1. Rapid population growth in LEDCs
Towns and cities in LEDCs are growing rapidly,
and an increasing proportion of people are living
in cities. LEDCs are going through a period of
urban growth and urbanisation.
Your case study will either be Rio de Janeiro or
2. Cities in LEDCs are growing
- A high birth rate
- A low death rate
- Migration to the
3. Migration to the cities
The population growth in LEDCs is
affecting both rural and urban areas.
The population of cities is growing
proportionally faster than that in the
Push and Pull factors…..
4. Migration to cities….
Push Factors Pull Factors
A poor chance of getting a job Better paid factory work
Difficulty of getting sufficient land for Better and more varied food supplies
any kind of successful farming
Better housing with electricity and
Near starvation as crops fail piped water, sewerage etc
Better medical care – chance of better
Increasing soil erosion as a result of
over grazing schooling etc
Basic lack of services – More entertainments and a ‘better’
medical, educational, water, sanitation, lifestyle
Natural disasters such as drought or
5. The effects of rapid growth
• Increased air pollution from industries and traffic
• A severe shortage of land and very high land
prices – especially anywhere that is near to the
• A severe lack of housing – development of
favelas on the outskirts of the city.
• Lack of employment – most people living favelas
are employed in the ‘informal sector’
6. Solutions to the problem…
Low cost housing Self-help schemes New town - Barra
Using cheap but In this scheme the Barra is a purpose built
permanent building eventual cost of the town just outside of Rio
materials, temporary housing is made even de Janeiro built to relieve
structures are replaced cheaper by encouraging pressure on the city.
by sturdy permanent locals to undertake most Many of the residents of
houses. These are of the work themselves. Rio have moved there to
connected to electricity The local authority escape the traffic,
and sewerage facilities. simply provide the pollution and cramped
The local authority will materials and may conditions. This is only
start the process off and provide the ground work available to those who
then the tenants finish off for the drainage and can afford the rent or
the building and pay a sewage systems cost of buying in the city
low rent to live in them – – it doesn’t help people
not everyone can afford living in the favelas.