Solutions and Suspensions

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Solutions and Suspensions

  1. 1. 1. 2. 3. 4. Dis. Solutes, Solvents and Solutions Dis. Solutions and Suspensions Solubility of dissolving substances Rate of dissolving of substances SOLUTIONS AND SUSPENSIONS
  2. 2. 1. Solutions and Suspensions 1. 2. 3. 4. Define solute, solvent, solution and suspension. Differentiate solute, solvent and solution. List the properties of solutions and suspensions. Compare solution and suspension.
  3. 3. Solutions  A solution is a mixture consisting of one or more dissolved substances in a liquid. Note: A solution may be either a mixture of solid and liquid or two liquids.   A solute refers to the solid substance that dissolves other substances. A solvent refers to the liquid that dissolves other substances.
  4. 4. Properties of Solutions      Clear (can be seen through) May be coloured or colourless Homogeneous (every part of the solution has the same properties) Solute particles do not settle to the bottom Solute particles of the solution pass through the filter paper
  5. 5. Suspensions  A suspension is a mixture with one or more insoluble solids in a liquid. Note: Suspensions are usually not tested and used in examination papers.   The insoluble solid remains suspended in the liquid. Examples: Orange juice, Muddy water, Correction fluid, Gastric medicine, Flour in water, Powered chalk in water.
  6. 6. Properties of Suspensions     Cloudy (cannot be seen through) Heterogeneous (appearance not the same in every part) Solid particles settle to the bottom when suspension left to stand Solute particles of the solution cannot pass through the filter paper and becomes residue on the filter paper
  7. 7. Comparison of Solution and Suspension SOLUTION SUSPENSION  Clear  Cloudy  Homogeneous  Heterogeneous  Solute particles do not settle to the bottom  Solid particles settle to the bottom when suspension left to stand  Solute particles of the solution pass through the filter paper  Solute particles of the solution cannot pass through the filter paper and becomes residue on the filter paper
  8. 8. 2. Solubility and Rate of dissolving 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. Define Solubility and Rate of dissolving. Describe a saturated solution. Name factors affecting Solubility. Name factors affecting Rate of dissolving. Compare Solubility and Rate of dissolving.
  9. 9. Solubility     Solubility refers to the amount of solute that can dissolve in a given amount of solvent. A saturated solution is the solution with the maximum amount of solute that can be dissolved. When all solute dissolved, the solution is unsaturated. When some solute does not dissolve, the solution is saturated. The undissolved solute settles at the bottom.
  10. 10. Factors affecting solubility  Type of solute   Type of solvent   Some solids are more soluble than others in a particular liquid. Some solids are more soluble in one solvent than in another solvent. Temperature  The higher the temperature of the solvent, the more solids can dissolve in it, due to higher collision speeds.
  11. 11. Rate of dissolving   Rate of dissolving refers to the rate at which a solid dissolves. However, solubility refers to the amount of solute that can dissolve in a given amount of solvent.
  12. 12. Factors affecting Rate of dissolving  Temperature   Stirring   Higher temperatures gives solvent particles energy causing higher speed collisions that are able to produce a reaction quickly. Stirring provides more energy to the solvent and solute particles. They hit onto one another with stronger forces. Surface area  Higher surface area brings about more contact between the solute and solvent. Hence powdered solids dissolve faster than lumps of solids.

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