obtain accessible and busy sites. Adjacent to this area is the Iron Masters District developed in the 1830’s. Originally linked to the iron industry it has recently experienced gentrification as younger couples see the potential of the location with original features combined with a proximity to the CBD services. There is a general decrease in the age of the areas from the River Tees towards the regions of Drysome and Kirby. This is where the more wealthy people lived and this fits with the model that higher quality houses are located away from the city centre, where the oldest houses are. In the 1960’s council estates in the Pallister region were built and the slums of the old iron masters district were knocked down and redeveloped. The industrial sectors are bisected by the River Tees which fits the model that industry sets up on roads and railways” </li></ul>
    36. 36. AND FINALLY …... <ul><li>Learn your case studies & use them selectively </li></ul><ul><li>Don’t panic - you can do this exam </li></ul><ul><li>Read the question carefully – make sure that you are doing what it asks! </li></ul><ul><li>Underline command words </li></ul><ul><li>Use appropriate aspects of your learnt case studies </li></ul><ul><li>When answering questions be concise, succinct logical, and relevant - do not waste time or words! </li></ul><ul><li>Watch Quality of Written Communication </li></ul>