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Population Revision

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  • 1. Population Revision
    • In this revision power point you will find:
    • World Population Growth
    • The Demographic Transition Model
    • Malawi as an example of Population change
    • in an LEDC
    • Germany as an example of Population change
    • in an MEDC
    • What causes population to change? (The bath)
    • An example of an exam question to try.
  • 2.  
  • 3. Linear growth Exponential growth Cublic growth Today the world’s Pop’ growth Is exponential. What problems Will this result in?
  • 4. Major population growth Is in LEDCs e.g. Malawi MEDCs have Low levels Of population growth Like UK, Germany, Japan.
  • 5. Exponential Growth
    • The World’s population is growing exponentially.
    • This means it is increasing by doubling
  • 6.
    • Birth Rate (B.R.)= number of live births per 1000 population per year
    • Death Rate (D.R.) = number of deaths per 1000 population per year
    • B.R - D.R = Natural Rate of Increase or Decrease
  • 7.  
  • 8.  
  • 9.
    • Significant increases in human population are almost inevitable, with projections ranging from a high of almost 12 billion by 2050, to a low of just under 8 billion.
  • 10. How does population change?
  • 11. MEDC example LEDC example
  • 12. What factors can influence Birth Rate ?
    • 1) High Infant mortality = number of babies that die in first yr of life / 1000
    • 2) Years in formal education / qualifications More qualified = follow career and age of first born child is older = less time for children.
    • 3)Need for child labour = food, money gained from children working for family.
  • 13.
    • 4) Who will look after us in old age? = the state / private pension or my children.
    • 5) Cost of Children = £120 thousand from birth to leaving home. Too expensive!!
    What factors can influence Birth Rate ?
  • 14. LEDC example
  • 15.  
  • 16.  
  • 17.  
  • 18. Why is Malawi’s population growth rate 2.4% per year?
    • High Infant mortality(75/1000). Many babies die in first yr of life so parents have many children to ensure survival.
    • This is a consequence of:
    • Living Standards are low. HDI (Human Development Index) score is low.
    • Access to clean water poor
    • Diet / nutrition poor
    • Access to health care poor
    • 1 doctor per 3000 people
    • All mean lower life expectancy = 49
    • Parents also view children as
    • providing:
    • Children = security
    • Source of income and look after parent s when old.
    • Children will earn money in labour intensive jobs requiring low skills level because:
    • Literacy rate low= 40%
  • 19. MEDC example
  • 20. Germany’s Population
    • Growth rate is minus 0.044%;
    • Birth rate is 8.18 births per 1000 population;
    • Death rate is 10.8 deaths per 1000 population;
    • Life expectancy is 76.11 years for male and 82.26 years for female;.
  • 21. Vastly decreased Birth rate Larger 5 of middle Aged who will Become old age More older women Due to World War 2 Real concerns about future size of the working population
  • 22. Dependen t Dependen t Productive Working age group
  • 23. Total pop Will reduce but the number Of workers will too…… …… ..what does This mean?
  • 24. Why is the Birth Rate in Germany so Low?
    • The expense of raising children…too costly.
    • Many women deciding to concentrate on their careers before starting a family.
    • Womens’ average age of first born child is in mid-30s; means fewer babies being born.
    • Parents deciding to have fewer children to focus their love and attention on one child.
    • Excellent health care means infant mortality is very low (7/1000) so less need to have many babies.
  • 25. Problem & Advantages of an ageing Population
    • Lower birth rate
    • Large number of people with health care needs = costly .
    • Fewer working people.
    • Greater demand for retirement/ care homes .
    • Less income for Government
    • Bigger demand on state pensions
    • More ‘grey’ spending
    • e.g. holidays.
    • More ‘experience’ to tap.
    • Child caring grandparents.
    • Bigger pool of part time workers.
    Problems Advantages
  • 26. Problems ahead for Germany
    • Less tax revenue for Government
    • More older aged people who will need looking after.
    • More care homes
    • Increased demand on hospitals
    • Companies will struggle to have enough employees and may look to locate elsewhere.
    • A large demand on pensions
    • Will the state afford or
    • Will private pensions cover the Cost?
  • 27.  
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  • 30.